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LIBRARY 

.UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 






^^Jtrr^ 



THE AUSTRALASIAN 



Feuit Gultueist, 



CONTAINING 



Full and Complete Information as to the History, Traditions, Uses, Propagation 
and Culture of such Fruits as are suitable for Victoria, New South Wales, 
South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand; 



Descriptive Lists of the Principal Varieties of Fruits, 

With Remarks as to their Adaptability 

for Particular Purposes. 



By DAVID ALEXANDER CRICHTON, 

Laie Ex'pert and Lecturer upon "Fruit Culture" and "Special Agricultural and 
Horticultural Industries" to the Victonan Department of Agriculture, 



[COPTRiaHT RESERVED BY THE AUTHOR.] 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA' 
DAVIS 

MJELBOUEN E.- 
ALEX. M'KINLEY & CO., ALFRED PLACE, COLLINS ST. EAST. 

1893. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 vyith funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/australasianfrui06tricrich 



PREFACE 



Nearly seventeen years ago I was induced to begin the publication of a 
work called the Australian Horticultural Magazine, on such lines as, 
when complete, would entitle the book to rank as an encyclopaedia of 
gardening for this part of the world. Such a publication was then, and 
is now, greatly needed, as kindred works which have been written in 
Europe or America necessarily fall short of the requirements of culti- 
vators in this part of the world. The plan I adopted was to deal with 
each plant specially, in an article which gave the fullest information 
as to its history, traditions and uses. I also gave full directions for 
cultivation as adapted to Australian practice, and all necessary infor- 
mation as regards propagation and other essential matters. The publi- 
cation was carried on for two years, but circumstances prevented me 
from continuing it sufficiently long to make it the complete work as 
desired. Among the many articles that appeared in this work were a 
number dealing with fruits, and these I have utilised to some extent in 
the present publication, consequently several of the articles that appear 
in the Australasian Fruit Culturist are based upon older writings of ray 
own which have been previously published. Others, however, have been 
specially written for the present work. I may also state that the whole 
of the matter has been carefully prepared and arranged, so as to fully 
meet the requirements of fruitgrowers at the present time. The cultural 
directions, as also those for propagation, are thoroughly practical, and are 
based upon my personal experiences and observations in various parts 
of Australia extended over a long period. Too frequently books 
published in this part of the world, and purporting to deal with 
agriculture or horticulture, are but little more than compilations from 
works published in Europe or America, where the conditions are widely 
different to those that obtain in Australia. Then again, the compilers 
of these works are prone to affirm whatever opinions are expressed by 
their authorities, and these are often conflicting, and consequently 
puzzling, to ordinary persons who are seeking for information. I have 



IV. 



acted diflferently, and prefer giving advice upon my own responsibility 
rather than quote the opinions of others, no matter how high may be 
their reputations as authorities. 

In compiling the lists of fruits I have closely consulted the works of 
Dr. Hogg, who is justly regarded as the leading British pomologist, and 
the late H. J. Bowling, the most prominent American authority. The 
<lescription of many of the varieties, as given in the present work, are 
based to some extent upon the writings of these two authorities, and 
more especially as regards form and colour of the flesh. In such matters 
as the colouring of the skin, size, quality and keeping properties, neither 
British nor American standard works should be regarded as absolute 
authorities in this part of the world, as many varieties are materially 
modified by climatic conditions. Some varieties, and more especially as 
regards Apples, are more highly coloured than in England or America, 
and can scarcely be recognised under their original descriptions. Then 
again with Pears, some varieties develop far higher qualities in Australia 
than when grown in colder regions, and consequently are really superior 
to their descriptions as given in British or American works. I have 
endeavoured, as far as is practicable in a work of this kind, to describe 
varieties as we may expect them to grow in this part of the world. In 
order to afford as much practical information as possible, I have, in 
dealing with most of the varieties, given particulars as to the ripening 
period, quality and uses of the fruit, hardiness of the plant and other 
essential matters that may prove serviceable. Cultivators, however, 
must bear in mind that results are often modified by local conditions, 
and of these due account must be taken. For instance, the ripening 
period may be mateiially accelerated by a northern slope upon which 
the sun has great power. To some extent the ripening period may also 
be hastened or retarded by the nature of the stock, an influence that is 
not sufficiently recognised. As a matter of course, the last-named 
influence may also have an important bearing upon the growth, 
hardiness and bearing qualities of the trees. 

In the lists of fruits I have used English synonyms freely, being of 
opinion such information will be serviceable to many in enabling them to 
recognise varieties that are often cultivated under two or more names. 
Then again, [many persons from the United Kingdom and their descen- 
dants often onlyj know certain varieties under local names, and are 



V. 

unacquainted with their more general ones. Therefore I have given all 
the English synonyms that are likely to prove serviceable to cultivators. 
Foreign synonyms I have used to a more limited extent, as many of 
them are meaningless to all but small sections of the community. A.S a 
matter of course, I have found it necessary to give a number of French 
synonyms in the lists of Grapes, Pears, Apricots, Peaches and Plums "as - 
many of the finest varieties of these fruits have originated in France or 
Belgium. Only such synonymous names, however, as are in use more 
or less have been given. 

The many pictorial illustrations that appear in the work will, I trust, 
aflford much practical information upon such important subjects as the 
cultivation, propagation, pruning, and training of fruit trees. In fact, 
it is only by this means that the writer can, in many cases, convey his 
meaning clearly to his readers. 

In conclusion, I may state that my aim has been to produce a work 
that will prove serviceable to fruit cultivators of every class, in Victoria, 
New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, 
Tasmania, and New Zealand. The work will give the most complete 
information respecting every kind of fruit used by mankind in its natural 
state, arranged in such a way that persons without technical knowledge 
can fully utilize the matter. I am sanguine that my anticipations in 
this respect will be realized, and that I shall in the future have the 
gratification of knowing that my work has proved serviceable to fruit- 
growers in all parts of Australasia. 

DAVID A. CRICHTON. 



llEeiUFF. HANSEN, 



EDIBliE Ff^UlTS 



Almost without exception, the useful varieties of fruits now- 
cultivated in our orchards and gardens hive originated from types that 
are vastly inferior, and in some cases comparatively worthless. The 
process of amelioration has been gradually brought about by care, 
forethought, and skill in cultivation for the most part, though perhaps 
sometimes chance has assisted the work of improvement. We have no 
reliable records as to when improvements in many of our most popular 
fruits first began, but it is known for a certainty that at a very early 
period kinds were grown by ancient nations that were far superior to 
the original types. Pliny mentions that in his time the Romans had 
"Twenty-two sorts of Apples, three of Apricots, a variety of Plums, 
Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, and Almonds; as also various sorts of 
Olives." These improvements were, no doubt, brought about by careful 
selection from seedlings possessing desirable properties, liberal culti- 
vation that would pre-dispose to free development, and judicious 
pruning to concentrate the energy of the plants. As a rule, any 
substantial changes were brought about gradually, and the process of 
amelioration was extended through several generations. In modern 
practice improvement has to be etfected on similar lines, but as culti- 
vators have varieties to start with greatly in advance of the original 
types from which they sprang, amelioration is more quickly and easily 
effected. As regards nearly all our ordinary fruits, the varieties in 
cultivation are numerous, and in fact far more so than is necessary for 
practical purposes. New ones are being rapidly added to the already 
heavily-weijj;hted lists, and in many cases it is hard to say what claim 
these seedlings have to be accepted. In too many cases they have 
nothing but novelty to recommend them, as in other respects they are 
no better than, if not inferior to, varieties in cultivation. This, in my 
opinion, is a very undesirable state of affairs, and it would be well if 
we could prevent any addition to our present heavy lists, except in the 
case of a variety possessing special merit. If by careful hybridization 
a fruit can be raised which combines the good qualities of two high- 
class varieties, such an addition will be an acquisition. For instance, 
if an Apple can be raised that possesses the high flavour and colour of 
the Ribston Pippin, as when grown in a cool climate, with the keeping 
properties of the Stone Pippin or French Crab, such a variety will be 
invaluable. If cultivators will work in this direction, their efforts 
may be useful, but to bring forward chance seedlings having no special 
merits lays them open to grave censure. It is very easy to raise 
varieties by simply sowing stones and pips of various fruits, but useful 



acquisitions are seldom obtained without careful hybridization or cross- 
breeding, Sometimes natural crosses occur from the action of insects, 
but if cultivators wish to raise new varieties of merit they must 
cross-fertilize by artificial means. Hybridization is effected by removal 
of the stamens or male organs in the flowers, and dusting the stigmas or 
mouths of the pistils or female parts with pollen obtained from another 
variety. By this means some of our finest varieties of fruit have been 
originated, but cultivators must bear in mind that in cross-breeding 
there is no certainty as to what the results may be, and seedlings will 
often be disappointing to their raisers. 



Propagation. 

Fruit trees and shrubs are propagated by various means, viz., seeds, 
cuttings, suckers, layers, grafting, budding, and inarching. 

Seeds. — Seed, as a matter of course, is the source of new varieties, 
but only a comparatively few cultivators devote themselves to the 
raising of these. But seedlings are raised in large quantities to supply 
stocks, upon which known and desirable varieties can be budded or 
grafted. Seedlings undoubtedly afford better stocks than can be 
obtained in any other way, and they should be used as far as practicable. 
The seedling is a new plant with a distinct individuality, and will, in 
all probability, prove more vigorous and thrifty than a stock obtained 
from layers or cuttings. As far as practicable, therefore, seedlings 
should be used in preference to stocks raised from other sources. In 
certain cases, as for instance in propagating the Apple or the Grape 
Vine, there are special reasons for departing from this practice, but it 
should be adopted to as great an extent as possible. In raising seed- 
lings for stocks, care should be taken, as far as is practicable, to sow 
seeds of such kinds as are likely to give the best results. Varieties 
often differ materially in vigour, habit of growth, and in other ways ; 
and though seedling plants often vary considerably from their parentf, 
yet the probability is that the great majority will be of the same 
character. No precise directions can be given upon this point, but as 
a rule growers should avoid using the seeds of any varieties that in 
their habit of growth possess undesirable qualities, such as throwing 
up suckers too freely, wanting in vigour, <fec. It must also be remembered 
that, with most of our cultivated fruit trees, varieties differ materially 
in their growth and requirements, and what may prove a suitable 
stock in one case will be quite the reverse in another. I am quite 
certain that the unthiiftiness of trees in many cases is caused by 
unsuitable stocks. Fruit-growers must also bear in mind that some 
stocks are better adapted to particular soils than others. As a rule, 
strong hardy varieties will give better seedling stocks for heavy or wet 
soils than kinds that are less vigorous. As regards the other points 
mentioned, I am unable to lay down any absolute rules, but I strongly 
advise growers to experiment with seedlings from various sources 
as stocks. 



Suckers. — Varieties are perpetuated and increased by the removal of 
a portion of the plant, and making it by various means into a new 
dne. In some cases this is done by means of suckers, which are shoots 
sent up from the roots or underground stems of many kinds of trees 
and shrubs. Suckers of some trees, and more particularly Pears, 
Quinces, Plums, and Cherries, are frequently used as stocks for budding 
and grafting, but they are, generally speaking, less vigorous than 
seedlings, and retain the tendency of their parents to throw up shouts" 
from their roots. Figs are often propagated by removing the suckers and 
planting them out direct. The usual method of propagating Kaspberries 
is also by suckers, which form the canes. The runners of Strawberries 
are simply overground suckers, which have power to form perfect plants. 

Layers. — This method of propagation is sometimes adopted, but it 
is open to the objection that the plants are less vigorous and thrifty 
than seedlings. Sometimes it is employed for' raising blight-proof and 
dwarfing stocks for the Apple, and the Olive is often increased by this 
method. Layers are simply cuttings that are rooted without being 
separated from the parent plants. The operation is readily performed, 
all that is necessary being to bend down the branches and insert a 
portion 3 or 4 inches deep in the ground, leaving the end above the 
surface. The rooting of the branch will be facilitated by cutting a 
notch just below a bud on the buried part, or making a slit upwards 
from 1 to 2 inches in length. Hooked pegs are generally used to keep 
the branches in their places, and in fixing the earth care should be 
taken that the slit portion is kept open to some extent. Deciduous 
trees may be layered at any time after the fall of the leaf, but the best 
time is just before active growth commences in the spring. Evergreens 
may be layered at various times, but the most favourable period is early 
in the autumn. What is called Hillock layering is practised by some 
growers, and more especially with dwarf Apples, the Fig, Quince, and 
Hazel. When this practice is adopted, the stocks are cut back close to 
the ground in spring, or early summer, and a mound of earth 6 or 8 
inches deep is placed over the stump. Young stems will start, and form 
roots, and in the following autumn or winter these plants should be 
separated from the parent stems. Trees treated in this way may be 
layered yearly. 

Layering. 




Crook for pegging down Shrub layered by covering the shoots 

layers. and pegging them down. 




Tree layered with notched branches to facilitate the formation of roots. 




Layer with a rin^ of bark removed from one branch (A), and a slit in the 
other (B) ; either practice facilitates rooting. 




Layer of grape vine with branch entirely covered, making a plant at 
every joint. Cross marks showing where the young plants should be cut back 
at the first pruning. 



Cuttings. — All fruit trees and shrubs may be propagated by cuttings, 
and some kinds are commonly raised by this method, such as the Grape, 



Currant, Gooseberry, Fig-, Hazel, Mulberry, and Quince. Good plants 
of all these fruits may be obtained from cuttings, but in the case of 
other kinds growth is too slow and weakly to allow this method to be 
utilized. In fact, excepting the kinds named, cuttings will never make 
vigorous and thrifty plants. Cuttings of GooseVjerries and Currants 
should be taken off when the plants are pruned, leaving them about 
12 inches long, making the base just below a bud, with as clean a cut aa_ 
possible. The cuttings should be inserted about half their depth in the 
ground, and all buds below the surface, except the two lower ones, 
ought to be removed, in order to check the tendency to form suckers. 
The cuttings may be planted at any time before the spring, but it is 
advisable to get them in earlier than other fruits, because growth 
becomes active sooner. Grape cuttings should be made from 10 to 15 
inches long, with four or tive joints, and ought to be planted about half 
their depth in the ground. They should be selected from well-ripened 
wood of the previous season's growth, and shoots that have home fruit. 
The very best cuttings are those taken from the losver part of the shoots, 
and if they can be taken off" with a piece of the old wood attached, or 
what is technically called a heel, thny will root with greater facility. 
It is not advisable to plant Grape cuttings early, as they generally make 
a better start if put in after spring has commenced. Figs and Hazel 
nuts may be readily propagated from cuttings of the last season's wood, 
from 10 to 15 inches long, preparing and planting them as recommended 
for the Grape. Most trees propagate most readily from cuttings of the 
previous season's growth, but they may be formed from older wood in 
some cases. The Mulberry and Olive wiir strike freely from wood 
of various ages, and large branches may be rooted without difficulty. 
Though cuttings may be struck when planted out where the trees are 
to remain, yet the safer plan is to set them in nursery beds, where the 
cultivator can give them the necessary care and attention till they are 
rooted. Though in the case of a vineyard this practice will entail a 
little more labour, yet the chances of rooting the plants will be much 
better. Complaints are often made that cuttings, and more especially 
those of the Grape, fail to root freely ; but this is in most cases due to 
causes that the grower can control. Sometimes the cuttings are allowed 
to get dried too much from exposure before they are planted, when, as 
a matter of course, their vigour is impaired. Then, again, they often 
perish through the land becoming soddened, or from its getting dried 
up. The greatest care should be taken to protect all shoots intended 
for cuttings from exposure to atmospheric influences after they are 
separated from the parent plants. Much injury is often the result of 
this exposure, and as a rule all cuttings, or wood intended for them, 
should be wholly or partially covered with moist soil or sand till 
required for planting. The rooting of all cuttings will Joe greatly 
facilitated by placing a layer of broken charcoal, say about an inch 
deep, underneath. Let the charcoal be broken to the size of peas and 
under, and let the heels of the cuttings rest upon the top of the layer. 
The writer, from a long experience, can confidently recommend this 
plan. 




1. Ordinary cutting of 
the previous season's 
wood. Cross line showing 
the depth it should be 
planted. 



2. Cutting with a heel 
or small portion of two 
year old wood attached. 



3. Mallet cutting with 
a solid piece of two year 
old wood attached. 




Eye cutting planted 
horizontally. 




Eye cutting planted 
vertically. 



Eye-cuttings. — This is a method of propa- 
gation adopted with some fruit-bearing plants, 
and more especially the Grape. It is service- 
able for increasing choice or scarce varieties 
of Grapes quickly, as plants may be obtained 
from every bud ; but for ordinary purposes 
the method offers no particular advantages. 
When this mode of propagation is practised, 
plump well-formed buds should be selected, 
with about a couple of inches of the wood 
below and half-an-inch above the eye at- 
tached. These eye-cuttings should be either 
planted horizontally in sand or light soil, 
about two inches below the surface, pressing 
the earth rather firmly about them ; or they 
may be placed vertically with the eye a 
little below surface level. The best time 
for planting is just as growth is commencing 
in the spring, and rooting will be facilitated 
if the cuttings can be placed in a hotbed, 
which will supply a steady bottom heat. 



F Eoot-cuttmgs. — Some kinds of fruit trees and shrubs can be readily 
propagated, by pieces of the roots, and this mode of increasing stocks 
is often serviceable. For the purpose, fleshy pieces of the roots must 
be taken from 2 to 4 inches in length, and in early spring these 
should be planted about an inch below the surface in sand or light 
soil. If placed in a hotbed, with a steady bottom heat, these root- 
cuttings will strike more readily than in the open ground. This mode 



of propagation is often practised successfully with Cui rants, Goose 
berries, and Raspberries. 

Grafting. 

This is a method most generally adopted in the propagation of fruiL 
trees, and more especially those having pips, such as the Apple, Pear, 
and Orange. Grafting has been practised from a remote period of the 
world's history, and its value was well known to the ancient Greeks and 
Komans, according to some of their historians. By grafting, the 
cultivator is enabled to establish a particular kind of fruit upon a plant 
of another variety. The theory of grafting is based upon the power of 
union between the young tissues of the stock or rooted plant and the 
scion or branch that is worked upon it. When these parts are in 
perfect contact, the ascending sap of the stock passes into the scion, and 
this is excited into activity and a perfect union is formed. It must 
be understood, however, that the union does not extend over the whole 
surfaces of the cut stocks and scions, but only at the points where the 
sap exudes between the wood and the inner bark. Consequently, 
the success of the operation of grafting depends upon the smoothness of 
the cut portions of stock and scion and the accuracy of the joining. 
There must be an exact meeting of the inner barks of the two, or 
otherwise the union will not be perfected, and the scion will die. 
Grafting is confined within certain limits, and can only be usefully 
employed between plants that are allied, and which have a similarity in 
structure. As a rule, trees cannot be grafted successfully out of the 
natural order to which they belong, and the closer the affinity between 
stocks and scions the more perfect will the unions be. 

The Uses of Grafting — The fruit cultivator obtains advantages in 
various ways from the practice of grafting. In the first place, it enables 
him to perpetuate particular varieties readily which are slow to 
propagate by cuttings or layers, and cannot be raised with certainty 
from seed ; secondly, it enables him to work choice but delicate 
varieties upon more robust stocks than their own, and consequently to 
obtain better returns; thirdly, it allows the cultivator to improve old- 
established trees of inferior varieties by working better sorts upon them ; 
fourthly, it enables the grower, as in the case of blight-proof Apples, 
to utilize particular stocks that are obnoxious to insects or fungi ; 
fifthly, grafting enables the grower to obtain dwarf trees, as in the 
case of Apples worked upon the Paradise or Doucin, and the Pear upon 
Quince stocks ; sixthly, by means of grafting the cultivator can hasten 
the bearing of trees and test seedling varieties quickly, which otherwise 
would not bear for a number of years. 

Modes of Grafting. — There are a great number of ways in which 
grafting may be effected, but the same principle applies to each one. 
The variety of methods is due mainly to the differences in the sizes and 
ages of the stocks, and no practically useful purpose would be served by 
describing all the modes of grafting that are practised, as in many cases 



there are but slight diflerences, 
and in others they aie more fanci- 
ful than serviceable. The follow- 
ing methods are most generally 
practised, and are ample for the 
requirements of cultivators : — 

Splioe or Whip Grafting is one 
of the most simple forms, and can 
be practised in cases where the 
stock and scion are equal in size. 
All that is necessary is to make 
a perfectly smooth cut, slanting 
upward, in the stock, and a corres- 
ponding one downward with the 
scion, to make the two fit pre- 
cisely ; bind the two firmly to- 
gether with a strip of calico or 
other material that will answer 
the purpose, and cover with 
grafting wax or clay to exclude 
the air. This is a very sure and 
neat way of grafting. 

Tongue-grafting resem- 
bles very nearly the 
method last described, 
except that, instead of 
the simple" splice or join, 
a tongue is made to 
hold the stock and scion 
together more firmly. 
This is an advantage in 
some cases. The tongue 
is formed by making a 
downward slit, from half- 
an-inch to an inch deep, 
commencing near the top 
of the prepared face of 
the stock, and' taking out 
a thin tongue of wood ; 
then make a slit on the 
cut face of the scion, to 
form a tongue or wedge 
to fit into the opening 
made in the stock. In r 
fixing the parts, make the 
inner bark of each meet 



Splice or Whip Grafting. 
B 





(A) The stock. (B) The scion. 

(C) Fixed in position. 

Tongue-grafting. 




exactly at least on one (^) The prepared stock. (5) The prepared scion 



side. After the operation 



(C) Fixed in position. 



is complete the parts must be securely tied and made air-tight by the 
use of clay or wax, as recommended for splice-grafting. 

Cleft-grafting is a mode commonly practised for large stocks or trees 
that have been headed back, and whose branches are too thick for 
tongue or splice grafting. It is effected by cutting off the branch 
of the stock at a right angle, smoothing it with a sharp knife, and 
splitting one or more clefts about 2 inches deep with a mallet and_ 
chisel. The scion is prepared by sloping the lower portion in the form 
of a wedge about an inch and a-half long, taking care to make a smooth 
surface and keep the bark perfect on the side that is to be outward, 
which should also be a little thicker. The cleft must be then opened 
with a chisel and the scion carefully pushed into its place, taking care 
that its inner bark tits that of the stock. One, two, or more scions may 
be inserted upon the one stock, in accordance with its size and the 
purpose of the cultivator. 



Cleft Grafting with a Single Scion. 



A 



f 



:h 



J 



1. The scion inserted 
in the stock. 



2. Tbe scion with sloping 
cut like wedge. {A) Bud at 
the shoulder. {B) Section 
showing shape of the wedge. 



3. The stock cut and 
split. {A) Sloping cut. 
{B) Horizontal cut. -^ ^ 



10 



Cleft Grafting with a Single Bud. 



Cleft Grafting with 
Two Buds. 





(A) The scion furnished with a single bud (a), 
(5) showing cut portions of the scion. 

(B) Stock with cleft ready for the scion. 

(C) Scion fixed in its place. 



{A) The stock. 

(-B) Top of stock headed 

(C) Cleft in stock. 

(D) Scions. 

{E) Mode of tying. 



Saddle-grafting, — This mode of grafting is largely practised, and is 
very popular with many cultivators. It is performed by cutting the top 
of the stock so as to form a wedge, splitting the scion in the centre and 
paring the inner parts so as to make two tongue-like pieces. These must 
be placed astride the stock, secured by tying, and covered with some 
grafting composition. This mode affords the largest surface for the 
union of stock and scion, and the latter has a firm hold. It is best 
adapted for stocks and scions that are equal, or nearly so in size, but 
may be applied successfully in other cases. 

Shoulder-grafting is performed by cutting a shoulder in both stock 
and scion, as shown in the illustration, and making a perfect union. 
This method is useful in enabling the operator to get a firm and secure 
join. 

Notch-grafting is a substitute for cleft-grafting, over which in some 
cases it has an advantage. It is effected by taking out a triangular 
piece of wood from the head of the stock, instead of splitting a cleft, and 
shaping the scion to make a perfect fit. For large branches it is a neat 
and effective method, but it is not so quickly done as other modes. 



11 



Saddle Grafting. 



Shoulder Grafting. 





1. Prepared stock and scion. 

2. Stock and scion fixed. 



(A) The scion. (B) The stock. 
Stock and scion fixed in their places.*, 



Notch Grafting. 




1. Prepared stock. 2. Prepared scion. 3. Stock and scion fixed. 



12 



Crown or Rind Grafting. — This is a method of grafting which is 
often practised with old trees. With this method the branches are cut 

across as directed for cleft-graft- 



Ordinary Crown Grafting. 




1. Prepared scion. 

2. Stock with scions fixed. 



ing, and slits are made on the sides 
from the top, so as to penetrate 
through the inner bark. The scion 
is cut sloping as in whip-grafting, 
and the bark of the stock raised 
carefully. Then the scion is in- 
serted, without bruising, between 
the wood and the inner bark. 
The edges of the bark of the stock 
are then brought close to the scion, 
and the graft is bound and waxed 
or clayed. An improved method, 
now extensively practised by Euro- 
pean fruit propagators, differs from 
the ordinary system of crown- 
grafting in two important points. 
In the tirst place, the stocks are cut 
obliquely instead of at right angles, 
by which means they are better 
protected from the weather. Then, 



by leaving a tongue on the inner side of the scion, which fits accurately 
on to the sloping face of the stock, there will be a correspondingly 
larger space in contact, and consequently a better chance of a strong 
union. 



Improved Crown Grafting. 




{A) The stock with top cut obliquely at {B) ; bark raised on one 
side of the stock at (C). (D) Bark not raised. {E) Alburnum and (6?) 
Lower part of scion to be covered by the lip (C). {I) Strip removed from 
lower part of scion. (J) Union completed. Section of the stock shown 
by {B), with lip or portion of the bark raised from the wood. 



13 



Root Grafting. 

Soot-grafting. — This is often practised when 
ordinary stocks are scarce. Also with Apples, 
which must necessarily be worked on blight- 
proof stocks that cannot be obtained from 
seedlings, as with other fruits. Pieces of the 
roots from 3 to 5 inches in length are used, and 
these are simply splice or whip grafted. The 
union may also be effected by cleft or veneer 
grafting. 




The stock. (A) The 

sloping cut. 

(B) The tongue. 



The scion. (A) The 

sloping cut. 

(B) The tongue. 




The stock and 
scion united. 



EooT Grafting With a Tongue. 





Cutting of an Apple grafted 
with a piece of root, (a) 
Piece of root, (h) Cutting 
and root united. Black 
cross line showing the 
depth for planting. 



An old root stock 
cleft grafted. 



u 



Side Grafting. — This mode is practised for supplying deficiencies in the 
branches of a tree or shrub. In a great many cases, owing to accidents 
of various kinds, wood or fruit branches are destroyed, and this mode 
of grafting is employed to replace them. Then, again, it enables the 
cultivator to place branches where they will be serviceable, but have not 
grown naturally. In fact, this mode is well worthy of more attention ; 
and more especially in the case of young trees, as it aflfords a good means 
for repairing deficiencies in growth. It is effected by inserting the scion 
between the bark and alburnum, or into the latter itself, without 
heading back the stock. The operation may be performed with a 
dormant bud early in the spring, as in ordinary grafting, or when growth 
has advanced in the early summer, as with budding. When the scion 
is an evergreen it should not be cut from the parent tree till the last 
moment, and its leaves must be left. Scions of deciduous trees should 
have their leaves removed. There are two modes of side grafting, one 
being with a simple branch from four to eight inches long, the lower 
part being shaped with a long splice cut. A T slit is made in the stock 
and the scion is inserted, as in budding. The second mode is with a 
based branch, which is prepared and inserted the same way. After being 
fixed in their places the scions must be securely bandaged; and covered 
with grafting wax or clay to exclude the air. 



Side Grafting. 




Grafting with a based branch Side-grafting with a single branch. 



15 



Veneer Grafting. 



Veneer Grafting. — This 
method is somewhat similar 
to "Side Grafting," and 
may be practised either 
with dormant buds in the 
early spring, or towards the 
end of the summer and 
autumn. By this method 
the scion, with a very 
smooth splice cut, is made 
to fit the side of the stock 
exactly, the bark of the 
latter being either removed 
altogether or simply raised. 
There are several forms 
of veneer grafting, but 
the'same principle applies 
to] all. This mode of 
grafting is useful in sup- 
plying deficiencies in the 
branches of trees and 
shrubs.! ._, i 




Veneering with Strips. 



Terminal Grafting. 




(A) The scion, cut with an even double slope (a). (JB) Phe stock, with 
cleft in the centre. (B C) The stock and scion in place. 



16 



Grafting with Fruit Buds. 



Terminal Cleft Grafting. — This mode is found useful with the 
Walnut, and trees that are coniferous. It should be performed in the 
spring when the sap is rising. The top of the stock is split as repre- 
sented in the illustration, and the scion with its terminal bud inserted, 
or, if necessary, the terminal bud is removed and another leading one is 
left. 

Graftivg ivitli Fruit Buds. — European fruit growers often adopt the 
practice of grafting branches bearing fruit buds upon others that are not 
fully supplied. These branches may 
be either from one portion to 
another of the same tree, or they 
may be taken from other plants of the 
same family. This method will often 
be found useful in practice, as it is 
a common thing for some trees to 
have a superabundance of fruit buds, 
while others have but few. The 
operation is performed as in side 
grafting. 

Season for Grafting. — The proper 
time for grafting deciduous trees is 
in the latter part of the winter, or 
early in the spring, just before active 
growth commences. As a matter of 
course, the precise time will vary to 
some extent according to the climate 
and other local conditions. Some 
kinds of fruits also begin to make 
growth before others, and the earlier 
they are the sooner should they be 
grafted, as a rule. The Grape, how- 
ever, is an exception to this rule, and 
generally takes best when grafted 
after growth is in full activity. 
When grafted earlier the plants 
bleed too freely, and a union is less 
certain. Oranges and other ever- 
greens should be grafted a month or 
six weeks later than deciduous trees. 
Evergreens may also be grafted suc- 
cessfully late in the summer or early 
in the autumn, when a fresh growth 
of wood usually commences. It has 
been found by experience that in the 
case of deciduous trees the success 
of grafting is more certain when 
the growth of the stocks is a little 
in advance of the scions, and the 
circulation of sap more active. In 




Grafting with scions bearing 
fruit buds. 




Grafting with a fruiting spur. 



17 

order to secure this advantage^ the cuttings for scions should be removed 
from the trees in the winter, and kept in a cool place till they 
are required. Straight thrifty shoots of the previous season's growth 
must be selected for the purpose, and the scions should each have 
three or four buds. It is advisable that scions should be selected only 
from healthy vigorous trees, and those from weakly or sickly sources 
ought to be rejected, as being likely to inherit the failings of Ihetr 
parents. Care should also be taken, as far as may ha practicable, to use 
scions from trees that are most perfect in character, as they often vary 
considerably in this respect. Scions should not be allowed to suffer 
from exposure to the air, and losses often occur through carelessness in 
this respect. If the bark is much shrivelled it will be advisable to 
discard the wood, as when it gets into that condition the vitality of the 
branch is greatly impaired. 

Preparing Grafting WaoL.—1n modern practice grafting wax is 
extensively used by propagators, as it is a much neater and a more 
perfect protection than clay, as generally used formerly. Ordinary 
grafting wax is made from beeswax, resin, and tallow in equal propor- 
tions. It may be applied directly round the graft, or spread in a melted 
state over strips of cloth or paper, which can be wrapped round the 
stems. What is known as French grafting wax is of two kinds, one 
being made of one part each of pitch and beeswax, and two parts of 
cowdung boiled together ; this is applied in a fluid state direct to the 
graft. The other kind is composed of equal parts of beeswax, resin and 
turpentine, which mixture is spread warm upon slips of cloth or strong 
paper, which are wrapped around the graft. Various other grafting 
compositions are in use by European cultivators, but all are to a large 
extent made of resinous materials. One of the most popular is com- 
posed of 28 parts of Burgundy pitch, an equal quantity of black pitch, 
beeswax 6 parts, yellow ochre and grease of each 14 parts. These 
materials are thoroughly mixed by boiling. When used the composition 
is warmed sufficiently to bring it into a liquid state, but not made hot 
enough to injure the tissues of the bark when applied. 

Preparing Grafting Clay. — This material is obtained by taking two 
parts of clay or stiff loam, and one-third cowdung, with a little hair as 
used by plasterers. Work the mass well so that the materials are 
thoroughly incorporated, and of such a consistency that the clay will be 
plastic and easily spread over the grafts. 

Inarching or Grafting by Approach. 

This is one of the oldest methods of grafting, nature having taught it 
to mankind by examples of plants growing near to each other, being 
joined together by their branches, stems or roots, through con- 
tact. By this practice the stems or branches of two plants may 
be united with less risk than by ordinary grafting, as the scion 
is attached to its parent plant, and therefore able' to obtain 
sustenance from it, till it becomes independent through a union 
with the stock. Inarching is also serviceable in enabling the 



18 



cultivator to make 
good deticiencies in 
the branches of trees 
readily and expediti- 
ously. In order to 
practise this method, 
however, the plants 
to be worked must 
either be growing 
close to each other, 
or the one from which 
the branch is to be 
taken will have to be 
portable. European 
cultivators, who 
largely follow this 
practice, grow trees 
in pots specially for 
the purpose. It is 
considered to be an 
excellent and sure 
way of working ever- 
green plants. There 
are different ways of 
inarching, but, as in 
other modes of graft- 
ing, whatever plan is 
adopted there must 
be a smooth and 
perfect union be- 
tween the bark of 
the stock and the 
scion. In some cases 
the union is effected 
by simply paring 
smoothly a piece of 
the stock and scion, 
and fixing them 
firmly together, and 
in other cases notches 
or tongues are made 
so that the parts may 
be perfectly and 
securely fitted. The 
joined parts must be 
securely bandaged to 
keep them firmly in 
position till the union 
is perfect 



Inarching with a Tongue. 



t 




(A) The scion. (B) The stock. (C) The union. 
Inarching by Inlaying. 



V 



¥ 




The scion (D) is pared at two sides at (d). The stock 
(E) is pared by forming an angular groove at (e) 
into which the cut portion of the scion will fit 
accurately, as shown at (F). 



19 



Inarching to fill a Vacant Space in a Grape Vine. 




Inarching to increase the size 
OF Fruit. 



Inarching to increase the 
size oj Fruit. — This is not a 
common practice, though it is 
followed to a limited extent by 
European gardeners, in order 
to obtain extra fine speci- 
mens of fruit. The theory is 
that by adopting this practice 
a fruit has two sources of 
nourishment — viz., from its 
parent branch and the one to 
which it is united. The 
operation is performed by 
taking a young shoot and 
forming a union with the 
stalk of the fruit. The best 
time is when the fruit is about 
half-grown, and kinds with short stalks are unsuitable. 




Budding or Bud Grafting. 

This is merely a form of grafting in which buds are used as scions 
instead of branches as in other methods. Each bud is an individual 
plant in embryo, and is capable of forming a tree under certain con- 
ditions. By budding, the cultivator can attain precisely the same objects 
as by the ordinary modes of grafting, and it is a method better adapted 
for some kinds of trees. Stone fruits are more usually budded than 
grafted, as they take more freely. Budding is also largely practised with 
the Orange and other evergreens, and is preferable to ordinary grafting. It 
may also be successfully practised with all other trees. As with grafting, 



20 



the operation may be per- 
formed in various ways, but 
the most general mode is what 
is called shield or T budding. 
This is effected by making a 
straight incision in the bark 
of the stock, about an inch 
and a-half long, and at the top 
a cross-cut, so that the whole 
will form a T. The bark is 
then raised from the top with 
the handle or blade of the 
knife for the reception of the 
prepared bud. Taking hold 
of the footstalk of the leaf the 
bud is then gently pushed 
down, as far as is necessary, 
and the knife withdrawn. The 
bark is then brought close and 
bandaged with a strip of 
worsted or other suitable 
material, both above and 
below the bud. Buds are 
prepared by cutting them with 
a sharp knife from the stems, 
with a portion of the bark and 
a thin piece of the wood at- 
tached. Then cut the top of 
the bark square, and remove 
the inner slip of wood, ex- 
cepting a little near the bud. 
Care must be taken that 
the eye or bud is not in- 
jured when the wood is 
removed, and if so it should 
be rejected. Some propa- 
gators prefer to leave a thin 
slice of wood in the shield, 
and when this plan is 
adopted there is less risk 
in preparing the buds, and 
they do not dry up so 
readily. On the other hand, 
if there is much wood it is 
likely to prevent the bark 
of the shield from coming 
into perfect contact with 
the stock. In preparing 
buds, the leaves should be 



Shield Budding. 



/ 





1. A stick of buds. 2, Marks showing 
where bud should be taken from 
branch. 3. Bud as taken from branch, 
with slice of wood adhering. 4. Bud 
with inner slip of wood removed and 
ready for use. 



Inserting and Tying the Bud. 





1! 


i'i 


JEPlJi: 


ii 






i 


II 


1 


1 


i 


1 




t M 




i! 1 


'.ij 





T slit in stock. 2, The bud inserted. 
3. The bud tied. 



21 

cut off, but it will be advisable to leave a portion of the footstalks to 
facilitate the insertion of the shields in the stocks. In a few weeks the 
buds will have " taken," and this will be known by their beginning to 
swell. Then the bandages must be loosened to allow growth to expand. 

Inverted T Budding. 




In the incision (A) the 
bud is inserted from 
below upwards. 





The bark of the bud (B) 
is cut with a point at 
(a) to facilitate its 
insertion. 



The bud fixed in posi- 
tion, as shown at (0). 



Flute Budding or Grafting. 






1. (^) The scion. (B) The 
stock. (C) Bark of stock 
removed to receive scion. 



2. (A) The stock. 
(J?) The scion. 



Flute-grafting with 
strips. 



Flute Budding or Grafting. — This mode of propagation is practised to 
a limited extent, and is serviceable for particular purposes. It is effected 
by removing a cylinder of bark from the scion branch, furnished with one 



22 

or more buds, and fixing it in a prepared portion of the stock. The scion 
shield may be one or moi'e inches in length, leaving the bud about the 
centre. As a matter of course, the piece of bark removed from the 
stock must be of the same size as the scion shield, as it is essential 
that the union should be exact. If the scion shield is larger 
than the diameter of the stock, a longitudinal strip of bark, equal in 
width to the difference, should be removed. On the other hand, if the 
stock is the larger, a portion of its bark must be left, so that there will 
be no void. It is not advisable to head the stocks back until the 
scions have fairly taken. Flute-budding may be performed in the 
spring, when the sap begins to move, and in the autumn. The practice 
may be found more especially useful with the Cherry, Fig, Chestnut, 
Mulberry and Walnut. 

Selecting Buds. — Some care is required in the selection of buds. They 
should be invariably taken from thrifty shoots that have nearly com- 
pleted their growth, and whose wood has fairly ripened. Over-luxuriant 
shoots should be rejected, as likely to form trees deficient in fruitfulness. 
Care should also be taken to select buds from trees that are perfect in 
character. Imperfect, immature, or fruit buds must be rejected, leaving 
only single wood buds for use. The wood bud may generally be known 
by being more pointed than the fruit bud, though in some cases they are 
both together. It is advisable to keep the buds on the shoots till they 
are required for use, and if prepared previously they must be kept moist, 
or otherwise they will dry up quickly and be useless. The operation 
of budding should be performed on dull or moist days, or in the mornings 
and evenings, when the air is cool and still, so as to lessen the risk of 
the buds drying. It should also be borne in mind that in budding the 
smarter the work is done the better, as quick manipulation is one of 
the essentials to success. 

Season for Budding. — The proper time for budding is when the bark 
of the stock will separate feely from the wood — after the current 
season's growth is nearly finished. It is essential that this growth 
should be nearly matured, and the buds plump and well developed. 
The time for performing the operation will vary to some extent according 
to the nature of the trees, locality and season, and the difference will 
often be considerable. As a rule, however, the work may be commenced 
about midsummer or a little later, and can be continued during January 
and February, taking, as a matter of course, the earlier kinds first. It 
should be remembered that, in order to successfully carry on this work, 
the operator must be provided with a proper budding knife ; this has a 
fixed blade at one end and an ivory handle with a thin rounded edge at 
the other ; the latter is used for opening the bark, which it does more 
perfectly than if a knife blade is used. 

Ligatures. — In all modes of budding and grafting a ligature is 
required to secure the scions in their places. The tying should be done 
as soon as possible after the stock and scion is fixed, as if not done 
quickly the action of the air will have an injurious effect upon the bud 
or graft. The best ligatures are those that will not contract or expand 
to any extent under the influences of changes of weather, but which, 



23 

at the same time, possesses sufficient elasticity to accommodate them- 
selves to the growth of the trees. Woollen thread possess all the 
qualities required in a perfect ligature, and is the best material — for 
budding, more especially. As a matter of course the stronger the 
stocks the firmer should the ligature be. Many plants afford 
fairly good material from their leaves and bark for ligatures, and 
for economical reasons they will often have to be used. The ligatures 
should be allowed to remain in position till the unions betweenj stock 
and scion are complete, when they must be loosened. 

Securing Graft or Bud Shoots. 





Mode of tying up and 
securing the graft on 
a tall standard. 



Mode of tying up several 
grafts on the same 
stock. 



Aspect for Orchards and Vineyards. 



In the cooler districts, cultivators will do well in selecting a site for 
an orchard or a vineyard to choose one having an aspect between north 
and east, when practicable. This aspect gives the full advantage of 
the early morning sun, which is advantageous to the trees, and lessens 
the risks from spring frosts. Care in this respect is more particularly 
required for the more tender trees, such as Oranges and Lemons. As a 
matter of course, trees may be grown successfully with other aspects. 



24 

but when possible the writer would advise the one he recommends. In 
many case?, however, the cultivator has but little or no choice, and has 
to adapt himself to fixed local conditions. Aspect in the warmer 
districts is of less importance, and fortunately so, as in these localities 
the ground is frequently too level to afibrd much choice. 

Soils and their Treatment. 

In the selection of soils, the cultivator is often limited, and he has to 
utilise such as he has to the best advantage. Fruit trees are more 
cosmopolitan in the matter of soils than is generally supposed, and 
each kind will adapt itself to a comparatively wide range. Some soils 
are, however, better suited for particular kinds of trees than others, 
and these peculiarities should be utilised by the cultivator as far as 
practicable. 'J hen, again, the cultivator has it in his power to modify 
the character of the soil to suit special requirements by the introduction 
of other materials. Something may also be done to modify its natural 
character by working, draining and the use of manures. 

Classes of Soils. — There are considerable variations in soils, which are 
broadly divided into several classes, and, as a matter of course, there is 
every intermediate form. 

Clay Soils are those that contain over 50 per cent, of pure clay. They 
are characterised by heaviness, stiffness in working, and impenetrability 
to the admission of air and water. A very heavy clay soil is not well 
adapted for fruit culture, though it may be modified to some extent by 
thorough working and perfect drainage. 

Clayey Loamy Soils are those containing a large proportion of clay, 
but from 20 to 30 per cent, of sand. This soil, when well worked and 
effectively drained, is well adapted for many fruits. 

Loamy Soils are intermediate between pure clay and sand, and 
may contain from 40 to 60 per cent, of either. Soils of this class are, 
as a rule, well suited for most kinds of fruits, and are worked without 
difficulty. 

Sandy Loamy Soils are those containing 60 per cent and over of sand. 
This class of soils is among the best the fruit-grower can find, as most 
kinds will thrive in them, and they can be worked with facility. 

Sandy Soils are such as contain 70 per cent, and over of sand. These 
soils, unless they contain a large amount of vegetable matter, or are 
improved by the use of clay, marl, or manure, are not well suited for 
fruit culture. 

Calcareous Soils. — These are such as contain over 20 per cent, of 
lime, and are well suited for most fruits, especially the Grape. 

Marly Soils. — These contain lime in the proportion of from 5 to 20 
per cent., and are excellent for fruit culture. Marly and calcareous soils 
are often used with advantage to improve other kinds of land, owing to 
the liire and phosphoric acid that they contain. 

Volcanic Soils. — This term is applied to those soils which have been 
directly formed by volcanic action. These are to be found in several 



25 

parts of Australia, and are mostly rich deep chocolate land, well adapted 
for the growth of Potatoes and many other farm crops. Raspberries, 
Strawberries, Peaches, and a few other fruits seem to do well upon these 
soils, but experience has proved that they are not so well suited for the 
Apple, Pear, and various other kinds as the clayey and sandy loams. 
Though the trees grow freely for the first few years, yet they give but 
poor returns as compared with those obtained from other classes of soik*. _ 

Alluvial Soils. — These are formed along the courses of rivers and 
creeks by the action of water, which has brought down and deposited 
materials from higher land. Soils of this class are generally very deep 
and fertile, as they contain a large proportion of vegetable matter. 
They are, however, less adapted for fruit trees than many other soils, as^ 
lying low, they are usually more subject to sharp frosts and cold fogs 
when the crops are forming. The trees have also a tendency to make 
an over-luxuriant growth of wood at the expense of their fruit-bearing 
powers. 

Vegetable Soils. — This class is those soils that contain 5 per cent, or 
upwards of vegetable matter, and they may be embraced by any of the 
classes previously mentioned. A proportion of decayed vegetable 
matter up to about 15 per cent, will materially assist in making any soil 
fertile. 

Peaty Soils. — These contain vegetable matter or humus, in excess, 
sometimes to the extent of 60 or 70 per cent. As a rule, they are not 
well adapted for fruit culture, except for Cranberries, unless they are 
improved by the use of lime and other materials. 

Sub-soils. — The sub-soil is of equal importance to the cultivator as 
the soil, though this fact is too often ignored in planting orchards or 
vineyards. It must be remembered that the drainage of the soil is 
regulated to a large extent by the physical condition of the sub-soil. 
Sometimes the soil and sub-soil are similar in character, but more 
generally they differ materially in their natures. An open free sub-soil, 
either sandy, gravelly, or limestone, gives the advantage of good natural 
drainage, and will, to a large extent, save the cultivator the expense of 
providing for it artificially. These sub-soils also make the work of 
preparing the land easier, as there is not the same necessity for deep 
stirring as in heavy ground. Sometimes sub-soils are too open, as is 
often the case in limestone country, and as a consequence tbe land dries 
up too quickly. Heavy clay sub-soils, on the other hand, require 
artificial drainage, or otherwise they will often be too wet, when the trees 
must necessarily suffer. Then again, if the surface soil is too compact 
in texture to permit the air to penetrate to the subsoil, the latter 
becomes sour, and to some extent poisonous to vegetation. Through the 
imperfect decay of vegetable matter, unwholesome acids are generated, 
which may have injurious effects for a long time. This will account for 
the unsatisfactory results that so often occur, when a bad sub-soil is 
brought to the surface in trenching land. 



26 
Draining. 

The draining of land for orchards and vineyards is too often ignored 
in the Australasian colonies, and this neglect is productive of serious 
evils. A good many people seem to be under the impression that 
because the rainfall is very uncertain in this part of the world, and we 
are subject to prolonged and severe droughts, that the longer the land 
will hold the water the better. This, however, is a wrong conclusion, 
as well drained land actually retains moisture for a longer period than 
when undrained. At the same time, it has a more even temperature, 
being higher in the winter than undrained land, which is an advantage 
to trees. There is also less danger from late spring frosts when land 
is relatively dry and warm, as compared with cold wet ground. 
The main objects to be attained by draining are : — 

1st. To provide a quick outlet for surplus water that would otherwise 
remain in the land for a long period. 

2nd. To allow the rainfall to pass through the soil more freely, 
carrying with it valuable fertilizing matter, by preventing water from 
stagnating in the sub-soil. 

3rd. To allow the air to pass into the sub-soil more freely, to act upon 
the plant food, and make it available for use. 

Water stagnating in a soil or sub-soil makes the land cold, sour, and 
wholly or partially unworkable for a time. Then again, an excess of 
water causes the exclusion of air, and without a good supply of that 
element the plant food will not become soluble. It must also be 
remembered that the small roots of plants often suffer severely when 
growing in ground that is in a soddened state for long periods. Then 
again, when the rainfall can pass through the soil freely, the land gets 
the benefit of the ammonia, carbonic and nitric acids that it contains, 
and these are valuable materials. 

Modes of Draining. — Necessarily the system adopted in draining land 
must vary according to the local conditions, and the means at the 
command of the cultivator. Pipe drains are decidedly the most effective 
and durable, and where the materials can be obtained they are the best. 
But in many localities pipes will be too costly, and other materials must 
be used, such as can be readily obtained. Stones broken to the size of 
two or three inches make very good drains, and will remain effective for 
years. These drains should have a layer of sods, with the grassy side 
downwards, placed above the stones. Slabs make excellent drains, as 
do also saplings and small branches of trees when covered with sods. 
In laying drains, care should be taken that they are deep enough to be 
well below the reach of cultivating implements. It is also advisable 
that the drains should be a little below the depth to which the land has 
been worked, so that they may draw the water freely. As to the 
distances apart for drains, much will depend upon the nature of 
the ground, its conformation, and other local conditions. Stiff soils, 
as a rule, will want drains closer to each other than ground of a more 
open texture. Then again, land that is nearly level will require drains, 
to be a less distance apart than in the case of sloping ground. The 



27 

drains should also be so arranged as to catch the soakage in the easiest 
way. It is also advisable, as far as may be practicable, to lay the 
drains in such a way that they will be in the centres, between the rows 
of trees. 

DEAIN PIPES. 

Pipes required to drain an acre of land at various widths of trenches. 



Drains apart. 


Feet required. 


Drains apart. 


Feet Required. 


Ft. in. 




Ft. in. 




3 


14,520 


22 6 


1,936 


4 


10,990 


24 


1,815 


4 6 


9,680 


25 9 


1,708 


6 


7,260 


27 


1,613 


7 


6,223 


28 6 


1,529 


8 


5,445 


30 


1,452 


9 


4,840 


31 6 


1,383 


10 


4,356 


33 


1,320 


12 


3,630 


36 


1,210 


13 6 


3,227 


39 


1,117 


15 


2,804 


42 


1,037 


16 6 


2,640 


45 


968 


18 


2,420 


48 


908 


19 6 


2,234 


50 


871 


21 


2,074 







Preparation of the Land. 

Ground for trees and vines, as also the smaller fruits, should be 
carefully prepared, so that the plants may be placed under the 
best possible conditions for making strong and healthy growth. A 
good root-bed is required in the first place to provide the materials 
for feeding the plants, and secondly, to enable the trees to get a 
firm hold of the soil. Deep stirring of the soil, and loosening the 
sub-soil, is the most perfect mode of preparation, as this treatment, by 
allowing air to penetrate freely, assists in making the mineral plant food 
soluble, gives the widest field from which the roots can obtain nourish- 
ment, and allows them to get a firm hold of the ground. Heavy soils, 
more especially, require deep cultivation, as otherwise they will, as 
a rule, be too compact and wet. Lighter soils, and more particularly 
those resting upon open, gravelly, or limestone sub-soils, may from 
motives of economy be treated in a more superficial manner, but even 
this class of land will, as a rule, give better results if deeply worked. 

Selection of Kinds and Varieties. 



It is a matter of some importance to cultivators in planting fruit 
trees or vines, that they should select kinds and varieties that are likely 

c 



28 

to give the most satisfactory results. There are various matters 
deserving of the most careful consideration, in order to avoid serious 
mistakes, and consequently unsatisfactory results. The first consideration 
should be to plant such kinds of fruit as are best adapted for the 
particular locality. Some kinds are more cosmopolitan in their 
requirements than others, and will adapt themselves to a comparatively 
wide range of climate and soil. Many of these, however, though they 
may be cultivated under various conditions, will thrive better, and give 
more satisfactory returns in some places than others. Cultivators will 
do well, therefore, to give a preference to such kinds of fruit as their 
localities are specially adapted for. This object should more particularly 
be kept in view by cultivators for market, whose object is to get as good 
returns as possible. Jn the warmer regions of Victoria, New South 
Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, and in many parts of 
Queensland, the fruits that should receive special attention are the 
Grape, Peach, Apricot, Fig, Orange, and Lemon. All these fruits 
reach the highest degree of perfection in the warmer districts, as the 
strong heat and light at the ripening period develops their flavours to 
the fullest perfection. Though the Apple, Pear, Plum, Cherry, and 
other fruits, that naturally belong to cooler regions, may be grown with 
a fair amount of success in the moderately warm districts, yet better 
results will be obtained from other localities. These fruits, when grown 
in the cooler portions of the Australasian colonies, will generally be 
higher in quality, and keep better than if raised in the warmer regions. 
Then again, the trees are not likely to prove so durable in warm as in 
cooler regions, as. their constitutions become weakened more rapidly. 

I For the colder parts of Australasia the Apple, Plum, Cherry, and Pear 
should receive special attention, as also the Currant, Gooseberry, 
Kaspberry, and Strawberry as the fruits that will give the best returns. 
The Banana, Pine Apple, Bread Fruit, Mango, Mangosteen, and other 
tropical fruits are only suitable for the warmer regions of Queensland, 
Northern River districts of New South Wales, and other tropical or 
semi-tropical localities in Australia. These fruits all require a very 
strong heat to bring them to perfection. In some districts, however, 
there is a sort of intermediate climate, between the warmer and cooler 
regions, and in those localities planters may indulge in a wider range of 
fruits with success. Special care should be taken in planting to select 
varieties of each kind that are best adapted for the particular require- 
ments of the grower, who should decide as to the way in which his fruit 
will be utilized before starting. If his object is to supply fresh fruit to 
the market, he must, as a rule, have varieties that will yield in 
succession, and those that will keep well, so that he can meet the 
demand for a long period. In some localities early varieties will pay 
well, but in the later districts they will often prove unprofitable, as they 
will be anticipated by supplies from the warmer parts of the colony. 
If the object is to grow for an export trade, such fruits as Apples and 
Pears only late and long keeping varieties should be planted. It is also 
advisable in the case of all dessert fruits that they should be 
good-looking varieties, as well as possessing other desirable qualities. 



29 

Good-looking Apples, Pears, Peaches, and other fruits will always find 
a more ready market than varieties that are less attractive in appear- 
ance. In growing for culinary purposes, cultivators should be careful 
to get the most suitable varieties, as some are greatly superior to others. 
For canning and drying special qualities are also essential, and as a rule 
the finest dessert varieties are quite unsuitable for these purposes. In 
planting Grapes for wine, the grower should take particular care~to 
select varieties that are likely to yield satisfactory results, as some are 
much better adapted to particular localities than others. The writer 
also specially advises cultivators, no matter what their purposes may be, 
not to plant many varieties of any kind of fruit. This is a mistake that 
many have made to their detriment. More satisfaction will be obtained 
from ten or even fewer varieties of Apples or Pears than a hundred, 
and the same remark will apply to all other fruits. Whether for dessert, 
culinary purposes, drying, canning, or wine-making, the grower will be 
in a better position if he has large quantities of a few kinds rather than 
small lota of many varieties. If a grower has say a ton of any particular 
variety, he will be more likely to find a ready and good market for it 
than he would for the same bulk made up with twenty different sorts. 
"With tender-fleshed fruits, such as Peaches, Cherries, Plums, Grapes, 
Strawberries, &c., cultivators must also take into consideration the 
suitability of particular varieties for packing and carrying, as some are 
much better adapted to these purposes than others. 

Planting. 

Season for Planting. — There is some difference of opinion among 
cultivators as to the most favourable times for planting, and too many 
are content to follow the practice of others without giving the subject 
much consideration. Many suppose that if the trees are planted at any 
time between the autumn and early spring that is all that is necessary. 
Others favour planting early in the winter, and some prefer to wait till 
the spring is close at hand. According to the experience of the writer, 
the most favourable time for planting deciduous trees is towards the end 
of the winter. When planted earlier, and more especially in the months 
of June and July, when the soil is cold and wet, the trees often suffer 
materially from their inactive roots being soddened. They have to 
remain in this condition for some time before their roots are fully active, 
and if they have escaped injury they have made no headway, and might 
just as well have remained in the nursery beds. On the other hand, if 
planted later in the season root action commences at once, and the trees 
quickly recover from the shock caused by removal. Late planted trees 
will necessarily be just as far advanced as those put in early in the 
winter, and there will be less risk of their being injured. Oranges, 
Lemons, and other evergreens should, when practicable, be transplanted 
late in the summer, or very early in the autumn. The ground is then 
warm, root action commences at once, and the plants get fairly estab- 
lished before the cold weather sets in. It must be remembered, 



30 

however, that plants cannot be safely shifted with a soft woody growth 
upon them, as is often the case in the autumn. "When suitable plants 
cannot be obtained in the autumn, it will be advisable to delay the 
planting of evergreens till late in the spring, or even the beginning of 
summer, and on no account should it be done during the dead winter 
months. Many young trees perish through being planted at an unsuitable 
time of the year. The very best time for planting evergreens is just 
after midsummer, if the necessary care in shading and watering can be 
given. At this season of the year they are nearly stationary, though 
soon afterwards active growth commences. This the plants would have 
the advantage of, and be able to get thoroughly established before the 
winter sets in. 

System of Planting. — Orchards and vineyards should be invariably 
planted in straight lines, so as to enable the ground to be worked in the 
most convenient manner. They should be either planted in squares, or 
in the Quincunx style, which allows the ground to be worked in three 
directions. As a rule, it will be advisable to plant each kind of fruit, 
or even varieties, by themselves, to facilitate treatment. This is more 
especially essential with irrigation, as one kind may require watering 
when another does not. In order to economise space, some growers 
plant intermediate trees, and this is a very good plan provided it is 
not allowed to interfere with the growth of the permanent plants. 
These temporary trees will often give good returns, and have also a 
beneficial effect by acting as nurses to the permanent ones. It is a 
common practice in Europe to plant dwarf trees or bushes between the 
larger trees, and this plan may often be adopted with advantage in this 
part of the world. 

Mixed Planting. 

^QO OeO 06« o« OO 

• • 

\ t 



t 



O Permanent Trees. x Temporary Trees. o Bushes. 



31 
Quincunx Planting. 

^ # # # a ^ a 



Care in Lifting^ Packing, and Planting, — ^Trees are too commonly 
taken up in such a way that their roots are seriously injured, and 
though in removing them from the nursery beds the plants must 
necessarily suffer to some extent, yet care will reduce the injury to a 
minimum. Every care should be taken in lifting the trees to preserve 
as many of the roots as possible, and more especially the small and 
delicate fibres. The more there are broken and bruised the greater will 
be the loss to the trees, as they are all required to assist growth. If 
trees could be lifted with every fibre intact, as may be done with a 
plant turned out of a pot, it would be an advantage. This, however, 
is impossible, but the closer we can approach this state of affairs the 
better. When the trees are taken up, the roots should not be exposed 
to the atmosphere more than can be helped. Too frequently trees are 
left exposed for long periods, and consequently they are seriously injured. 
Deciduous trees will stand a little more neglect in this respect than 
others, but exposure is hurtful, and should be avoided. Evergreens, and 
more especially the Citrus family, will be seriously injured if their roots 
are exposed only for a very short period to a dry atmosphere. Exposure 
of the roots for a few minutes to a harsh drying wind will, in most cases, 
cause the leaves to wither and fall, and the loss of foliage is a serious 
drawback to the plant, and may prove fatal. Every care should, then, 
be taken in handling and packing that the roots are covered from the 
time the plants are lifted till they are fixed in their places. In planting 
all kinds of fruit trees and Grape vines, care should be taken to allow 
ample room for development, or otherwise they cannot become thrifty, 
large, and long-lived plants. Particular directions upon this point will 
be found in the articles dealing specially with each kind of fruit. Care 
should also be taken not to plant too deeply, a mistake that is very often 



32 

made Many of the losses that occur with young trees may be credited 
to over-deep planting. Trees should be planted but a very little deeper 
than they were in the nursery beds, the upper roots being merely below 
the surface. The roots should be carefully spread out in every direction, 
to enable the young trees to get a firm hold of the ground on each side, 
and to obtain the widest area for getting nourishment. Before planting 
it will be advisable to carefully remove any broken . or bruised roots ; 
these, if allowed to remain, cannot in their mutilated condition assist in 
supplying the plant with nourishment, though they may rot off and 
affect the sound roots. Trees will often require to have their tops 
reduced or ** headed back" at the planting time, so that the roots and 
branches may fairly balance. As a rule, the greater the quantity of 
roots they have lost by removal, the more should the heads be cut back. 
On the other hand, if there has been only a slight loss of roots, the 
heads may be left fuller. 



Bad and Good Planting. 




Eoots arranged properly. 



>'^ -^ 










3 3 :S S 



Eoots badly arranged. 



33 





(a) Planted too deep. (b) Planted properly. 

Table showing the number of trees required to plant an acre of land 
at distances from 30 to 10 feet apart 



Distance. 


Number 
per Acre. 


Distance. 


Number 
per Acre. 


Feet. 


Number. 


Feet. 


Number. 


30 


48 


17 


150 


28 


55 


16 


169 


26 


64 


15 


193 


24 


75 


14 


222 


22 


90 


13 


257 


20 


100 


12 


302 


19 


120 


11 


360. 


18 


134 


10 


435 



The Use of Manure. 

Soils cannot remain fertile unless they contain all the materials that 
are necessary for the support of the plants. And not only is the 
presence of these materials necessary, but they must be in soluble forms, 
so that they can be absorbed by the roots of the plants. A soil may 
contain lime, potash, phosphoric acid, and other mineral materials in 
abundance, yet it will be wholly or partially barren if these substances 
are in an insoluble condition. For this reason cultivators must not 
depend too much upon soil analyses to show them what their land can 
produce. These tests are all very well in their way, and no doubt they 
will afford information that may be usefully applied, but it must be 
remembered that the agricultural chemist merely ascertains the pro- 
portion of minerals held by the soil, whether they are immediately 
available for plant food or not. These minerals must be rendered soluble 
by certain decomposing forces, to enable them to be absorbed by the 
small rootlets of the plants. Water and air are the chief factors in 
making the soil materials soluble, and, therefore, the land should be 
placed under such conditions as will allow these elements free action. 
This will in a large measure be eff"ected by working the ground 
thoroughly and providing for perfect drainage. 

Fruit trees and shrubs, like other plants, must be able to obtain the 



34 



necessary amount of food from the soil, otherwise they cannot perform 
their functions properly. These trees are, when bearing, very exhaustive 
to the soil, as they are always abstracting from it materials in the same 
proportions. In the case of an ordinary farm or garden crop, by 
changing the plants, as some absorb different materials to others, the 
drain can be more equalized. There may be naturally a large amount 
of plant food in the soil, which the trees may draw upon for a consider- 
able time, but sooner or later the land must become exhausted more or 
less, without assistance from the cultivator. A great many trees fail pre- 
maturely through the lack of proper nourishment. Sometimes they will 
grow to some extent, but fail to produce crops, through some deficiency 
in the soil. The dropping of the blossom without setting, or the young 
fruit after it has set, is, in many cases, the result of the lack of proper 
food for the trees. Old fruit trees will often require a dressing of manure 
to keep them in a thrifty condition ; without this assistance they cannot 
possibly give satisfactory returns to the cultivator when the land has 
become more or less exhausted. The condition of these trees and the 
returns they give should be a sufficient guide to cultivators as to when 
manure is required. If growth is not satisfactory, and the trees have 
been treated well in other respects, it is certain that the plant requires 
some kind of food. It must also be borne in mind that the food 
requirements of trees are many, as various substances are necessary to 
insure perfect growth. Among these substances are several minerals, 
such as lime, potash, silica, phosphoric acid, magnesia, and others, all of 
which are essential to the growth of the trees. Sometimes a soil may 
fail through one or more of these minerals being absent, while others 
are there in abundance, as the minimum governs the whole. Soils 
naturally contain often but small proportions of some of these essential 
minerals, and, as a consequence, they soon become infertile. 

The following table shows how essential minerals are removed from 
the soil by fruit crops : — 

Some Analyses of 100 Parts of Fruit-ashes. 























Sbtimated 














Phos- 


Sul- 






amount of 


____ 


Potash. 


Soda. 


Lime. 


Mag. 


Iron 


phoric 


phuric 


Silica. 


Chlo 


Mineral Matter 










ne.ia. 


Cxide. 


Acid. 


Acid. 




rine. 


removed from 
an Acre of boil 
by a fair Crop. 


Almond... 


27-95 


0-23 


8-81 


17-60 


0-55 


43-63 


0-37 






98 lbs. 


Orange ... 


38-72 


7-64 


22-99 


6-55 


0-92 


14-99 


2-95 


5-24 


... 


120 lbs. 


Strawberry 


21-07 


28-48 


14-21 




5-89 


13-82 


315 


12-05 


1-69 


68 lbs. 


Olive ... 


6007 


... 


15-72 


4-38 


1-19 


8-35 


1-19 


5-58 


4-55 


91 lbs. 


Apple ... 


35-68 


26-09 


4-08 


8-75 


1-40 


13-59 


609 


4-32 


... 


54 lbs. 


Pear ... 


54-69 


8-52 


7-98 


5-22 


1-04 


15-20 


5-69 


1-49 


... 


82 lbs. 


Grape ... 


63-21 


0-40 


9-07 


5-04 


0-07 


10-43 


5-62 


5-11 


1-02 


72 to 168 lbs 


Plum ... 


59-21 


0-54 


10-04 


5-46 


3-20 


1.5-10 


3-83 


2-36 


... 


80 lbs. 


Cherry ... 


51-85 


219 


7-47 


5-46 


1-98 


15-97 


5-09 


904 


1-35 


86 lbs. 


Fig ... 


28-36 


26-27 


18-91 


9-21 


1-46 


1-30 


6-75 


5-93 


2-69 


64 lbs. 


Quince ... 


27-39 


4-40 


7-79 


13-11 


1-19 


42-32 


2-68 


0-75 


1-57 


40 lbs. 


Lemon ... 


34-00 


4-37 


12-90 


8-66 


0-25 


34-85 


3-35 


0-35 


1-45 


100 lbs. 


Gooseberry 


38-65 


9-92 


12-20 


5-85 


4-36 


19-68 


5-89 


2-58 


... 


... 


Chestnut 


39-36 


21-73 


7-84 


7-84 


1-03 


8-25 


3-88 


2-32 




... 



35 

General Manures. — These are such as, owing to their complex com- 
position, contain all the varied substances that have been removed from 
the land by crops or the grazing of animals. The only one, however, 
that fully deserves the title of general fertilizer is farm-yard or stable 
manure. This fertilizer consists of a mixture of the liquid and solid 
excreta of animals with straw that has been used for litter. As a 
matter of course, this material will vary to some extent in composition 
and value, according to the nature of the animal^ the food it has been 
fed upon, and the proportion of straw it contains, but all the essential 
matter for plant food will be there more or less. A compost formed of 
a mixture of vegetable and animal substances makes a fertilizer only 
second in value to farm-yard manure. In addition to their direct value 
as fertilizers, general manures have a physical and chemical effect on 
soils which should not be overlooked. The decomposition of the 
vegetable and animal substances produces carbonic acid in large quan- 
tities, which acts upon other materials in the soil and sets them free for 
the use of plants. These manures also have a useful mechanical action 
upon soils, by making them more open, and favouring the admission of 
air. 

Special Manures. — These may contain one, two, or more of the 
essential constituents of plant food, but not all. They are a useful 
class, and may often be used with great advantage to supply the soil 
specially with some material which it lacks. Though these deficiencies 
may be made good by general manures, yet they can often be more readily 
and economically supplied by special fertilizers. The principal of the 
special manures required in fruit culture are lime, bone-dust, potash, 
soda, magnesia, phosphoric acid, and silica. But before using these 
materials, the cultivator must know exactly what his soil requires, 
otherwise he may do more harm than good. Though special manures 
are effective and economical when properly used, yet it will be a waste 
if they are not required. It is not well to supply lime to land that is 
already rich in that material, or potash to soil that contains plenty of 
that mineral, and so on. First ascertain the soil deficiencies, and then 
these fertilizers may be utilised to advantage, but not otherwise. As 
will be seen by an examination of the table showing the essential 
mineral matter removed from land by various crops, that fruits vary 
considerably in their requirements. Some kinds, such as the Grape, 
Olive, Plum, Peach, Pear, Apricot, and Cherry, take up potash in very 
large quantities. This is why these fruits often thrive to perfection in 
volcanic soils. An ample supply of potash is, therefore, a primary 
requirement with all these fruits. The Orange, Lemon, Fig, Olive, and 
Plum require lime in large proportions, and this material is abundant in 
many soils. Phosphoric acid is required in very large proportions by 
the Almond, Quince, and Lemon, and also to a considerable though a 
lesser extent by the Plum, Pear, Cherry, Orange, Strawberry, and 
Apple. 

The principal artificial manures that may be used with advantage in 
fruit culture are as follows : — 

Lime. — This material is required to some extent by all fruits, and is 



36 

generally to be found more or less in most soils. Yery often, however, 
the land does not contain a sufficiency, and then a dressing will be 
beneficial. For soils rich in vegetable matter lime is useful in 
neutralising the acids that form, and it helps to make the alkalies, 
potash and soda, soluble, and the land more open and friable. The 
best mode of applying lime is by annual surface dressings of from seven 
to ten hundred weight per acre. Lime can also be snppliiijd to the land 
in the form of marl, gypsum, bone dust and superphosphate. 

Potash. — In a good many soils this material is deficient, but it is 
generally abundant in volcanic soils. It may be supplied economically to 
the land in the form of wood ashes, which has also a useful mechanical 
action upon the soil. In more concentrated forms this manure can be 
supplied by chloride of potash, nitrate of potash and sulphate of potash, 
but these materials at present are somewhat too costly for general use. 

Kainite. — This valuable potash manure merits special attention, as in 
Europe it is found to be cheap and effective. It is found in natural 
deposits in Germany, and its use is extending rapidly. Kainite is not 
only rich in potash, but also magnesia, and it contains about 25 per cent. 
of common salt. 

Nitrate of Potash — This is known commonly as nitre or saltpetre, and 
in addition to potash yields nitrogen in large proportions. 

Nitrate of Soda. — In Europe this fertilizer has become very popular 
of late years, and large quantities are used. It is found in the rainless 
regions of Chili and other South American countries. This material 
contains nitrogen to the extent of about 17 per cent,, and is a good 
stimulating manure for fruit trees. Apply in two dressings, one when 
growth is starting, and the other when the fruit is half grown. 

Sulj)hate of Ammonia. — This valuable fertilizer is obtained from a 
bye product in the manufacture of coal gas. Jt contains from 20 to 25 
per cent, of ammonia. When used singly it should be applied in two 
dressings of half a hundredweight per acre in the early spring, and when 
the fruit is about half grown. It is applied most effectively when mixed 
with three times its weight of bone-dust or superphosphate. 

Bone dust — The fertilizing value of bones is well known to all culti- 
vators, and they make one of the best manures for fruit trees. Bones 
contain a large amount of phosphoric acid, one of the principal 
requirements of plants, in the form of phosphate of lime and other 
useful substances, such as nitrogen and ammonia. Bones may be applied 
when simply broken into small pieces, and in this form they make an 
orchard fertiliser that will last for a long period. But bones are 
generally reduced to the form of dust, or meal, when, of course, the 
action of a given quantity is quicker, but less durable. The action of 
bones as a manure will also be increased by rotting them previous to 
applying the material to the land. This is effected by placing the bones 
in heaps, moistening them with water, urine, etc., and covering them 
with ejarth. Bone-dust may be applied in annual dressings of four or 
five hundredw^eight per acre. The best time to use it is in the autumn 
or early winter. 

Superphosphate of Lime. — This is a valuable fertilizer, and a main 



37 

source of lime and pbosphoric acid. It is formed by the action of 
sulphuric acid on bones and various mineral phosphates. Superphos- 
phate is tho base of various fertilizers that are sold for special purposes. 
A dressing of three or four hundredweight per acre will be useful in 
orchards that require lime and phosphoric acid. It should be applied 
annually, and early in spring is the best time to use it. Superphosphate^ 
may be applied freely to most soils with advantage. In chalk, or lime 
soils, however, there is a risk of the soluble phosphate being rendered 
insoluble, and therefore useless. 

Sulphate of Iron. — Most soils contain iron in sufficient quantities for 
the requirements of plants, but very often this material is not in a 
sufficiently soluble state, and, therefore, not available. The deficiency 
may be made good in the shape of sulphate of iron applied in the spring 
after rain, at the rate of 60 lbs. per acre. 

Guano. — The value of guano depends upon the proportion of ammonia 
and phosphates contained in the material. These vary considerably, from 
a high percentage, as in Peruvian, to a comparatively small amount in 
some kinds from other parts of the world. Guano is somewhat too 
forcing for fruits, though it may be used with advantage sometimes, and 
more especially for strawberries. It should be used when growth is 
active, at the !ate of about three hundredweight per acre of Peruvian, 
and of other kinds larger proportions in accordance with quality. 

Wood Ashes. — This is a very useful material, and a good source from 
which potash is economically obtained. It has also a useful mechanical 
action on heavy soils. 

Gypsum (Sulphate of Lime). — This material occurs naturally in many 
parts of Australia, and where it can be got cheaply may be turned to 
good account as a fertilizer. It is not required in soils that are freely 
supplied with lime, but is a good dressing for heavy clay, alluvial, or 
peaty land. Fruit trees and vines will often derive great benefit from 
this material, which should be applied annually at the rate of about 
half-a-ton per acre. 

Salt (Chloride of Sodium). — This material may be used to a moderate 
extent in land that is deficient in saline matter, and will also prove 
useful in helping to keep down slugs and other pests. 

Soda is a special requirement for the Strawberry, Apple and Fig, and 
to an important though lesser extent bv the Pear, Orange, Lemon and 
Quince. It may be applied in the form of nitrate of soda. 

Compound Fertilizers. — By mixing special fertilizers, according to the 
particular requirements of the different fruits, cultivators are enabled 
to manure their orchards to the best advantage. As a matter of course 
the proportions must vary, but the particular material that will supply 
the leading want must be dominant. 

To Ascertain the Special Requirements of the Land. — This is not 
alwaj^s an easy matter for the cultivator, and even if he can aflord the 
cost of an analysis, the report of the chemist, as explained before, is not 
altogether reliable. To a fairly satisfactory extent, however, the desired 
information may be gained by trials of crops between the trees. Rye 
absorbs potash and phosphoric acid in large quantities. Potatoes must 



38 

have potash and magnesia ; oats and wheat, phosphoric acid, nitrogen, 
and lime ; peas, potash and phosphoric acid. If any of these crops fail, 
wholly or partially, from lack of nourishment, it will enable the culti- 
vator to have a pretty good idea as to what fertilizers are required. 

The annexed table will give an idea as to the value of some of the 
manures that are most generally used. Their composition, however, will 
necessarily vary frequently owing to local conditions. Animal excreta 
will vary according to the nature of the food consumed, and the value of 
stable manure will also in a measure depend upon the nature of the 
straw or other material used as bedding. 



TABLE SHOWING THE CONSTITUENTS OF 


VARIOUS MANURES. 




Febulizinq Matekials : 1000 or 100 




1 












. 


•2 

o . 


3 

V 


■§ 


i 


liBS., Contain— 


s 

1 


.2 
a 

1 


4 


2l 

-» eg 


ja 


« 
*§ 


i 


1 




s 
.q 

B 


*'6 




O 


< 


o 


^ 


cc 


^^ 


S 


0^ 


OQ 


s 


o 


1000 lbs.— 


lbs. 


lbs. 


iba 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


ib7 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbB.| 


lbs. 


IbT 


Stable Manure, fresh 


710 


246 


44-1 


55 


62 


1-5 


67 


1-4 


21 


1-2 


12-5 


1-5 


„ moderately rotted ... 


750 


192 


580 


60 


63 


1-9 


70 


1-8 


26 


16 


16-8 


1-9 


„ tboroDgbly rotted ... 


790 


145 


650 


5-8 


50 


1-3 


88 


18 


30 


13 


170 


1-6 


Dnngheap Liquor ... 


980 


7 


10 7 


15 


49 


1-0 


03 


0-4 


01 


07 


02 


1-2 


Faeces, fresh ... 


772 


198 


299 


10-0 


25 


1-6 


62 


36 


10-9 


08 


1-9 


0-4 


Urine (humau), fresh... 


963 


24 


13 5 


50 


20 


4-6 


0-2 


0-2 


1-7 


04 


- 


5-6 


Nightsoil, fresh 


935 


51 


16-0 


70 


21 


38 


09 


06 


26 


0-5 


02 


40 


COMMEBCIAL FeRTILIZEKS (100 IbS.)— 


























Peruvian Guano 


14-8 


51-4 


358 


13 


23 


1-4 


110 


12 


13 


lO; 1-7 


13 


Dried Blood 


140 


79 


70 


117 


0-7 


0-6 


07 


01 


10 


0-4 


21 


0-4 


Phosphates (100 lbs.)— 


























Bone Meal, average ... 


60 


31-3 


607 


3-8 


02 


03 


31-3 


10 


232 


01 


3-5 


0-3 


„ solid parts 


5-0 


315 


63 5 


35 


01 


02 


33 


1-0 


252 


01 


30 


02 


„ porus ... 


70 


373 


557 


40 


0-2 


03 


290 


10 


200 


01 


3-5 


0-2 


Bone Ash 


60 


30 


91-0 




0-3 


0-6 


460 


12 


35-4 


0-4 


65 





Superphosphate s— 


























Bectified Peruvian Guano ... 


160 


41-9 


421 


10-5 


20 


1-2 


95 


10 


10 5 


150 


1-5 


11 


Bone Meal, superphosphated 


130 


238 


632 


26 


01 


1-2 


22-4 


0-7 


16-6 


19-5 


2-5 


0-2 


Miscellaneous— 


























Sulphate of Ammonia 


40 


— 


— 


200 


— 


— 


05 


— 


— 


58-0 


30 


1-4 


Nitrate of Soda 


26 








15 5 





350 


02 





— 


0-7 


1-5 


1-7 


Ashes, Evergreen Trees 
„ Deciduous Trees 


50 


50 


900 




60 


20 


350 


6-0 


4-5 


1-6 


18 


03 


50 


50 


900 





100 


2-5 


300 


5-0 


65 


1-6 


18-0 


03 


Anthracite Coal 


50 


5-0 


900 


— 


01 


01 


? 


3-0 


oa 


5-0 


? 





How and when Manures should he used. — In the case of young trees, 
when it is necessary to use manure, the material should be thoroughly 
incorporated with the soil to beyond the radius to which the roots are 
likely to extend the first season. It is not always necessary to give 
manure to young fruit trees, but when the soil is of poor quality it may 
be used with advantage. As regards older trees, the writer has found 
by experience that the best way of applying manure is by surface 
dressing as far, or a little farther, than the roots extend. The material 
should either be left upon the surface, or very lightly pointed in with 
the spade or other implement, taking care not to injure the roots more 
than can be avoided. Care must be taken not to give heavier dressings 
than are necessary, a mistake that is too often made. Cultivators should 
bear in mind that trees require a constant and moderate supply of food, 
rather than heavy dressings of manure at long intervals. It is not 



39 

desirable that the trees should be forced into abnormal growth for a 
time by an excess of plant food, and then remain in an almost stationary 
condition for a period. This state of aflfairs is injurious to the constitu- 
tions of trees, and is possibly the cause of disease very often. The aim 
of the cultivator should be to encourage moderate and regular growth, 
in preference to that which is irregular. An annual and moderate 
dressing of manure will therefore be better than heavier ones given 
every two or three years. The most favourable times for applying 
manure is while the trees are at rest, or when making the least growth. 



Mulching. 

In this part of the world cultivators should adopt every possible 
means for counteracting the eflFects of long summer droughts. To a 
material extent this may be done by practising mulching, which is one 
of the greatest aids to the cultivator in a warm climate during the 
summer months. When the surface soil is covered with a layer of 
litter, or other suitable material, it is protected from the direct effects of 
a burning sun and drying winds. Consequently, the ground retains 
moisture for a longer period than it would were the surface exposed, to 
the great advantage of the trees. The retention of moisture for several 
weeks longer than would be the case under other conditions may mean 
the difference between success and failure, as the most critical time for 
most fruit trees and shrubs is early in the summer, when the weather is 
often very dry. Mulching may be applied with advantage to all kinds 
of fruits, and is a specially valuable practice in the drier parts of 
Australia. It is also of great value in the cultivation of bush fruits, such 
as Gooseberries, Currants and Kaspberries, which are readily affected 
by hot weather. Mulching should be applied early in the summer, 
before the hot weather sets in, and while there is some moisture in the 
surface soil. Too often the work is delayed till the soil has become 
thoroughly dry, when, as a matter of course, less benefit will be derived 
from the practice. The material used should be spread as far as the 
roots extend, and ought to be kept away from the stems of the trees.. 
Too often instances are met with where the material is piled in a heap 
round the stem, to the great detriment of the trees. Very frequently 
trees are seriously injured when their stems are covered deeply, and 
more especially if the material used is in a condition to ferment. 
Another mistake, often made in mulching, is to cover the ground too 
deeply. When this is the case the warmth of the sun cannot penetrate 
the covering, and the ground is kept colder than it ought to be. From. 
4 to 5 inches will be a sufficient depth to mulch any kind of tree. 
Various materials may be used for mulching, but cultivators necessarily 
must use such as are most readily obtained. The best is long stable 
manure, as this not only protects the surface soils, but also supplies 
nourishment to the tree. Straw or grass makes a fairly good material 
for mulching, and when a large area has to be treated should be specially 



40 

grown for the purpose. Sea-weed may also be utilised with advantage 
for mulching in localities where it can be readily obtained, and it has an 
additional value because it is a material that is rich in potash. 

Shelter. 

Shelter is of great advantage to all kinds of fruits, and particularly 
so as regards the Citrus family. Too often, however, no provision is 
made for it by the cultivator. "When exposed to the full effects ot 
strong harsh currents of air, many fruits suffer severely, and in various 
ways. In the first place the trees often become stunted in growth or 
lop-sided, and, as a rule, they do not bear so freely as when sheltered. 
The fruit is also apt to be inferior in quality to what it would be under 
more favourable conditions. This is more especially the case with 
Oranges and Lemons, which are usually coarser, and have thicker rinds 
than when grown with shelter. Then, again, fruit is more likely to be 
blown off the trees when growing in exposed situations. Sometimes 
the cultivator can utilise natural shelter, but more frequently he will 
have to make provision for it. Belts of quick growing trees with 
dense foliage and compact in growth should be planted for the purpose 
when necessary. Various kinds of trees may be used, such as Pinus 
insignis^ Schinus molle (Pepper tree) and Cupressiis macrocarpa, which are 
all of^trong and rapid growth. Good shelter belts can also be formed from 
the Osage Orange, Cherry Plum, Almond and Olive, though the latter is 
somewhat slow in growth for a year or two. Care should be taken not to 
plant any of the trees named so that their roots will be likely to interfere 
with those of the fruit trees, as they are all great robbers, and will soon 
exhaust the soil. 

Guarding Against Frost. 

Among the many evils that fruit-growers have to contend with not 
the least is the occurrence of late frosts, which often cause an incalculable 
amount of injury. Very frequently a whole crop is suddenly destroyed 
by this means, to the great loss, and, perhaps, ruin, of the grower. 
Vineyards are, perhaps, more injuriously affected than orchards, and in 
some localities losses occur very frequently. Now it should be generally 
known that danger from frost may, in a large measure, if not altogether, 
be avoided by adopting a practice that is generally followed in Italy and 
other parts of Europe. This practice is to make small fires at various 
points in the vineyard or orchard on nights when frosts are anticipated. 
These fires are made of such materials as straw, weeds, or rubbish, with 
a mixture of tar, the object being to obtain a dense and heavy smoke. 
These tires are kept up till after sunrise, when all danger has passed. 
The smoke has the effect of preventing the dew from condensing and 
freezing upon the tender foliage and shoots, and if by chance they do 
get touched, they are screened from the sun's power till the increasing 
temperature causes them to thaw gradually. This precaution against 



41 

frost can be taken at a very small cost, as the danger only lasts a week 
or two, and the probability of frost can be ascertained overnight pretty 
surely. 

The Use of Water in Fruit Culture, 

The command of a supply of water, by means of irrigation, will be of 
great service to the fruit cultivator, and more especially in the drier 
portions of Australia, where the rainfall is light and uncertain. In 
fact, a supply of water that can be utilised at the right times may make 
all the diflference between the failure and success of fruit trees or vines. 
By means of the various irrigation schemes now in operation, and others 
that will be adopted in the future, large areas will be made available 
for fruit and other culture in localities where, without supplies of water, 
growth would be uncertain, owing to the light and irregular rainfall. 
But though a good supply of water is a great advantage in fruit culture 
some care and judgment is required in using it. Some people have the 
idea that the command of water is all that is necessary, and that 
bountiful crops will always be obtained by its free use. This is a 
mistaken idea, as when water is used without judgment more harm than 
good may be done. As regards deciduous trees and shrubs, a supply of 
water may, if required, be given wilh advantage while the fruit is 
increasing in size, hut not after it is fully groiun. When fruit has 
attained its full size then the period of decay begins, of which the 
ripening process is the commencement. Trees then are better when 
their roots are a little dry than otherwise, and water supplied at that 
time will do harm. The same remarks will apply to Grape vines. An 
excess of water when the fruit is fully grown will cause deterioration in 
quality, and in some cases destroys to a large extent peculiar flavours 
tiiat are highly appreciated. The fruit will also be more tender, and wil 
not keep so well, as if grown without water. The use of water, when 
growth is well advanced, is, in the case of deciduous trees, also apt to 
cause a prolonged and weakly growth of wood that is not required. 
This growth is at the expense of the constitution of the plant, and its 
fruit-bearing powers in the future. When the trees have made a fair 
summer growth of wood, and brought their fruits to maturity, they 
have done their work for the season, and should be allowed to rest, or 
sleep, to recuperate for the next year. If they are kept in a state of 
excitement, instead of getting the rest they require, the trees must 
necessarily suffer severely. In supplying water to deciduous trees, the 
local conditions, such as climate, soil, and period of bearing, must 
necessarily be taken into consideration. If necessary, but this is not 
often the case, trees may receive a watering just as growth is starting 
in the spring. On no account should water be given while the trees 
are in bloom, or immediately before, as it may cause the flowers to 
drop too soon. A second watering may be given, if required, after the 
fruic has set. Water may be again supplied," if necessary, when the fruit 
is about two-thirds grown. No more water will be required after this 
stage is reached in ordinary soils, as a rule, Cultivators must bear 



42 

in mind that in dealing with deciduous trees or shrubs water should 
ne^'er be given before growth commences in the spring, or after it ceases 
in the summer. Orange trees and other evergreens require to be 
treated somewhat diflferently, as they are always more or less in an 
active state of growth, and consequently absorb more moisture from the 
soil. These trees may require several waterings during the year, and 
at any time, according to the weather ; but, as a matter of course, their 
demands will be greater in the summer than at other periods. There is 
another matter that cultivators must give attention to in connexion 
with the irrigation of fruit trees and shrubs, and that is to make ample 
provision for quick drainage, when necessary. In sandy, gravelly, or 
open limestone soils there will often be sufficient natural drainage to 
free the ground quickly ; but in tenacious, clayey, or loamy land the 
conditions are somewhat different. This kind of soil is in danger of 
becoming a bog if water is supplied in addition to the rainfall, and no 
provision is made for effective drainage. 

Pruning, 

Pruning is one of the most important operations in horticulture, but 
it is too often practised in a "rule of thumb" fashion, without any 
clear ideas as to the principles upon which the art is based. It is one 
of those essential operations that cannot possibly be practised with full 
success unless the worker clearly understands the principles of the art. 
Pruning is a means to an end, and in performing the operation the 
system adopted must be governed Vjy the character of the plant and the 
object to be attained. The theory of pruning is to promote development 
in certain directions by checking it in others. There are two ways in 
which this may be done, one being the cutting of the branches, and the 
other the reduction of the roots. One method produces precisely the 
opposite effect to the other, and by practising both in various degrees, 
according to the local requirements and conditions of the trees, the 
cultivator has the greatest command over growth that it is possible to 
have by pruning, and the art of the gardener. The art of pruning is to 
apply to the trees such treatment as will best accomplish some particular 
purpose, and to do this successfully the operator must take into considera- 
tion the peculiar circumstances of each tree before touching it, and fully 
understand the result that will be the outcome of his proposed treatment. 

Objects to be attained by Pruning. — Various and very dissimilar 
objects are promoted by pruning, and they are as follows : — First, to 
modify the form of a tree or shrub by checking the growth of certain 
parts, and increasing the vigour of others by concentrating more sap 
into them. Second, to promote growth and bulk by reducing the 
number of branches, and diverting the strength of the plant into fewer 
channels. Third to increase the productiveness of the plants by 
checking over-luxuriant growth, and encouraging the development of 
fruit buds. Fourth, to prevent the spread of disease by the removal 
of affected branches. Fifth, to improve the size and quality of fruit by 
reducing the number of bearing shoots and buds. As a matter of course, 
different systems must be adopted in order to attain these various objects. 



43 



Pruning to modify Form. — In pruning to assist a tree or shrub to 
attain a desired form, it will be necessary to take into consideration its 
natural habit, the modification required, and how it is to be eflFected. 
Globular and pyramidal heads are the forms most suitable to fruit trees 
in tliis part of the world. The object of the cultivator should be to get 
well-balanced trees or shrubs, and as perfect in form as possible. Trees 
should be trained to assume the desired forms from the time they arc 
planted, removing and shortening back such shoots as may be necessary. 
Care should also be 



taken that the foliage is 
so distributed as to give 
the necessary shade to 
the stems and branches. 
Pruning to promote 
Growth. — In pruning 
young trees it should be 
the main object of the 
cultivator for a few 
years to obtain a strong 
growth of wood, and the 
production of fruit ought 
to be a secondary con- 
sideration. The stronger 
their growth the sooner 
will they make thrifty 
and profitable trees. By 
the removal of some of 
the shoots, the strength 
of the plant is concen- 
trated into fewer chan- 
nels, giving an increased 
supply of nutriment to 
the branches that are 
left, and consequently 
these increase more 
rapidly in bulk than 
they would do other-- 
wise. In the case of 
}Oung fruit trees, it is 
a primary object with 
cultivators for several 
years after planting to 
encourage a strong 
growth of wood, so that 
the plants will rapidly 
increase in size and 
advance towards matu- 
rity. Trees, as a rule, will 
not bear freely until their 



Pkuning to Form the Trees. 




A two year old 
tree pruned to form 
a pyramid. The 
small cross lines 
indicating where 
the branches should 
be cut. 



A yearling tree 
witliout branches. 
The cross line indi- 
cating where the 
stem should be cut 
back. 



44 





Pruning a pyramid tree the 
third year. 



Pruning a pryamid tree the 
fourth year. 





Pruning a sflobular standard the Pruning a globular standard the 

second year, and a cross-line show- third year ; cross-lines showing 
ing where cuts shall be made. where cuts should be made. 



45 

growth is matured to a certain extent, and the stronger the wood while 
they are youns; the sooner will they be able to produce full crops. It is 
one of nature's laws that plants, as well as animals, are usually only 
impelled to reproduce their kinds after a certain stage of maturity is 
reached. Trees, it is true, will sometimes bear early, but any fruit 
produced before a certain age or size is attained lessens the vigour of 
the plants. The time required for trees to reach maturity will vary, 
often considerably, according to the kinds of fruit and the local condi- 
tions under which tliey are growing. Asa rule, trees may be considered 
to have reached a fair degree of maturity in four or five years after they 
are planted. 

Pruning to increase Productiveness. — Yery frequently when trees are 
growing in rich natural soils, or manure has been used too freely, they 
will continue to exf)end their energies chiefly in the production of wood 
and increasing in bulk, after the time when they ought to be yielding 
good crops of fruit. Sometimes these strong-growing trees will bloom 
freely, but the flowers wither off" without setting fruit, or perhaps the 
latter may form, but drop soon after. This result is often due to the 
shoots being so strong that they divert the material that is required for 
the development of the fruit into woody growth. This state of afiairs 
is likely to continue unless the excess of vigour is checked by the 
cultivator. It is the too common practice in dealing with such trees to 
thin out and head back the branches severely, under the mistaken idea 
that the remedy lies in taking some of the wood away. But this is 
precisely what the cultivator ought not to do, as such treatment only 
aggravates the evil. The more the branches of a tree are cut away the 
greater effort will the plant again make to restore the balance between 
roots and branches, which has been disturbed. These over-vigorous 
trees should be kept rather full of branches than otherwise, to lessen the 
tendency to rampant growth. The remedy in such cases is not to cut 
away branche.«, but to check the excessive vigour of the trees by 
curtailing the supply of nourishment through lessening the power of the 
roots. This object may be efTected by root-pruning. The usual way of 
performing this operation is to cut a semi-circular trench on one side of 
the tree at such a distance from the stem as will depend upon its size, 
and separate all the roots that come within that radius. Make the 
trench as deep as the roots extend, spade wide, and separate the roots 
with clean cuts. In the following year treat the other side of the tree 
in the same way. This treatment will often bring these refractory trees 
into fruit-bearing condition. The most effective way of root-pruning, 
however, is to carefully bare the roots of the tree to be operated upon, 
and then to shorten back the coarser roots and those having but few 
fibres. At the same time, all vertical roots that are over 18 inches deep 
should be cut through. By adopting this plan, a better selection of 
roots is obtained by the operator than by following the ordinary method, 
and he, consequently, has a more perfect control over the trees. On the 
other hand, however, this system entails more labour, and the operator 
must have special knowledge to enable him to work judiciously. Ro:>t- 
pruning may be done at any time between the fall o'^f the leaf and the 



4G 
Root Pruning. 




Roots before Pruning marked where they should be cut. 



spring in the case of decidu- 
ous trees, but it is not advis- 
able to delay till after active 
growth has commenced. As 
regards evergreens, root-prun- 
ing when necessary should be 
performed either late in the 
summer or in the spring 
when growth is becoming 
active. 

The productiveness of fruit 
trees may also be increased by 
checking the growth of the cur- 
rent season's shoot?, as the more 
the sap is retarded in its circula- 
tion, the greater will be the ten- 
dency to develop fruit buds. 
This practice also encourages the 
formation of fruit bearing spurs. 
Growth may be retarded by pinch- 
ing back the young shoots, and 
twisting, bending or fracturing 
wood of an older growth. 

Pruning to prevent the spread 
of Disease. — Whenever branches 
become affected with any disease 
that may have caused injury to 
the wood, it will be advisable to 
cut them off as far back as the 
evil can be traced. Trees are 
often seriously injured by dis- 
eased wood being left upon them. 
It will also often be advisable 




^^W^ 



Showing growth of fibrous roots induced 
by Eoot Pruning. 

Pruning to Increase Phoduc- 
TivENESs By Fracturing the 
Branches. 




47 



Pruning to PtENOVATE Old Trees. 




to remove branches that have been seriously injured by insects or 
fungi. 

Pruning to renovate Old or 
Badly- Trained Trees. — Very 
frequently trees become strag- 
gling in growth when they get 
old, if they have not been 
well attended to, and it is 
necessary to head them back. 
By adopting this plan a fresh 
growth can be obtained, which, 
if properly regulated, may be 
made to form compact, weli- 
furnished trees in a couple of 
seasons. The extent to which 
trees ought to be cut back for 
this purpose will, as a matter 
of course, depend on their con- 
dition, and the object to be 
attained, but, as a rule, the 
branches should be cut back 
freely. Sometimes trees after 
bearing heavy crops for several 
years do not make enough 
growth of wood, and will be 
improved by cutting back. 
Trees of this class should 
simply have their branches 
shortened back sufficiently to 
cause a strong young growth 
to break. It will also some- 
times be advisable to cut back 
severely young trees with de- 
formed stems, in order to 
obtain more perfect specimens. 
In the case of young trees this 
practice may often be adopted 
with advantage, and without 
any material loss of time in 
bringing the plants to matu- 
rity. 

Pruning to improve the Size 
and Quality of the Fruit. — 
When trees have a tendency 
to bear fruit too freely, which 
is specially the case with 

some kinds, and more particularly with old trees, it is necessary to 
remove some of the shoots. By this means the strength of the plant 
will be concentrated in fewer channels. This will cause the fruit to be 



Tree before Pruninor. 




Tree one year after Pruning. 



48 



Spur Pruning. 




A. Mark showinpr where 
cut should be made. 



larger and better in quality than if growth is not regulated. Sometimes 

it will be advisable to shorten back old spurs 

as shoYvn by the illustration. Peaches, 

Nectarines and Apricots require somewhat 

special treatment, as not only should the last 

season's shoots be reduced in number, but 

those that are left must be shortened to about 

half their length. The Grape also requires 

special treatment in pruning in order to get 

satisfactory results. This fruit plant has at 

each joint of the previous season's wood a 

shoot in embryo, and if ail these are allowed 

to grow the branches A\ill be numerous and 

weak, and the bunches correspondingly small. 

In order, therefore, to get growth that will 

yield serviceable fruit, it is necessary to cut 

the shoots back every season to a few buds. 

It is also necessary, in order to keep up the 

size and quality of fruit, to thin out the 

branches of trees when overcrowded, in order 

that light and air may freely penetrate. 

Pruning neivly-planted Trees. — It is a very common practice when 
trees are planted to reduce the tops considerably without any regard to 
their special requirements. Trees are often injured through being 
treated in this indiscriminate way. The proper treatment is to carefully 
preserve a perfect balance between the roots and the branches. If the 
plant has a large number of roots, and has lost but a small proportion 
by removal, the tops want to be cut back to a less extent. Eoots cannot 
perform their functions properly without a corresponding leaf action. 
Instances are common of robust young trees being taken up with plenty 
of tops and roots, which have, owing to the unreasonable practice of 
cutting away the greater part of the branches, only been able to make 
a weakly growth the first season after they were planted, instead of the 
strong vigour expected. This result is brought about by a diminished 
flow of sap, through the branches being so reduced that the leaf surface 
is not in proportion to the roots, which consequently become somewhat 
sluggish in their action. Leaves are as necessary to the roots as the 
roots are to the leaves, and the more perfect the balance the better. 
On the other hand, when, as frequently happens, trees lose a large 
portion of their roots by removal, it will be necessaiy to reduce the 
heads proportionately, so that the branches can obtain proper support 
from the diminished number of feeders. In all CMses, therefore, as 
regards newly-planted trees they must be pruned back according to their 
individual requirements, and in such a way that the balance between 
roots and branches is equalised as much as possible. 

Summer Pruning. — Summer pruning is a very useful practice in fruit 
culture, and should be more generally adopted in this part of the world 
than it is. The practice is more especially valuable for young trees, but 
may be applied with advantage to older ones when circumstances will 



49 

permit Summer pruning, in the first place, prevents the formation of 
a great deal of useless wood, and consequently lessens the work of 
winter cutting, It also enables the cultivator to equalise growth, and 
distribute the wood to better advantage than when the trees are left to 
themselves. The term summer pruning is to some extent a misnomer, as 
the work, when properly carried out, should commence in the spring, 
soon after growth has started. If the trees are gone over then, and all 
shoots removed that are not likely to serve a useful purpose, a great- 
waste of energy is prevented, and the strength of the plant is concentrated 
into useful channels. But it is not advisable at this early period of 
growth to remove all the shoots except the permanent ones, and it will 
be necessary to allow about twice the number to remain that will be 
eventually required. The reason for leaving a full number of shoots is 
that a proportionate amount of leaf growth is necessary to stimulate a 
vigorous root action. When the shoots are Gin. or 8in. long they should 
receive a second and final thinning out, leaving only those that are 
actually required. Care must also be taken that a sufficient number of 
shoots are left to furnish enough foliage to shade the stems and branches, 
a most important matter in a country where the sun has great power in 
the summer. Then, again, cultivators should remember that the leaves 
are the lungs of the plant, and that unless it can breathe freely there 
cannot be proper root action. It is essential to the well-being of these 
trees that the spread of foliage should be in proportion to the quantity 
of roots, in order that the plants may breathe with freedom and absorb 
from the atmosphere the necessary amount of carbon. When growth is 
carefully regulated the trees have a much better chance of ripening 
their wood properly than when the branches are overcrowded. The 
rubbing off the shoots in the early part of the season is specially 
serviceable with stone fruits, as it lessens the tendency to " gum," to 
which these trees are very liable when the mature wood is cut. Care 
must, however, be taken in summer pruning not to cause an over- 
luxuriant growth when it is not required. When a tree has a tendency 
to make an over-strong growth it should be kept rather full of wood than 
otherwise, as the greater the number of shoots removed the more vigorous 
will the remaining ones be. The second stage of summer pruning is the 
stopping of the shoots after they have made a certain amount of growth, 
a practice that is specially useful in the case of young trees. Young 
shoots often make a very strong growth, and, if unchecked, will attain a 
great length. As these shoots will have to be shortened back it is a 
better plan to check them early by pinching ofi" the points. A fresh 
growth will then start, and the branches will not only be better furnished, 
but the young trees will make greater progress. If pinching back at the 
proper time is neglected, the young shoots may be shortened, but the 
former plan is the best. It will, however, be advisable that shoots, if 
necessary, should be cut back before the summer is far advanced, so that 
there will be time enough for a fresh growth to start. Pinching back 
the shoots, while checking woody growth, also induces the formation of 
fruit buds. Summer pruning is also useful in assisting the fruit-bearing 
powers of trees, as by pinching back the shoots the growth of wood is 



50 

retarded, and the tendency to form fruit buds is increased. No precise 
time can be fixed for summer pruning, as much will depend on the nature 
of the trees and their state of growth. Most generally, pincbino back 
should be commenced in November or December, and may be continued, 
if necessary, up to the end of the summer. Very often trees will 
require a second stopping. The most effective system of suumier prunin*^ 
is to go over the trees two or three times in the season. 



Summer Pruning. 






A. Black mark showing B. Shoot pinched too 0. Pinched shoot, with 
where shoot ought to far back. a new shoot, 

be stopped. 



System in Pruning. — The full advantages that the cultivator can 
obtain from his trees by pruning will be best secured when the work is 
carried on systematically from the time the trees are planted till they 
reach maturity. In the case of a young tree, the pruning for two or 
three years may be termed its education, as like a child it can in the 
earlier stages of growth be more readily trained in the way it should go 
than when it gets older. Only such branches as are required to form 
the tree should be allowed to remain, and no strength ought to be 
permitted to go to waste in the production of useless wood that must 
afterwards be removed. The energy of the plant expended in this 
manner will, for all practical purposes, be thrown away. Besides, 
whenever useless branches are allowed to mature, they, as a matter of 
course, weaken those that are required, by dividing the nourishment 
supplied by the trees. In pruning young trees cultivators must bear 
in mind that the primary considerations should be well-balanced heads, 
with a regular proportion of branches on every side. Older trees, of 



51 



How A Young Tree Should be Cut. 






Branches with black 
lines {A A A) showinsf 
buds shooting inwards 
and (B B B) others 
pointing outwards. 



Branches cut at the 
{BB B) or right buds. 



Branches cut at the 
{A A A) or wrong buds. 



many kinds of fruits, will not require so much pruning as is generally 
supposed if they have been carefully trained in their youth. Among 
these are the Apple, Pear, Cherry, Plum, Fig, Mulberry, Orange and 
Lemon, which are too frequently pruned more than is necessary, to their 
great detriment. In fact, these trees are often injured by being over- 
pruned. All that is necessary with mature trees of the fruits named is 
to thin-out the heads when the branches are over-crowded, to remove 
rank and misplaced shoots, and to shorten back others thai are making 
too much headway, and which will, if left to themselves, destroy the 
symmetry of the plants. Sometimes, when old trees have borne freely 
for several years, they will make but a weakly growth of wood, and in 
such cases it may be advisable to head the trees back, to encourage a 
fresh start. By cutting the trees back to where a fresh growth is 
wanted, they v.'ill often be, to a great extent, rejuvenated. In all classes 
of pruning the operator should take care to make the cuts exactly where 
they are required, and in the proper directions. By the making of 
wrong cuts young trees are often spoiled, more or less, as explained by 
the illustrations. Care should also be taken that the cuts are clean, 
which is a matter of some importance. 



52 



How Cuts Should be Made. 



^H a 







Line a too far Line a h too Line ah Si per- Line a b cut 

above the bud. far from the bud. feet cut. in the wron^ 

Line h a perfect Line c proper direstion. 

cut. Line c too place for cut. 
close to the bud. 







Showing Cuts too much above the Buds or in wrong directions. 






Showing Cuts too close to the Buds. 



Pruning must be in accordance with the Habit and Requirements of 
each Plant. — In pruning, the circumstances of each individual tree or 
shrub should be taken into careful consideration by the operator. 
Methods must of necessity vary according to the habit, age, mode of 



53 

bearing, and other local conditions. As instances, the Apple and Pear 
require veiy different treatment to the Peach and Apricot, while a 
system different from either is required by the Citrus family. Some 
varieties of Apples and Pears also differ in their requirements to others, 
in accordance with the habit of growth. Then, again, take the Goose- 
berry ; the upright-growing kinds must, in pruning, be handled somewhat 
different to those that have a pendulous habit. In pruning, the operator 
should thoroughly understand what the effect of each kind of treatment 
will be, so that he will be able to use the right method to effect the 
desired object, and avoid mistakes that may be serious. When the 
principles upon which the theory of pruning is based are understood, it 
is as easy to apply them as to cut the trees indiscriminately, without 
clear ideas as to what the effect will be. Success will also be far more 
certain than when the beneficial result is, in a great measure, obtained 
by chance. 

Pruning Season. — The pruning season, to speak correctly, may 
be said to extend throughout the year, according to the habits of the 
various fruit trees and shrubs, and their special requirements. In the 
case of deciduous kinds, the general pruning must be given at some 
period between the fall of the leaf and the rising of the sap in the spring. 
As soon as the leaves have fallen and the plants are at rest, operations 
may be commenced. Early pruning is conducive to robust growth, and 
when this requirement is the chief one, as in the case of young trees, 
no better time can be chosen. But it must be clearly understood that 
early pruning is not conducive to fruiifulness. It accelerates the 
blooming period, and increases the risk of the fruit not setting, as the 
earlier the flowers make their appearance the greater the danger from 
spring frosts. This is one of the greatest risks the fruit-grow'er has to 
contend with in many localities, and, as a matter of course, in pruning 
he should endeavour to retard the flowering period as far as he can. The 
most favourable period for the general pruning of deciduous trees and 
shrubs is in the latter part of the winter, immediately before the sap 
commences to rise. Pruning at this time of the year, when the wood is 
more fully ripened, and the fruit buds are more easily recognised, is 
conducive to late flowering, and consequently the danger from frost is 
not so great. Then, again, the wounds heal more rapidly after late than 
early pruning. Care must, however, be taken not to delay the work too 
long, as if done when the sap is in full motion, the trees are apt to bleed 
too freely from the freshly -made wounds. The operation should be 
performed before the buds begin to swell, which in some trees will be 
earlier than in others, as certain kinds start sooner in the season. 
Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, Currants and Gooseberries should be 
treated first in pruning, then Grapes, Cherries, Plums and Pears, 
finishing with Apples, Quinces, Figs and Mulberries. Oranges, Lemons, 
Lcquats and other evergreens may be pruned when necessary, at any 
time of the year. The most favourable period, however, is when the 
trees are making but little growth, and a particularly good time is just 
after the crop has been taken off. 

Ringing to Promote Fruitfulness. — This is a practice that may often 



54 

be adopted witli advantage with trees that do not bear freelj, and it is 
in some measure a substitute for root-pruning. The effect of ringing 
strong growing trees is to check the flow of sap, lessen the tendency to 
make wood, and encourage the formation of blossom buds. Ringing may 
also be useful in the case of trees that flower profusely, but do not set 
any fruit. This is a very common state of afl'airs, and more especially 
with Pears, Apricots and Plums. It is no uncommon thing for trees 
to be covered with blossoms, which drop off without leaving any fruit 
behind, to the disgust of cultivators. Now this result may be brought 
about by some soil deficiency, or a sharp frost, but in many cases it is 
owing to the flow of sap being too strong. An excess of sap when the 
trees are in blossom has a tendency to clog the reproductive organs in 
the flowers, and prevents the proper distribution of the pollen from the 
stamens to the pistils, and, as a consequence, fertilisation does not take 
place. If this excess of sap can V)e checked at the right time the 
fertilising organs can perform their functions more perfectly. The 
writer, some years ago, had a number of Pear and Apricot trees, which 
for several years in succession failed to bear crops t)wing to the excess 
of sap at the blooming period, and after due consideration he decided 
to try ringing as a remedy. It was very successful, and can be con- 
fidently recommended as a practice worthy of attention by fruit 
cultivators. Ringing for this purpose should be done just before the 
tre'^s come into bloom, as after that stage of growth it is useless. The 
ring should be made onhj half-way round the trunks and on no account 
must it be carried further. The cut should be quite through the nark, 
and just wide enough to break the flow of sap, or about a quarter of an 
inch. It must be borne in mind that it is desirable that the wound 
should heal quickly, and a narrow cut will close sooner than a broader 
one. 

Bending down the Branches to Promote Fertility. — This is an old 
method of treating shy-bearing trees, formerly practised to a large 
extent by gardeners in the United Kingdom. Latterly, however, root- 
pruning, which serves in a great measure the same purpose, is more 
generally preferred. The theory of *' bending down " is that it retards 
the circulation of sap, and consequently checks the formation of wood, 
and encourages the production of fruit buds. The operation should be 
performed in the autunm or early part of the winter, all that is neces- 
sary being to bend down and fasten the branches at a lower level than 
where they spring from the trunks of the trees. They niust be securely 
tied in this position till it becomes natural to them, and no further 
assistance is required. Trees are often greatly improved in fruitfulness 
by the adoption of this method, and as it can be easily practised it is 
worthy of attention from fruit growers. 

Treatment of Wounds. — In ihe removal of small branches by 
pruning, if the cuts are clean the wounds will generally heal quickly 
without any assistance. When, however, large limbs are removed from 
trees, either by way of pruning or in heading back old stocks for 
grafting, the exposed surface of the cut wood is liable to shrivel and 
crack from the eff'ects of frost, drying winds or heat. Serious injury 



55 

is often caused in this way to the trees, as the cacks admit air, wateV, 
insects and fungi, which often cause permanent trouble. It is advis- 
able, therefore, to dress these wounds with some composition that will 
exclude the air, prevent cracking, and keep the wood in sound condition 
until it is covered with a lajer of baik. Various compositions are in 
use, of which a gum is the base, such as " Gum lac," Gum ara}>ic, &c. 
Either of these, or any of the gums which exude from wattle trees, arre 
well adapted for the purpose. The gum should be dissolved in spirits 
of wine till it becomes liquified to the consistence of paint, and must 
be kept ready for use in securely-corked bottles. The composition 
should be applied with a brush, covering the wood with a thin layer as 
in painting. The composition will quickly harden and adhere firmly, 
so that the air will be effectively excluded. 



The Requirements in Pruning of the various Fruit Trees and 

Shrubs. 



Apple. — This tree bears its fruit upon wood of the previous season's 
growth, and also upon short spurs of two Or three years old and 
upwards. Mature trees, as a rule, want but little pruning, all that is 
necessary being to thin out crowded branches, and to remove rank and 
misplaced shoots. Some kinds have a tendency to bear near the end of 
their shoots, and these should be pinched back by summer pruning. 
Young trees must be pruned freely, so as to encourage strong growth. 
Eoot-piuning will be useful in the case or over-luxuriant trees, and 
should be done in the winter. 

Apricot. — The fruit of this tree is mostly produced upon wood of 
the previous year's growth ; but also, to some extent, upon older spurs. 
Mature trees require to have the last year's shoots thinned out, and 
those that are left should be shortened back to about half their length 
Summer pruning will be very serviceable. Young trees must be pruned 
more freely to encourage vigorous growth. Root-pruniug is seldom 
required. 

Cherry. — This tree bears upon spurs of two or more years' growth. 
It requires but little pruning, except the removal of crowded branches 
and rank shoots. Summer pruning will often prove useful. Root 
pruning may be sometimes practised with advantage in the case of strong- 
growing trees that do not bear freely. 

Chestnut. — The fruit of this tree is borne upon wood of the previous 
season's growth, and but little pruning is necessary, merely the removal 
of rank or misplaced shoots, and thinning out the branches when over- 
crowded. Sometimes, in the case of over-luxuriant trees, root-pruning 
will have a beneficial effect. 

Currant. — The Black Currant bears chiefly upon the shoots of the 
previous season ; but also, though less abundantly, upon older spurs. 



56 

The pruning required is to keep the plants compact in shape, and thin 
out the branches when too numerous. Red and White Currnnts bear 
their fruit upon one, two and three-year-old wood, also on wpurs from 
older branches ; generally, however, they bear more freely upon the 
last year's shoots. As a rule, they require more pruning than the Black 
Currant, and the shoots should be reduced in number when too nuuieious, 
and shortened back to thiee or four buds. Root-pruning is not often 
required, but sometimes it may be useful. 

Date Plwryi. — This tree bears to a large extent upon the previous 
season's wood, hut also upon older branches. When the branches are too 
numerous they should be thinned out, and the last season's shoots must 
be shortened back, as a rule. Summer pruning may be practised with 
advantage. Root-pruning will often prove serviceable. 

Fig. — The Fig usually bears two, and often three, crops in one 
season, and the fruit is produced upon wood of various ages. But 
little pruning is necessary, merely the removal of rank and misplaced 
shoots. Root-pruning is sometimes very useful in checking over-luxu- 
riant growth and promoting fertility. It is also serviceable in keeping 
trees dwarf. 

Gooseberry — The fruit ot this plant is borne upon the last season's 
wood, and also u[)on spurs from older branches. The branches should 
be thinned out sufficiently to allow light ^nd air to penetrate freely, 
and none ought to be allowed to rest upon the ground. Root pruning is 
rarely nece&sarjfi. 

Grape. — The Grape Yine bears its fruit upon the current season's 
giowth, and in order to get strong shoots it is necessaiy to shorten 
back the last year's wood. In spur-pruning, tbo shoots are cut 'oack to 
one, two or three eyes, according to tlieir strength. When pruned 
upon the long-rod system, half the shoots are left about half their length, 
and the others cut back to a single eye. Summer pruning is necessary. 
Root-pruning is not often required. 

Hazel. — This plant bears its nuts at or near the extreujities of the 
branches, and should be pruned so as to get an equal distribution of 
bearing wood. Root-pruning is useful for plants that have a tendency 
to over-luxuriant growth. 

Loquat. — The fruit of this tree is borne at the extremities of the 
current year's growth, and but little pruning is usually required, merely 
the removal of misplaced branches, and reducing their number when too 
many. The most favourable time for pruning is immediately after the 
fruit is gathered. Root-pruning is seldom necessary. 

Mulberry. — This tree bears its fruit upon young shoots of the current 
season's growth, and on spurs from two-year-old wood. In pruning, all 
that is necessary is the removal of rank shoots, and crossed or crowded 
branches. Root-pruning may be practised with advantage in the case of 
over-luxuriant trees. 

Olive. — This tree requires but little in the way of pruning after the 
heads are formed, all that is necessary being to regulate growth by 
thinning, and the removal of rank shoots. Root-pruning is useful in 
bringing over-luxuriant trees into a fertile condition. The most favour- 



57 

able time for branch-pruning, when necessary, is just after the fruit is 
gathered 

Orange and Lemon. — The fruit of these trees is produced upon the 
current season's wood, and but litttle pruning is required, as a rule ; all 
that is necessary is to remove the inner and useless branches that 
impede the admission of light and air, and to keep down rank shoots. 
Root-pruning is rarely required. The most favourable time for pruning" 
is directly after the crop has been removed. 

Peach and Nectarine. — These fruits are practically the same, and as 
a matter of course, require similar treatment. The fruit is produced 
chiefly upon wood of the previous season's growth, and the trees require 
more pruning than any other stone-bearing kinds. It is necessary, in 
order to keep up a supply of vigorous young wood, that the shoots 
should be thinned out and shortened back to about half their length. 
Summer pruning is very serviceable, and should be generally 
practised. Root-pruning is sometimes serviceable for over-vigorous 
trees. 

Pear. — This tree bears in a similar way to the Apple, and must be 
treated in the same way to a certain extent. Root-pruning is, however, 
more often required than with the Apple ; in fact, no fruit trees require 
root-pruning to the same extent as Pears, as they are prone to make 
woody growth in abundance and bear but little fruit. Root-pruning 
will often conduce to the fertility of trees in this condition. Summer 
pruning is useful. 

Plum. — The fruit of this tree is borne upon spurs of one, two and 
three years' growth ; but chiefly upon those of the previous season. 
Bub little pruning is, as a rule, required with mature tree.«, except the 
thinning out of crowded and the removal of misplaced branches. Summer 
pruning is sometimes useful. Root-pruning will often have a beneficial 
eff'ect when trees are making an over-strong woody growth, and yielding 
but little fruit. 

Quince. — This tree bears in a similar manner to the Apple and Pear, 
and the main branches lequire but little pruning, except the thinning 
out of crowded shoots. 'J he tree has, however, a great tendency to 
produce rank shoots from the stem, and these should be cut away in 
pruning. Root-pruning will often prove useful when there is an over- 
luxuriant growth. 

Raspherty. — The fruit of this plant is produced upon canes of the 
previous season's growth. Immediately after the fruiting season is 
over, the canes that have borne should be cut away, and all the suckers 
or young ones, excepting from three to six of the strongest, which must 
be left to supply bearing wood for the next crop. These young canes 
should during the winter be shortened back to 3 or 4 feet, according to 
their strength. Root-pruning is not required. 

Walnut. — This tree bears upon wood of the previous year's growth, 
and requires but little or no pruning. All that is necessary is to remove 
rank shoots, and thin out crowded branches. Root-pruning is seldom 
practised, though it may prove useful for over-strong trees that are shy 
bearers. 



58 



Training. 



Fiuit-bearing trees 



and shrubs should be trained accordinsr to theii 



natural habits of giowth, the peculiarities of climate, and the special 
requirements* of cultivators. In the XJuited Kingdom and other parts 
of Europe, various methods of 
training are practised to effect par- 
ticular purposes, but in this part of 
the world trees are mostly grown 
as standards, and to a great extent 
allowed to develop their natural 
forms. There are no reasons for 
resorting to various expedients to 
counteract climatic conditions in 
this part of the world as in colder 
couniries. But, at the same time, 
our fruit-growers should train, as 
far as possible^ so as to mitigate 
the effects of extreme heat with 
which they often have to contend 
In the case of all standard trees, 
the pyramidal or globular form 
will, as a rule, be the most service- 
able in this part of the world. 
Some cultivators favour the thin- 
ning out of the centres of the trees 
to allow the stronger exposure to 
sun and light, but the writer 
strongly condemns this treatment. 
This " 6gg-c"p " system is all very 
well in a cold country, where it is 
necessary to make the most of the 
sun's power, but in this part of the 
world more shade and less ex- 
posure will be of greater advantage 
to the trees. For this reason, trees 
should also be trained with low 
heads, which afford a more perfect 
shade to the stems than taller one?, 
a matter of some importance in 
this part of the world. Low- 
headed trees are also less liable to 
injury from the effects of high 
winds than tall ones, and they 
aflford greater facilities for pruning 
and gathering the fruit. All these 
are advantages that should not be 
overlooked by the cultivator. 




Tree trained as a pyramid. 



59 




Tree trained with a globular head. 




Dwarf of bush tree trained with a globular head. 



60 

Training for Special Purposes. — Though a natural form of growth is 
best adapted for fruit trees and shrubs, as a rule, yet it may be 
necessary to modify the training to suit particular purposes and to 
attain special objects. Trees and bushes of pendulous growth may 
require to have their lower branches cut away to a far larger extent 
than those that are upright in habit. The rule in these cases should 
be that every branch must hang clear of the ground. In small gardens, 
where space is an object and a great variety of trees are required, 
the European methods of cordon and conical training may be adopted. 
There are various modes of practising the former system, but those 
most generally adopted are the lateral or espalier, the upright, and the 
oblique. The espalier system is adapted for the borders of walks, and 
is more suitable for Apples and Pears worked upon dwarfing stocks. 
In training for this purpose, one or two branches, according to whether 



Cordon Training. 




Dwarf espalier with one arm. 






Dwarf espaliar with two arms. 




Espalier with several arms. 



61 




Vertical cordon. 




Oblique cordon. 



growth is to be made in one or two directions, are formed at the top of 
a short trunk ; these are trained horizontally to stakes, or upon trellises, 
in the required directions, and their growth regulated and kept within 
bounds by pinching back the shoots from time to time. Espaliers may 
also be trained with two, three, or more tiers of horizontal branches. 
The oblique-cordon system is practised by training each tree with a 
single horizontal stem from which several branches are inclined at an 
angle of about sixty degrees. Trees for this purpose are planted 
closely, and, as with espaliers, are kept compact by frequently 
pinching back the shoots. In the conical systena of training, the trees 



62 

are encouraged to assume the shape of an acute pyramid or cone, and 
the branches are tied in so as to hang pendulous. For dwarf trees, 
when space is limited, the system may be practised with advantage. 
Fan and horizontal training, though commonly practised in the United 
Kingdom, is of but little service in this part of the world. It is a 
system by which the foliage and wood can be spread out so as to fully 
expose them to the heat of the sun, a practice that may prove very 
serviceable in a country where the summers are short. In this part of 
the world, however, no advantage can be gained by spreading out the 
branches, but, on the other hand, the trees are liable to saflFer from 
exposure to the sun's power. When trees are trained in this manner 
they must, as a matter of course, have due attention in frequently 
stopping and otherwise regulating their shoots. Grapes have, owing to 
their habit of growth, to be especially treated in training. They are 
commonly trained in what is known as the "currant-bush" style, that 
is, upon stems from 12 inches to 2 feet in height, with several 
branches, the last season's shoots from which are cut back to one or 
more eyes every season. Another system is known as the " long rod " 
or '* renewal," and consists in allowing half the canes to be left from 
a half to two-thirds in length, while the others are shortened back to 
one or more buds ; the next year the long canes are shortened back, to 
one or more buds, and the shoots from the spurs become the rods of the 
following season. Under this system, vines, as a matter of course, must 
be trellised, so that the shoots may be properly secured. 



Gathering Feuit. 

Fruits of all kinds should be gathered at such a stage of maturity as 
will develop their desirable qualities to the fullest extent, or best serve 
the special purposes of the cultivators. The proper degree of maturity 
at which fruit should be gathered will, as a matter of course, vary 
considerably according to the kind, and even different varieties of one 
often want dissimilar treatment. Apples should be gathered imme- 
diately before they become fully ripe. If left too long upon the trees, 
the fruit, when kept, is apt to become mealy, and to lose in flavour more 
or less. Pears are somewhat peculiar in ripening, and fruit in perfection 
is seldom obtained if allowed to mature upon the trees. There are 
exceptions to this rule, but they are very few. Many superior varieties, 
remarkable for their luscious and high flavours, do not develop their 
finest qualities when left to ripen upon the trees. The time the fruit 
will take to come to perfection, after it is gathered, will vary consi- 
derably according to the variety. From three to four days may be 
sufficient to bring a Jargonelle or Windsor to perfection, whereas as 
many months will be necessary for such kinds as L'Inconnue, Josephine 
de Malines and Winter Nelis. Quinces should be fully ripe before thoy 
are gathered. Plums for dessert should be allowed to hang till they are 
quite ripe, in order that their flavour may be fully developed. If 
required for prunes, or drying in other forms, it will be an advantage, 



63 

when practicable, to let the fruit hang till it begins to shrivel. For 
culinary purposes, the fruit will be in a better condition if gathered 
before it is fully ripe. Peaches, Nectarines and Apricots for the dessert 
should not be gathered till fully ripe, as then their flavour is best, and 
they are also in the finest condition for canning and drying. Cherries, 
Gooseberries and Currants require to be fairly ripe before they are 
gathered. Grapes, either for table, wine or drying, should be fully ripe 
before they are gathered, as only then will their best qualities be fully 
developed. To the makers of wine, raisins or currants, the degree of 
ripeness is a matter of material importance. Oranges should be fully 
ripe before they are gathered, as they must reach that stage before their 
sweetness and flavour is perfectly developed. Too frequently they are 
gathered before they are fully matured, and consequently their quality 
is more or less inferior. When required for packing and exporting to 
distant places, it may be necessary to gather the fruit somewhat early, 
but this should never be done for a local market. Lemons should be 
gathered somewhat earlier than Oranges, as no advantage is gained by 
letting them remain long upon the trees. Cultivators must bear in 
mind that Oranges, Lemons and other species of the Citrus family should 
have their stalks cut or broken, and the fruit ought never to be pulled 
from the trees. This is more specially necessary when the fruit is 
required for keeping or packing. Strawberries require to be fairly ripe 
before they are gathered, and the fresher they are eaten the better, as 
their flavour soon passes away. Even a passing shower of rain will, in a 
large measure, spoil the flavour of this fruit. In gathering and packing, 
Strawberries should be handled as little as possible, and when used as a 
table fruit the berries when picked ought to be placed at once in the 
basket, or other receptacle, in which they are to reach their destination. 
Raspberries require even greater care than Strawberries, when used as a 
dessert fruit, as their rich flavour rapidly pasvses away. The berries must 
be fully ripe, and gathered with the greatest care. When required for 
preserving, such extreme care is unnecessary, but still it is advisable to 
secure the fruit in the best practicable way. A great deal of the fruit 
that is converted into jam is seriously deteriorated for want of more care 
and judgment in gathering and sending to market. The Date Plum 
should be allowed to hang upon the trees till it is dead ripe before it is 
gathered, as a certain stage of decomposition must be reached before the 
fruit is perfect. The same remarks will apply to the Medlar. The 
Walnut, Cob and Filbert may be safely left till the nuts are ripe enough 
to fall, though if necessary they may be gathered a little earlier. In 
gathering any kind of fruit care should be taken, as far as is practicable, 
that it is perfecdy dry, and more e-tpecially if it is required for keeping. 
Dews should be allowed to disperse before the work commences, and on 
wet days it ought to be suspended. 

KEEPi>fG Fruit. 

It is a matter of some importance to cultivators that they should be 
able to keep some kinds of fruit for as long a period as possible, in order 



64 

to extend the seasonp, and the demand for their produce. Apples are 
the principal fruit for keeping, and most growers have to place the main 
bulk of their crops in store for a shorter or longer period, according to 
requirements. As a matter of course late ripening firm-fleshed varieties 
will keep better and longer than others, and they should have the 
preference for the main stock, as far as is practicable, and more especially 
if the grower desires to share in an export trade. There is some 
diflference of opinion between growers as to whether fruit should be 
kept dry or moist, and equally good authorities take opposite views. 
On the one hand it is asserted positively that dampness is against the 
keeping of any kind of vegetable matter, and that, consequently, it 
must injure fruit. The opponents of this view declare that dryness is 
more injurious to fruit in store than moisture, and quote instances of 
wet cellars where it has been kept in good condition for long periods, 
though water has been standing on the floors for several days at a time. 
Now both these opinions may be to some extent right, and proved to be so 
under certain conditions. i3ut it must be borne in mind that dampness 
and dryness have really less influence upon the keeping properties of 
fruits than temperature. Great and rapid changes of temperature will 
tend towards decay. On the other hand, if the fruit can be kept at a 
low and uniform temperature it is likely to remain sound, independently 
of other influences. There need be no difficulty in settling the question 
as to whether fruit houses are too dry or damp. If the fruit, after 
being stored for a few weeks, begins to shrivel it is a sign that the air 
is too dry. On the other hand, if the fruit decays without shrivelling 
it indicates that the place is too damp. The fruit should be kept 
in a cool room or cellar, where the extremes of heat or cold will not 
materially eff'ect the temperature, which must be kept as uniform as 
possible. Cool and serviceable stores for keeping fruit may be readily 
and economically formed by an underground cellar, with the roof 
slightly raised above the surface. This will always be cool and the 
temperature will not vary considerably if the roof is thick and covered 
with earth. As a matter of course, care must be taken that the drainage 
is good, and that water will not soak in. If the excavation is made on 
the side of a slope it will be easy to provide against a flow of water by 
a pipe drain, which will also be of assistance in supplying cool air to the 
cellar. Air should be freely admitted by openings just below the roof, 
but so arranged that they can be eff'ectively closed on very hot days, or 
such other times as may be necessary. The air in fruit rooms or cellars 
should be kept moderately dry, but not too much so. If too dry the 
fruit has a greater tendency to shrivel than it would have under other 
conditions. It is also advisable that the cellar or room should not have 
much light. Before Apples are packed away in the rooms, it will be 
advisable to let them lie in heaps for a few days. This causes a moisture 
to exude from the skins, and assists in preserving the fruit. The Apples 
should then be spread out upon shelves, taking care that every one is in 
sound condition. Growers in the United Kingdom often preserve Apples 
well by simply placing them in heaps and covering with straw and soil, 
in the same way as is done with potatoes. This plan, however, cannot 



65 

be commended to growers in this part of the world, as the cellar or store 
room is better in many ways. Possibly the American method of storing 
Apples in unheaded barrels might prove serviceable to some of our 
growers. Pears, as a matter of course, require considerable attention in 
storing, as most kinds have to be kept for a shorter or longer period 
before they are fit for use. They require the same treatment as Apples, 
but will require looking over more frequently, as some kinds ripen very 
quickly. Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots. Cherries and most of the Plums 
can only be kept for a few days after they are gathered, and they are 
seldom stored. Some of the later Plums, however, such as Coe's Late 
Ked, Ickworth's Imperatrice and others, may be preserved in good 
condition for several weeks after they are gathered. Kinds that decay 
quickly will all keep somewhat longer than otherwise if placed in a cool 
cellar. Oranges may be kept in good condition for three or four months 
if gathered before the fruit is over-ripe. The writer has kept them four 
months without the slightest deterioration. They should be treated in 
the same way as recommended for Apples. Lemons will not keep so 
well as Oranges, as a rule, as they have a greater tendency to shrivel ; 
but they will remain sound for several weeks if carefully handled and 
stored in the same way as directed for Apples. The Date Plum must 
be stored for two or three weeks after it is fully ripe before it is in 
perfect condition. A chemical action, resulting fiom decomposition, 
seems to be essential to the perfection of this fruit. Medlars must be 
kept till the period of decay has fairly advanced before they can be 
utilised. Bunches of Grapes may be kept fresh for a considerable time 
by various methods. One plan is to hang the bunches in moderately 
dry sheds or rooms in such a manner that they will not touch each other. 
Another plan is to place the bunches in boxes or jars in such a manner 
that they will not touch each other, filling the space between with dry 
bran or sawdust. The bunches may also be kept for some time by cutting 
them with a few inches of the wood attached, and inserting the ends of 
these pieces in tubes or bottles filled with water. A small quantity of 
charcoal should be placed in each vessel to assist in keeping the water 
sweet, and as it is absorbed the deficiency must be made good. The 
bunches must be looked over frequently, and all decaying berries 
promptly removed, as if left they will soon affect others. The thick- 
skinned and firm-fleshed varieties are better adapted for preserving by 
any of these methods than others, and it may sometimes be to the 
advantage of cultivators to practise them. 



Packing Fruit. 



This is a subject of some importance to the cultivator, and more 
especially as there is a prospect of a large export trade in many fruits 
being developed. But even in sending fruit to local markets, growers 
will find it to their advantage to have their produce packed so that it 



66 

will arrive at its destination in the best possible condition. There is a 
growing demand for Apples in the United Kingdom and other parts of 
Europe, and before long a large and steady export trade will be 
established. For export to distant countries like England, Apples 
should be packed with the greatest possible care. The fruit should be 
carefully selected, so that the contents of each case are uniform in 
variety, size and colour. Each fruit should be wrapped singly in white 
tissue or blotting paper, which will absorb the moisture that may exude 
from the Apples. The writer is of opinion that, owing to its greater 
absorbent power, blotting-paper will prove the most serviceable. On 
no account must coloured or printed paper be used for wrapping. Be- 
fore the fruit is packed, it will be advisable to spread it out in some 
place where it will dry or wilt slightly. By adopting this plan the 
fruit will exude less moisture in the packages than it would do other- 
wise. The fruit should be packed as close as possible in regular layers, 
filling the cases so that a gentle pressure is required to fasten down the 
lids. Cases should be made to hold from 40 to 50 lbs. of Apples, and 
must be made from some kind of wood that will not affect the flavour 
of the fruit. Cases vary considerably in size and form in different parts 
of the world. In the Australian colonies the case most generally used 
for Apples, Pears and Oranges is 2ft. 4 inches long ; IfL. 2 inches deep, 
and six inches wide, inside measurement. As to the most suitable form 
of case, some difference of opinion prevails, but it ought not to be difficult 
for Australian exporters to adopt a particular standard. Pears for export 
require to be treated in precisely the same way as Apples. Quinces may 
also be exported under similar conditions, and possibly this excellent 
fruit may eventually be in demand for this purpose. Oranges and Lemons 
are fruits that pack and carry well, and can always find good markets. 
They should be packed as directed for Apples, but require to be dried 
to a greater extent before they are put in the cases. Let them be spread 
out and fully exposed to the air for four or five days previously, or, what 
will be better still, place them in a room with a current of dry warm air 
passing through. This treatment causes a good deal of the moisture 
contained in the rind to evaporate, and, as a matter of course, a less 
quantity will be given off after packing. The fruit may be exposed 
till it begins to shrivel before it is wrapped and packed. In sending 
Apples, Pears, Oranges or Lemons to the London or other markets, it 
will be advisable to brand the cases with the names of the fruits and 
varieties, and also the number each one contains. This extra care is sure 
to be well appreciated by purchasers when the fruit is sold. Grapes may 
possibly be one of the fruits that can be profitably exported from 
Australia to Europe. The only kinds likely to prove suitable for the 
purpose are those that have firm-fleshed berries which hang loosely on 
the bunches, such as the well-known Muscat of Alexandria, and 
others of a similar class. The bunches should be packed closely in 
layers in moderately-sized boxes, filling up the spaces with some 
thoroughly dry and absorbent material that will take up any moisture 
that may come from the fruit. Fine cork dust is to some extent used 
in Europe for this purpose, and has proved very suitable. Trials made 



67 

in Australia with this material have also given satisfactory results. 
Though, as a matter of course, less care is required in sending fruit to 
colonial markets, yet growers should always pack well and neatly. 
Apples, Pears, Quinces, Peaches, Apricots, Oranges or Lemons should 
be packed so that each case will contain fruit that is uniform in variety, 
size and colour. The fruit should also be packed firm, so that it will 
get to market in the best possible condition. Cherries should be packed^ 
closely in small cases containing from 10 to 12 lbs. each. Strawberries 
will reach the consumer in the best possible condition if packed in small 
boxes or baskets containing about 1 or 2 lb. each. These may be packed 
ajj^ain into larger cases that will hold from one to three dozen of the smaller 
ones, arranged in close layers. If wanted for preserving, boxes holding 
from 10 to 12 lbs. may be used. Raspberries must be packed carefully 
in 1 or 2 lb. boxes, if required as dessert fruit. For preserving, the 
fruit must necessarily be sent away in buckets or casks, according to 
the general method. As regards small fruits it is usual, in most parts of 
the world, to let the boxes or baskets be retained by the purchasers, as 
after being used for berries they are generally stained and unfit for 
farther use. Grapes when sent to the market must be firmly packed in 
layers, and the cases should be sufficiently full to require some slight 
pressure in fastening down the lids. 

Packages for Small Fruits. — There is a great deal of confusion in 
the way small fruits are sent to market in this part of the world, as 
they are packed in all sorts of receptacles, varying greatly in form and 
shape. It would be well for growers to bring about a more systematic 
mode of packing on a uniform basis. The following illustrations show 
the packages most generaly used in England and America, and some of 
them have been recently introduced to Australia. The English round 
chip punnet has been for -many years the receptacle used in the United 
Kingdom for Strawberries and Raspberries, it having superseded a 
conical one known as the " pottle." Punnets are made of different sizes, 
the one most generally used being six inches in diameter and two deep. 
'J'he punnets are packed in boxes, as shown in the illustration. Of late 
years square chip baskets with handles have come into favour, and 
seem likely to supersede the round punnets. The handles are made to 
bend down when not in use, and this facilitates the packing in boxes, 
which are the same as those used for punnets. The Jersey basket, as 
shown in the illustration, holds about one pound, hut though much used 
in Europe and America, is objected to by some as being rather too deej) 
for tender fruit. The American baskets hold from one to two pounds, 
and are very useful receptacles for any kind of small fruits. This class 
of baskets has been introduced to Australia, and probably their use 
will soon be general. The fruit crate shown in the illustration is of 
American design, and is worthy of attention from fruit growers in this 
part of the world. It is constructed to hold 32 quarts, and is furnished 
with a lock attached to a small chain. The party who sends the fruit 
away has a key and locks the crate, and the one to whom the fruit io 
consigned has a duplicate to open it upon arrival. By adopting this 
precaution pilfering during transit will be avoided. 



68 



Packages for Small Fruits. 




English Chip Punnet. 



PaekinsT Punnets for Market. 




Square Chip Punnet. 



Packing Square Punnets. 





Jersey Basket. 



American Baskets. 



69 




American Crate. 



Drying Fruits. 



Various fruits can be utilised to advantage by drying, and some kinds 
are in extensive demand when preserved in this way. The more 
prominent of the dried fruits of commerce are the Raisin, Currant and 
Fig, all of which, as has been proved, can be produced to perfection in 
many parts of Australia. Among the less prominent kinds are the Apple, 
Pear, Peach, Apricot, Plum, Cherry, Loquat, Date Plum and Straw- 
berry. All these fruits are excellent when dried, and, if carefully 
prepared, may be kept for years. In Europe and America, fruits of the 
kinds named are dried in considerable quantities, and there is a great 
demand for them. There are two ways by which fruit may be dried, one 
being by the power of the sun, and the other by artificial heat, and, in 
some cases, both methods can be utilised. Sun-drying is the system most 
generally adopted in Europe, and more especially in making raisins and 
currants. Grapes intended for these purposes should be allowed to hang 
till they are dead ripe, when they ought to be cut and spread out upon 
trays or mats, and fully exposed to the sun. The bunches should be 
turned daily, so that each side is equally exposed to the sun. In order 
to save labour in turning, and this is sometimes an inaportant object, a 
second tray of the same size may be placed over the fruit, and the 
position of both reversed by a single movement. The size of the trays is 
of no material importance, but they should be uniform and not too large, 
so that they may be easily handled. The time required for sun-drying 
raisins will, as a matter of course, vary to some extent, according to the 
weather and the size of the Grapes. Ordinary raisins, under favourable 
conditions, will be sufficiently dried in about three weeks. If the con- 
ditions are favourable, sultanas will be fit a few days earlier, and currants 



70 

will take less than a fortnight. While the fruit is drying, care must be 
taken to protect it from rain and dew. As soon as the fruit is 
sufficiently dry, it should be stemmed, if necessary, and placed in boxes 
or casks, leaving it two or three days to slightly ferment, or " sweat." 
The fruit is then spread out and left for about twenty-four hours, when 
it may be packed finally. The fruit should be firmly and equally pressed 
in packing, so that it will keep well and turn out in prime condition. 
In Valencia, and some other parts of Spain, where the raisin-making 
industry is a leading one, it is customary to dip the bunches before they 
are spread in a hot lye made from the ashes of the Grape-vine and Rose- 
mary, to which a small proportion of slaked lime is added. The fruit 
is merely dipped in the lye for a few seconds, and the process is 
supposed to hasten the curing, which doubtless it does, but no further 
benefit can be derived from it. On the other hand, there is a danger of 
the fruit being injured by remaining too long in the hot solution, when 
there will be a probability of the skin cracking, and a portion of the 
grape sugar escaping. Raisins and currants may be more quickly 
prepared in kilns, especially constructed for drying, a method much 
practised in America. They may also be prepared by means of artificial 
heat in *' fruit evaporators." Some prefer to dry the fruit partially in 
the sun, and finish by artifiicial heat, and the grower must decide which 
method will suit him best. Sun-dried fruit is, however, generally con- 
sidered to be superior to other kinds. Figs, for drying, should not be 
gathered till they are perfectly ripe, and should be treated in nearly every 
respect as recommended for raisins. They, however, require to be 
dipped in boiling lye, and, being larger, are longer in drying. Another 
mode of drying not so generally practised is to dip the figs in boiling 
syrup for about three minutes, and then spread in the sun. Though 
Figs may be dried with greater facility in kilns and evaporators, yet 
they are rarely equal to those prepared by sun heat. 

Plums are dried extensively in Europe, and form an important article 
of commerce known as prunes. Certain kinds of Plums are used for 
the purpose, and these are dried whole. Perfectly ripe fruit is chosen, 
and this is prepared by partially drying it in the sun, and finishing it off 
by artifi.cial heat. Full details of the process will be found in the article 
dealing specially with the Plum. Various sorts of Plums are also dried 
extensively by halving, removing the stones and spreading them in the 
sun, or passing the truit through an evaporator. Peaches, Apricots, 
Apples, culinary varieties of Pears, Cherries and Strawberries may be 
turned to good account when sun-dried, or prepared by artificial heat. 
Peaches and Apricots must be peeled, stoned and sliced or quartered, 
Apples and Pears should be sliced, peeled and cored, the Cherries must 
be split in two, and the Strawberries may be dried whole. When fully 
dried, these fruits should be tightly packed in boxes or casks, and if 
carefully prepared they may be kept in sound condition for some years. 
As regards Peaches, Apricots and Cherries, the varieties best adapted 
for drying are those whose flesh is firm. As a rule, the very luscious 
melting varieties are quite unsuitable. In the case of Apples, good 
cooking kinds only should be used. 



71 

Drying by Artificial Heat. 

Though sun drying may be utilised to a great extent in many parts of 
Australasia, yet artificial evaporation must necessarily be the method 
adapted by the majority of fruitgrowers. This method can be practised 
successfully in every district where fruit is grown, whereas sun drying 
will only be serviceable in regions that are hot and dry. Various kinds^ 
of evaporators are in use, but though they diflfer considerably in detail 
yet they all work on the same principle. This principle is to remove 
the water contained in the fruits by means of swift moving currents of 
strongly heated air. If the air current is not sufficiently hot and rapid 
the fruit cannot be thoroughly well dried. The air may be sufficiently 
heated, but if it does not pass through quickly the fruit will be more or 
less cooked and deteriorated in quality. It is necessary to heat the air 
to a much higher degree than would be required to bake the fruit in an 
oven ; but the rapid circulation prevents injury from burning. Apples 
will cook in boiling water at a temperature of 212° Fah,, or bake in an 
oven at 225° Fah. ; but they will not cook or burn in an evaporator 
heated up to 300° Fah., provided the air current is strong. The 
evaporation of the water is a cooling process, and as the particles of 
vapour are driven from the minute cells the heat surrounding the fruit 
is reduced. A heat of from 240 to 250° Fah. will be sufficient for the 
purpose. As a matter of course, when the main portion of the vapour 
has been evaporated the heat must be reduced^ so as to prevent all risk 
from burning. 

The necessary chemical changes are brought about in the most perfect 
manner by the use of rapid currents of strong heat, In the firsc place 
the albumen is coagulated precisely the same as in an egg when boiled, 
whereas by slow drying with fire heat a considerable portion is lost. 
There is also less loss in the soluble starch, which is an advantage. The 
pectine, or fruit jelly, either remains in the cells or on the surface, 
instead of decomposing to a considerable extent and passing off, as is the 
case with slow drying. Then, again, the saccharine ferment contained 
in all fruits is destroyed by the strong heat. If the natural starch, 
albumen and glucose are not made indestructible by perfect drying, the 
prepared fruit will absorb moisture from the air, be liable to get mouldy, 
and finally turn sour and decay. Fruit prepared by evaporation, in the 
proper way, may be kept for years if necessary, when tightly packed in 
boxes or casks. On the other hand, if imperfectly prepared, it will 
not keep long, and is quite useless for an export trade. 

The illustrations represent two distinct types of evaporators, of which 
there are a number of kinds. The first of these is what may be termed 
the upright class, to which the Zimmerman machine belongs. In these 
machines the evaporating chamber is above the furnace, and the heated 
air, after passing through the trays of fruit, escapes through a covered 
chimney at the top. The second illustration represents a machine 
known as Dr. Ryder's patent, and it is claimed for it that the air passes 
off more quickly than in the upright evaporators, and that consequently 
the fruit is more effectively dried. 




Machine with Inclined Plane. 



73 
Sulphuring. 

It is customary to subject pared and sliced fruit, when freshly cut, 
to the fumes of sulphur for a short period. This process is called 
•bleaching, and prevents the discoloration of the fruit, through contact with 
the air, that would otherwise take place. In the case of apples, and many 
other kinds, it is essential that the dried fruit should be of a light 
colour. 

The reasons for sulphuring fruit are twofold. One is to brighten the 
appearance and give the prepared material a lighter colour than it would 
have otherwise. The second object is to prevent the dried fruit from 
being attacked by insects, as the sulphuring kills any eggs that may 
exist, and prevents others from being deposited. But special care must 
be taken that the sulphuring is not too strong or long continued. When 
the freshly-sliced fruit is subjected to sulphur fumes for a few minutes 
the gas merely penetrates the surface, and afterwards escapes during the 
process of drying. But if the sulphuring is heavy and long continued, or 
done after the fruit is dried^ as is sometimes the case, the gas penetrates 
deeply. Badly-dried fruit that is too dark in colour is often treated in 
this way to bleach it, and make a more marketable article. Fruit 
sulphured over-much, or after drying, is unwholesome and very indi- 
gestible, as the "sulphurous " acid originally introduced becomes after a 
while " sulphuric " acid. 

Sulphuring must be done in a building specially erected for the 
purpose, and so arranged that the fumes may be equally and effec- 
tually distributed. The fruit is arranged on the same trays as for 
drying, and these, if constructed with cleats on the ends, to bear 
the weight, may be piled on each other. A very small bleaching- 
roona will be sufficient for a large quantity of fruit. The time required 
to complete the sulphuring process will vary according to the amount of 
sulphur used, and the kind of fruit ; and some little experience will be 
necessary before the operator is thoroughly expert. From a quarter to 
half-an-hour is the time generally allowed. The sulphur bleaching 
process is applied equally to sun-dried fruit and that prepared by 
artificial evaporation. 

Packing Dried Fruits. 

When the process of drying is complete, the prepared fruit should be 
bulked in heaps or boxes, so that it may slightly ferment, or "sweat," 
as it is technically termed. This process softens the fruit and improves 
its condition. Care must be taken that the fermentation is not too 
strong, and in order to avoid this the fruit should be turned occasionally, 
or, if in boxes, poured from one to another. The time required to 
complete the process will vary somewhat according to the fruit, and 
will range from forty to sixty hours. When the fruit is placed in the 
boxes for market, it should be packed with care, so that it will open out 
with a good "face." It is customary with European and American 



74 

packers to flatten some of the fruit by passing it through rollers such as 
those of a clothes wringer. This flattened fruit is laid carefully the cut 
side down on the bottom of the box, which is then filled up with the 
quantity it is to contain. The fruit is then firmly pressed, and the lid 
nailed on. The box is then inverted, the brand or label aflaxed, and 
what was the bottom becomes the top of the package. Various kinds 
and sizes of boxes are in use for packing dried fruits, but it will be 
advisable for cultivators and manufacturers to confine themselves to a 
limited number. The most suitable sizes for marketing are boxes that 
will hold fifty and twenty-five pounds respectively. The boxes should 
be neatly lined with white paper, in such a way that they will have a 
nice appearance when opened out. Dried fruits may be packed in 
cotton or canvas sacks, but they show to greater advantage, and are less 
liable to injury, when arranged in boxes. 

Canning Fruit. 

This mode for preserving fruits has become very popular within the 
last few years, and promises a much wider extension in the future. The 
piocess can be successfully applied to most stone, pip or berry 
fruits, but it is confined chiefly to such kinds as can be utilised for 
culinary purposes. Pears are prepared by peeling, quartering and 
coring. Apricots may be left whole, or halved, and the stones removed. 
Peaches are treated in the same way, and may be either peeled or not, at 
the option of the operator. Plums may be halved and stoned, or left 
whole. Cherries, gooseberries and other small fruits are left whole. 
Pine Apples should be pared and sliced. When the fruit has been 
prepared in such form as may be necessary, it should be placed in the 
cans, which are then filled nearly to the tops with water or syrups of 
various densities, according to the nature of the fruit or the require- 
ments of the operator. The lids are then fixed on, leaving a minute 
vent-hole in the centre of each. The cans are then placed on iron 
frames or trays, and plunged three-fourths of their depth in boiling 
water. As to the time the cans are left in the boiling water some 
judgment, based on experience, is required, as the necessary amount of 
cooking varies with diff'erent fruits, and even the one kind under 
dissimilar conditions may require a difference in treatment. When the 
cans are taken out of the water they are allowed to cool, and the vent is 
soldered up. The success of the operation depends in a large measure 
upon the skill and judgment of those who direct the work. As a rule 
canning can be carried on most successfully in factories equipped with 
the most perfect labour-saving appliances, and directed by skilled experts. 
The cost of a perfect plant, including the latest improved tin-working 
machinery, is considerable, and operations must be upon a large scale, 
with a well-arranged division of labour, in order that fruit may be 
canned at a low cost, so that it can compete in the world's markets. 
Though some of the larger orchardists may possibly make canning pay, 
yet smaller growers will necessarily have to depend upon factories to 
work up their produce. 



75 



Preserving Fruit in Bottles or Jabs. 



This mode of preserving fruit is based upon the same principles as 
canning, and is, in fact, the original method. The bottles or jars arc 
filled with fruit, over which is poured water or syrup, according to the 
fruit and the requirements of the operator. The bottles or jars are 
then plunged nearly to their tops in a tank of boiling water, and when 
taken out they must be corked quickly while hot. When they have 
cooled, the corks should be sealed to keep them air-tight, and the vessels 
labelled with the name of the fruit. 



Jams, Jellies and Marmalade. 



Copper Preserving Pans. 



The preservation of fruit under these 
forms has been practised from remote 
periods, and considerable quantities are 
utilised in this way. Formerly fruit for 
these purposes was mostly treated in 
small quantities for family use, but 
latterly the work to a great extent has 
been taken up as a regular business, 
and is carried on in factories estab- 
lished for the purpose. From a com- 
mercial point of view these establish- 
ments have the advantage, as they are 
fitted up with the most perfect appli- 
ances, and are under skilled manage- 
ment. Consequently the factory-made 
articles are more uniform in quality, 
and can be produced at a cheaper rate 
than those made under less favourable 
conditions. These are advantages that 
cannot be ignored by fruit growers, 
and more especially as it is necessary to 
develop an export trade in these pro- 
ducts. When fruit is treated by 
growers they should obtain the most 
perfect appliances for boiling that are 
within their reach, take the greatest 
care in manipulating the fruit, and to 
pack their products in a suitable and 
neat way. As a matter of course, vari- 
ous fruits require dissimilar treatment, 
and full details will be found in the 
special articles dealing with each kind. 




Showing jacket with tap through 
which steam is forced. 




Showing how pan is swun^ on 
a pivot to facilitate emptying. 



76 

Crystallising Fruits. 

This mode of preserving is adopted to some extent in Europe for 
several fruits, and it may be successfully practised with most kinds. 
The theory of crystallising is to extract the watery juices from the fruit 
and replace them by sugar. In the first place, the fruit should be 
carefully selected, so that it is perfectly uniform in ripeness and texture. 
The mode of preparation will, as a matter of course, depend upon the 
fruit, and some kinds require very different treatment to others. Berry 
fruits, such as Strawberries, Baspberries, Blackberries, &c., must be left 
whole. Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, Plums, Cherries and Date Plums 
should be halved, and the stones removed. Loquats should have their 
seeds removed. Apples, Pears and Quinces should be peeled, cored and 
sliced. Small Tomatoes may be left whole, medium-sized ones halved, 
and large specimens sliced. In preparing the peel of Oranges, Lemons and 
Citrons, the fruits are at first quartered and soaked in a strong brine of salt 
£.nd water, after which they are thoroughly washed to extract the saline 
matter before the syrup is applied. Small Oranges of the Kumquat and 
Mandarin sections are crystallised whole, or they may be halved. When 
whole fruit is treated, the process of crystallising will be facilitated by 
puncturing the Oranges with wires, which enables the syrup to penetrate 
more freely. All fruits should be sufficiently ripe for their flavours to 
be fully developed. 

When the fruit has been prepared in whatever form may be necessary, 
in accord&nce with the foregoing directions, it should be placed in 
baskets, boxes or buckets, with perforated bottoms or sides, and plunged 
into boiling water. The object of this is to dilute the juices, and 
facilitate their extraction. Care must be taken that the fruit is not 
immersed too long, as if so it will become partially cooked. On the 
other hand, if immersed for too short a time the juice is insufficiently 
extracted, and the absorption of syrup is checked. This is the most 
important part of the process, and expertness can only be obtained by 
practice. As a rule, the softer and smaller the fruit the less time should 
it be immersed in the boiling water. The next operation is to place the 
fruit in earthern pans or jars, and cover it with a prepared syrup. In 
the case of Raspberries and other small, soft fruits, a thick syrup may 
be used, as it will be readily absorbed. With larger and harder fruits 
a weaker syrup should be used at first, as the sugar is absorbed more 
slowly. Afterwards a thicker syrup will be necessary. In making the 
syrup it is necessary to use white sugar. The fruit and syrup is allowed 
to remain in the pans for several days, according. to its size, softness and 
kind. Jt must be carefully watched, and if there are signs of fermenta- 
tion the fruit should be heated to the boiling point, to check the working. 
This process must be again repeated, if necessary, till the operation is 
complete. The time necessary to complete the process of crystallisation 
will, as a matter of course, vary according to the nature of the fruit, and 
will range from two to six weeks. When the operation is complete the 
fruit should be lifted from the syrup and allowed to dry slowly. After 
it is dry it should be again dipped in a thick, hot syrup, and allowed to 



77 

cool slowly, so that a coating of sugar will cover the fruit. If glazed 
fruit is required it should be dipped in the same way, but must be 
cooled quickly. 

Insects Injurious to Fruits. 

The fruit cultivator has to contend against a number of troublesome 
insects, some of which cause a large amount of injury to trees or crops. 
These should, as far as is practicable, be kept under by such remedies 
as are at command, and by adopting this plan the injurious effects of 
these pests may often be considerably lessened. But though the subject 
is of such vital importance to fruit-growers, yet, strange to say, only a 
comparatively small number are acquainted with the habits of these 
insects, or the remedies that can be adopted against them. In addition 
to their scientific classification, insects, for practical purposes, are grouped 
according to the manner in which they attack plants. First — Insects 
destroying foliage, such as the Caterpillars. Second — Insects feeding upon 
the surface of the leaf, bark or fruit, such as the Scale. Third — Insects that 
bore into the fruit, such as the Codlin Moth. Fourth — Insects that bore 
into the stems, branches or roots. Each of these classes will necessarily 
require a different mode of treatment. In a book like this, the subject 
can only be lightly treated, and to deal with it thoroughly a perfect work 
upon entomology would be required. The writer proposes to draw 
attention to some of the principal of our troublesome insects, though it 
must be understood he does not profess to deal with the whole of them. 
This can only be done by the professed entomologist. In this part of 
the work only those kinds are dealt with that are generally destructive 
and troublesome to various kinds of fruits. Other insects, such as the 
Codlin Moth and American Blight, etc., which confine themselves to 
certain kinds, will be dealt with in treating upon the par- 
ticular fruits that they prey upon. The descriptions of the 
insects are necessarily brief, in order that too much space will not be 
given to the subject. For the same reason, the remedies are given in as 
concise a form as possible, and only such as have proved effective are 
recommended. 

Aphides. — There are various species of this family, more commonly 
known as " plant flies " or '■ lice," which are injurious to fruit trees. 
Some are peculiar to particular kinds of trees, while others are more 
cosmopolitan in their habits, and affect various families. The insects are 
minute flies, varying in colour from green to brown, black and white. 
They make their appearance at various seasons, thickly clustering upon 
the shoots, leaves and flowers, from which they extract the juices, and 
choke up the pores vvith their excreta. The most certain and effective 
remedies are syringing with strong tobacco water or soft-soap and kero- 
sene. An infusion of the leaves of the Walnut and Elderberry is also a 
good application. 

Caterpillars. — Yaiious sorts of caterpillars are troublesome to fruit- 
growers, and when in large numbers they often do much damage. 
These pests feed upon the leaves, flowers, and young fruit, and are 



78 

somewhat difficult to deal with. Remedies : — Their ravages may to 
some extent be checked by dusting powdered lime over the trees. 
Spraying with a solution of London Purple, or with tobacco, elder, or 
walnut-leaf water will also help to keep them under. 

Cherry Borer (^Maroga gigantella). — This is a troublesome moth, the 
larvae of which is very destructive to Cheriy and Peach, as also Plum 
trees. The perfect insect is small, white, with a black spot on each 
wing. The larvae first tunnels under the bark, then bores into the heart 
of the tree, and is indicated by sawdust excrescences. It is very 
powerful, is about an inch long, and bores very quickly. Remedies : — 
Syringing with kerosene emulsion, hot water, and phenyle. 

Cherry Boher. 




Fig 1. Branch with sawdust-like excrescences showing the effects of the 
grub. 2. Larvse working in its bore. 3. Larvse (natural size). 4. Perfect 
insect (natural size). 



79 

Crickets {Gryllus servillei). — These insects are sometimes very- 
troublesome in orchards and vineyards, as they eat the bark of the 
stems and branches, and often to such an extent that the trees are 
destroyed, or very seriously injured. Trees can. in a large measure, be 
protected from their ravages by enclosing the trunks with pieces of tin, 
so as to form smooth sides, up which the insects cannot travel. As a 
matter of course, no space should be left between the tin and the bark 
through which they may crawl. A mixture of soft-soap, sulphur, quassia, 
and Paris Green or London Purple is a good preventive. Take soft- 
soap and quassia at the rate of two ounces each to every gallon of water, 
and add the arsenical poison in the proportion of one ounce to every ten 
gallons. Paint the trees or vines so that they will receive a good coating. 
Crickets may also be kept under by poisoning them with a mixture of 
arsenic and bran sprinkled on the ground. 

Elephant Beetle (^Orthorrhinus cylindrirostris). — A very destructive 
insect, belonging to the Weevil family. The perfect insect is dark- 
brown, marked with patches of jireyish-white, and rather less than an 
inch in length. The grub is yellowish-white, with a reddish-brown 
head. Great ravages are caused by the insect in its larvae stage, boring 
into the branches of the Apricot, Peach, Orange, Vine, and other fruit 
trees or shrubs. Remedies : — The only successful method, as far as is 
known, for checking this pest is hand-picking. Possibly, spraying 
with some powerful solution might prove useful, as in the case of other 
borers. 



Elephant Beetle. 






Fig. 1. Full-grown larvae. 2. Pupa. 3. Perfect insect, Male. 4. Perfect 
insect. Female (side vie^v). 



80 

Green Beetle (Diphucephala collaspidoides). — This is a very trouble- 
some insect in various parts of Australia, and more particularly in sandy 
soils. It belongs to the well-known "■ Cockchafer " family, a very 
destructive class of insects in European orchards. Green beetles make 
their appearance in great numbers, rapidly destroy the leaves of any 
trees they may attack, and they specially aftect Cherries and Plums. 
The insect is about one-third of an inch in length, and in colour a 
bright shining green. It usually makes its appearance in the early 
summer and remains till the end of the year, when it lays its eggs and 
dies. Remedies : — Spraying with kerosene emulsion, Bordeaux: Mix- 
ture, and tar water will help to destroy them, as will also boiling water. 
Sulphur fumes will cause them to drop from the trees, and when lying 
on the ground they may be destroyed by rolling, beating, or burning. 
The insects should be invariably attacked while young, being then more 
easily destroyed. 

Mealy Bug (Dactylopins), various species. — A well-known and very 
troublesome small insect, which is covered with a thick powdery sub- 
stance, hence its common name. It is often troublesome to Oranges and 
other evergreen trees. Remedies : — Kerosene emulsion and strong 
tobacco water sprayed over the trees. 



Mealy Bug. 





Insect with meal removed (highly 
magnified). 



Insect in natural state (magnified). 



Harlequin Beetle (Diyidymvs versicolor). — Rather handsome little 
insects, about half-an-inch in length, and richly maiked with yellow, 
orange, red, and black. They are natives of Australia, and with other 
species of the same family are widely distributed. They are said to 
cause trouble by puncturing the skins of Apples, extracting the juice, 
and causing the fruit to spot. Remedies : — Use lime freely, and tar 
water ; also shaking the trees, to cause the insects to fall, collecting 



81 



them in sheets, and spraying with benzole. "When the fruit is too far 
advanced for the trees to be shaken, the insects can be made to fall 
freely bv making a dense smoke under them. 

Harlequin Beetle. 




Ficf. 1. Insect at work upon fruit. 2. Adult Male (natural size). 
3. Adult Female (natural size). 4. Adult Female (under view). 5. 
Insect two-thirds grown. 6. Section of fruit showing effects of insects. 

Pear and Cherry Slug (Selandria cerasi). — This insect, known also as 
the Slug Worm, is one of the " Saw flies,'* and is very destructive to 
Pear and Cherry trees. The perfect insect is about a quarter of an inch 
long, with a shining black body and transparent wings. The larvse, or 



82 

slug, is about half-an-inch lon^, dark green in colour, and slimy. The 
insects feed upon the leaves of Cherries and Pears, which are often injured 
by them. Remedies -.—Spraying with kerosene emulsion before the fruit 
is far advanced in growth and dusting with lime. Hellebore as a spray 
or powder. 

Pear and Cherry Slug. 




Fig. 1. Showing larvse upon 
insect (natural size). 



a leaf. 2. Larvse (natural size). 3. Perfect 



Hed Spider (Tetranychus telarius). — This is a well-known minute 
insect pest belonging to the Mite family, which is sometimes found 
on fruit trees, and more especially Plums and Peaches. They are very 
small, make their appearance in large numbers, and spread rapidly. 
Remedies : — Tobacco water, soft-soap and quassia in equal proportions. 
The writer can also recommend for this pest, and many others, that 
boiling water be poured over leaves of the Elder {Samhucus nigra) and 
allowed to stand for two or three days, when it may be applied with a 
syringe or sprayer. It is a powerful and economical insecticide for any 
of the Aphides, Mites, and other small pests. 

Red Spider. 





Fig. 1. Young insect (highly magnified). 2. Perfect insect, Male (highly 
magnified). 3. Perfect insect. Female (highly magnified). 



83 



» * 




4. Insects (slightly magnified). 5. Webs with eggs, dry and moist (highly 
magnified). 

Rutherglen Fly Pest. — This pest, which caused such consternation 
two or three years ago, and more especially in the Rutherglen district, 
Victoria, is said to be a species of RhyparochromuSy and belongs to the 

EUTHERGLEN BEETLE. 




Fig. 1. Branch of Cherry with insects 
working. 2. Insect (slightly magni- 
fied). 3. Insect (highly magnified). 



84 



family called Wood-bugs. It is closely allied with what the Americans 
call the '' False Chinch Bug," a veiy troublesome insect. The Ruther- 
glen species is small, but very destrwctive, as it appears in large 
numbers and spreads rapidly. The insect acts by piercing through the 
skin of the fruit and sucking the juices, which causes it to shrivel up. 
It attacks nearly every kind of summer fruit, and is especially destruc- 
tive to Apricots, Peaches, Plums, Cherries, and Grapes. Mr. French, 
Entomologist, Victorian Department of Agriculture, says that benzole 
alone seemed to be the only thing which had the merit of instantly 
destroying the pest without injury to the fruit. 

Scale. — There are a great number of insects known under the name 
of Scale, and they belong to various families. Many fruits have their 
own particular Scale insects ; while some of these pests are cosmopolitan 

Prominent Types of Scale Insects. 



Common Scale (Lecanium). 



Mussel Scale (Aspi- 

ODOTIS). 





1. Insects (natural size). 2. Insect (greatly 
magnified). 

Oyster Scale (My::laspis). 



1. Egors in shell (highly 
magnified). 





2. Insects (natural size). 



Fig. 1. Perfect insect (natural size). 2. Perfect 
insect (highly magnified). 3. Scales (highly 
magnified). 4. Branch of tree showing scales 
natural size. 



85 



in their ravages, and attack indiscrioiinately 
various trees. They are all very injurious, 
as they suck the juices from the plants to a 
great extent. Remedies : — The Scale insects 
are rather difficult to deal with, owing to 
their hard shells or coverings. Kerosene 
emulsion, made rather thick, is one of the 
most effective applications. Common starch, 
mixed as by laundresses, is a favourite remedy 
with some. The stems and branches of 
affected trees should also be painted with a 
thick lime wash, with soft-soap added at the 
rate of half-a-pound to the gallon. 

Slugs and Snails. — These pests are often 
very troublesome, and more particularly in 
moist weather and in old gardens. They are, 
however, easily detected, and can generally 
be kept under with little difficulty by fre- 
quently dusting lime or soot over the surface 
soil, or occasionally giving a light sprinkling 
of salt. 

Thrips. — This is a wsll-known genus of 
minute and destructive insects, which in- 
cludes a number of species. They attack 
many kinds of plants, the perfect insects and 
larvae being generally found underneath the 
leaves. Their action is to suck the sap from 
the leaves, and consequently injure the trees. 
They are rather difficult insects to deal with. 
Kemedies : — Dusting with powdered 
sulphur when the leaves are wet. 
Syringing with soft soap and water 
made rather thick, and used when 
warm. Spraying with water in which 
Elder leaves have been steeped. The 
stems of the trees and branches, as 
far as practicable, should also be 
painted with a mixture of soft-soap, 
sulphur, and lime, in about equal 
proportions. 

White Ants. — These are very 
troublesome pests to fruit-growers 
in some districts, and often do much 
damage to buildings and trees. 
Remedies : — Making several holes 
round their nests from 9 to 12 inches 
deep, pouring into each a wine- 
glassful of bi-sulphide of carbon, and 
then covering them tightly. Another 



Cottony Cushion Scale 

(JCEHYA PURCHASi). 




Insects (slightly magni- 
fied). 

Thrips. 




Fig. 1. The Larva (highly magni- 
fied). 

Ficr. 2. Perfect Insect (highly 
magnified) . 

Fig. 3. 'Side-view of Head (highly 
magnified). 



86 



plan is to make a paste of sugar and 
ai-senic, in equal proportions ; spread 
on a piece of soft deal board, which 
should be lightly buried near to 
where the pe^ts are troublesome. 
They will soon find out the piece of 
board, and the paste will poison them 
in great numViers. 

Wood-lice. — The common wood- 
louse (Oniscus asellua) is a well-known 
insect that is sometimes troublesome 
in Strawberry plantations, but other- 
wise causes little damage in orchards 
or Imit gardens. It is from half to 
three-qaarters of an inch in length, 
with a flat body, and 14 feet. In 
colonr it is a brown, slaty blue, and 
the back forms a shell. Bemedies : — 
Poisoning with solations of arsenic, in 
which potatoes, parsnips, or other 
roots have been cooked. These should 
be placed near the haunts of the 
insects. 




Fig. 4. Leaf showing Insects (natural 

size). 
Fig. 5. Perfect Insect with wings 

spread (highly magnified). 



Useful IvsEcm. 

Though the fruit-grower is troubled by a large number of injurious 
insects, yet there are others, though the list is limited, that are useful 
The more prominent among these friendly insects are the true Lady- 
birds, which embrace a number of species, the family being known 
scientifically as the Coccinellidce. These insects, both in the adult and 
larvae or young state, wage incessant war with the various kinds of 
Aphides and Si^IC; and they materially assist in keeping these pests 
under. All the family are very active and voracious, and they will 
rapidly devour large numbers of the insects they prey upon. They are 
widely distributed over the world, and some fifty distinct species are said 
to be found in Australasia. The following species are the most useful and 
common of those to be found in Victoria and New South Wal*:8 : — 

Oreus AtLgtraUuue. — ^A steel-blue species, the larvse of which eats with 
avidity the orange and other scale insects, and various kinds of aphides. 
In colour the larvae is black, with a whitish line extending throughout 
its length, and is a little more than a quarter of an inch long. The 
perfect insect Is a steel-blue beetle, with bright red spots. 

Orcut ckalybeus, another small steel-blue species, is also an effective 
enemy to various scale insects It is exceedingly voracious, and carries 
on an active wmHaxe against the pestv it preys npoo. 

Lets eonformis is a rather large specief, with large dots, which eats 
with avidity the orange and other kinds of aphi^, as also the American 
or Woolly Blight that affieeU Apple treesn 



87 

Verariia crenata and Ualyzia galbula are two of the more conspicuous 
species found in the warmer parts of Australia, and both do good service 
as destroyers of aphides. Many other useful species might be named, 
but a complete list would only be suitable for an entomological work. 
The true Lady-birds have strongly convex backs, and the ground colour 
is either red, yellow, or blue. When the ground colour is red or yellow, 
the spots or markings are generally black — if the ground colour is blue, 
the markings are red or yellow. The insects are prolific, and the females 
lay their eggs in patches of from twenty to a hundred, on the stems or 
beneath the leaves of plants, and they generally choose those affected 
with plant lice or Scale. The eggs are very small, oval, and generally 
pale yellow, but in some species the colour is deeper. Considering the 
great service these friendly insects perform for fruit-growers, they 
deserve to be better known and protected, and their increase and distri- 
bution should be encouraged in every possible way. 



Useful Lady Birds. 



# 




^ , 



!♦'* 



f^ 



Fig, 1. Halyzia galbula (hic^hly magni- 
fied). lA. Ditto (natural size). 



Fig. 1. Orcus Australasitv (highly mag- 
nified). 1a. Ditto (natural size). 




Fi}5r. 1. Verauia frenata (highly 
magnified). 1a. Ditto (natu- 
ral size). 




Fig. 2. Pupa enveloped in larval skin 
(highly magnified). 2a. Ditto (natural 
size). Fig. 3. Larviv (highly magni- 
fied). 3a. Ditto (natural size). 



88 










Fig.l. Leis eonformis (liiofhiy magnified). 
1a. Ditto (natural size). Fig. 2. 
Larvae (natural size). Fig. 3. Pupa 
(natural size). 



Fig. 1. Orcus chalybeus, female 
(magnified). 2. Head and 
prothorax of male. 1a. 
Ditto (natural size). 



There is, however, one group of this family embracing several species, 
and known scientifically as the Upilachnince, which are leaf-eating 
insects, and very injurious to certain plants. They are great nuisances 
to potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and several other 
plants, which they feed upon voraciously, both in their larvae and adult 
stages. These insects are often mistaken for useful speciep, and 
encouraged to spread. On the other hand useful species are often con- 
demned and destroyed in the mistaken belief that they feed in the same 



Injurious Lady Birds. 





Epilachna 28-punctata, Leaf-eating 
Ladybird (highly magnified). 



Fig. 1. Epilachna guttato-pustulata 
(highly magnified). 1a. Ditto (natural 
size). 



89 





"^ Epilachna 28-punctata, side-view Larva of Epilachna 28-punctata 
(magnified). side-view (magnified). 




Pumpkin leaf showing ravages of Epilaclma. 



way as the plant-eating group. They are somewhat difficult to 
distinguish from the useful kinds by the ordinary cultivator, and the 
safest plan will be to take notice of the habits of any particular kind 
before coming to a conclusion. When it is necessary to destroy injurious 
Lady-birds the most effective means will be to spray with an arsenical 
solution. 

Fungi Injurious to Fruits. 

Fruits often are serioudy affected by fungi, and cultivators should 
therefore adopt all practicable means for keeping these pescs under. 
Some of them may be checked materially, if remedial measures are 
taken before the evil is wide-spread ; but others again cannot be so 
readily dealt with. The kinds of injurious fungi are numerous, and 
many are, unfortunately, too familiar to cultivators, but others again are 
less known, and very frequently their presence is unsuspected. As a 
matter of course, the writer does not propose, in a book of this kind, to 



90 



mention all the known species of fungi that are injurious to vegetation, 
but merely a few of those that are best known and most troublesome to 
fruit-growers. Some of these are more or less cosmopolitan in attacking 
various fruits, others again confine themselves to single kinds or 
families. These latter will be dealt with in the special articles upon the 
different kinds of fruits, and those only are noticed, in this part of the 
work, that are troublesome to various families. But though the list 
named may not be so complete as some would wish, yet cultivators must 
bear in mind that the treatment recommended for those mentioned is 
also applicable to many others. 

Black Knot. — This is a peculiar and con 
spicuous excrescence sometimes found on stone Black Knot. 

fruit trees, and more especially the Plum and 
Cherry. It is rather troublesome to fruit- 
growers in Europe and America, but is but 
little known in this part of the world. There 
is some uncertainty as to what causes the 
disease, as authorities are divided in opinion as 
to whether it is brought about by insects or 
fungi. But the weight of authority is in 
favour of the fungoid theory. The knots vary 
in size, ranging from half-an-inch to twelve 
inches, or more, in length. The excrescence is 
generally on one side only of the branch, which 
it usually kills in time. The name is derived 
from the fact that the knots assume a dark 
colour in the winter, and the outer surface 
hardens. Remedy : — The only eff'ective way 
of dealing with the evil is to cut the 
excrescences away with a sharp knife, taking 
care to burn them, so that the fungus germs 
are effectively destroyed, or otherwise the 
disease will again make its appearance very 
quickly. The cut parts of the branches should 
be painted over with a composition of lime and 
sulphur in equal proportions, with a small 
quantity of kerosene added. 

Fusicladiiims. — These are a very common 
and troublesome class of fungi, embracing 
several species, which cause serious injury to 
many fruits, and more especially Apples and 
Pears. Commonly the fungus is known as 
" Scab." They make their appearance on the 
leaves of the trees in the spring in the form of 
little dark dots. These afterwards appear upon 
the young fruit, often in patches, which have the 

appearance of scabs. The fungus grows upon the fruit, which is conse- 
quently rendered more or less worthless. "Remedies : — Soap and sulphur, 
bluestone and ammonia, green vitriol. 




91 

Mildew. — Various fungi pass under the name of Mildew, and some 
are widely different in appearance and effects to others, and as a 
matter of course the same remedies cannot be generally employed. 
The greatest trouble to fruit-growers is caused by two of these fungi, 
which are peculiar to the Grape, and though they are quite distinct, 
yet both are popularly known as " Vine Mildew," or " Vine Moulds" - 
Different kinds of Mildew affect other fruits, more or less, and some- 
times cause considerable injury. This class of fungi, as a rule, increase 
with great rapidity, and one tree may soon affect others. They are also 
readily spread by means of affected plants from one locality to another. 
But in most cases, where mildew is troublesome, there are predisposing 
causes. These causes, as in the case of Canker, are various, and may be 
induced by anything that lessens the vital energy of the plants. Probable 
causes are over-bearing, lack of nourishment, want of drainage and 
severe drought. Starved fruit trees and soddened roots may be con- 
sidered the chief predisposing causes, Remedies : — In the first place, if 
there are any likely predisposing causes, they must be promptly 
removed, and the trees placed under more favourable conditions for 
growth. The best specifics for most kinds of fungi are lime and 
sulphur. These may be used separately, or blended in equal propor- 
tions, and applied by dusting the affected plants. Another way of 
applying these remedies is to take 1 lb. of freshly-slaked lime, and the 
same quantity of sulphur, adding six pints of water. Mix thoroughly 
and boil over a brisk fire for ten minutes, taking care to stir all the 
time. Allow the liquor to cool, and for each pint of the solution add 
six gallons of water, and apply as a spray. Particular care must be 
taken to deal with Mildew as soon as it makes its appearance, as all 
kinds, if allowed to make much headway, are not easily driven away. 

Bust. — Several species of fungi are known under the general term 
" Rust," and they are distinguished by the addition of the name of the 
plant they mostly affect. Various fruits are affected \vith their parti- 
cular *' Rusts," the most troublesome being one that appears on Peaches, 
Almonds, Apricots, and Plums, commonly known as " Peach Rust." 
When the fungus is present, the affected leaves become freckled with 
yellow spots, and these sometimes unite so as to form large patches. 
As a matter of course, the tissue of the leaves is injured, and they fall 
to the ground. Sometimes the fruit is also affected by the fungus, to 
its great detriment. Remedies : — Sulphate of iron or green vitriol as a 
spray. Bluestone and lime as a spray. 

Sooty Blight. — This fungus is often found upon evergreens, and more 
particularly on the leaves of trees of the Citrus family. A good many 
people suppose that this black matter is caused by ants, but such is not 
the case. Ants are really useful scavengers to the trees, as they assist 
in some measure in keeping down other small insects. In reality the 
soot fungus is mainly caused by the Scale insects, as it is developed on 
their sugary secretions. It also makes its appearance upon the secre- 
tions left by Aphides. Remedies : — Get rid of the insects mentioned, 
and the Sooty Blight will necessarily disappear. Its disappearance will 
also be facilitated by dusting powdered lime over the trees. 

G 



92 



Shot-hole Fungus. 




Branch of Apricot, with Fruit, showing the effects. 
Shot-hole Fungus ( Phyllosticta circumcissa). — This is unfortunately a 



93 

too well-known and very troublesome fungus, that often causes great 
injury to stone fruit trees, and more particularly the Apricot. The 
fungus affects both the leaves and the fruit, and the former have the 
appearance of being riddled by shot, hence the common name. It is 
somewhat difficult to keep under, and this can only be done by constant 
attention. Remedies: — Spraying with (1) Bordeaux Mixture, (2) Eau^ 
Celeste, (3) Ammonia — Carbonate of Copper. Each will be found fairly 
effective. They should be used by several applications, and the first one 
ought to be given just as the leaf buds are beginning to swell. When 
the leaves are about half grown a second spraying may be given, and 
further applications every two or three weeks, as may be necessary. 
Care should be taken to use the same preparation through the season. 
Though there appears to be no absolute cure for this fungus, yet by the 
judicious application of the remedies named its injurious effects may be 
materially reduced. 

Diseases Injurious to Fjruits. 

Canker. — Fruit trees often suffer from various diseases, in addition to 
the attacks of insects and fungi. One of the most destructive of these 
diseases is what is rather vaguely known as " Canker," which unfor- 
tunately is widely spread in this part of the world. The disease is 
somewhat variable in form, and affects trees in different ways ; but the 
effects are always injurious. Canker may be confined to a particular 
branch, or may affect a tree generally, and sometimes it makes its 
appearance on the stems or roots. This disease may be caused by 
various means, and is very difficult to prevent or cure. One of the 
principal causes is lack of proper drainage and deleterious matter in 
the soil, as under such conditions there is a derangement in the 
circulation of the sap. Excessive growth may cause canker, and more 
especially if it is prolonged till much later than the proper period. 
Consequently, when water is used too freely, by means of irrigation or 
otherwise, this disease is not unlikely to make its appearance. Gross 
shoots that have not ripened their wood properly before the appearance 
of frosts are liable to injury in the form of a variety of canker. An 
over-supply of manure may also cause the disease to make its 
appearance. Possibly, the most common cause of canker in this part of 
the world is the extremes of dryness and moisture that the trees 
experience. During a severe drought, when the soil is exhausted of its 
moisture, the roots are dried up, and the sap flows slowly, while the 
bark shrinks more or less. When rain sets in the trees are suddenly 
flushed with sap, the circulation is active, the cells are often ruptured, 
and canker follows. The disease may be also caused by the scorching of 
the bark of the stems by the sun, and more especially in the case of 
young trees. When the scorching takes place the temperature of the 
sap is raised to a considerable extent, and the circulation is materially 
affected. To avoid this risk the stems of young trees should be 
invariably protected from the sun till their heads are large 
enough to afford a sufficient shade. Canker is sometimes caused 



94 

by severe and careless pruning and the exposure of rough 
wounds to atmospheric influences. Root canker is often caused by the 
non-removal of broken or bruised roots when the trees are planted. 
The disease may also, in some cases, be the result of insects that feed 
upon the bark and woody tissues. Fungi will sometimes be the cause, 
and it may be brought about by lichens and mosses growing upon the 
trees. As a matter of course a disease originating from such various 
causes, and affecting trees in different ways, cannot be treated by any 
general remedy. When branches are affected they should be amputated 
when practicable. Shoots that have their points touched should be cut 
back. Cankered roots should be cut away when practicable, and every 
effort ought to be made to prevent the disease from spreading. But 
when the trunks or roots are badly cankered, but little can be done 
towards saving the trees. The disease should be treated as soon as it 
can be detected, and predisposing causes must be avoided, as far as may 
be practicable. 

Fire Blight. — This is a disease whose origin is somewhat obscure, 
and there are various opinions as to the cauae. Some authorities 
consider that the disease germ is a species of bacteria, but others are 
of opinion that the cause is to be attributed to influences that affect the 
circulation of the sap. The writer's views are in accordance with the 
latter opinion, and a long experience has convinced him that it is a 
feasible one. In the summer, sometimes, when the sun is very powerful, 
and the bark of the trees exposed, the sap becomes unduly heated. 
When this occurs the sap does not circulate under normal conditions, 
and consequently becomes more or less poisoned. This poisoned sap 
will show in patches, which spread rapidly, and the wood and foliage 
dry up. Trees that are affected have a withered, blighted appearance, 
as if scorched by fire, and hence the name, *' Fire Blight." Sometimes 
the disease attacks a tree in various places, and cause its death. In 
other cases it confines its attacks to a few branches, which are destroyed, 
though the tree in other parts is not affected. The disease is more 
especially prevalent among pear trees, though its ravages are not 
confined to them alone, as is generally supposed. As regards remedies 
there are none, so far as is known. Possibly its ill-effects may be 
reduced to a minimum by carefully training and pruning, so that the 
foliage will afford effective shade to the stems and branches. In the 
case of young trees, whose heads are not large enough to afford perfect 
shelter, the stems should be protected by artificial means during the 
hottest portion of the year. When the disease appears on the branches 
they should be cut back some distance beyond the affected parts, so as 
to get rid of as much of the poisoned wood as possible. 

Gumming.— 'l^h\B is one of the most troublesome diseases with which 
fruit-growers have to contend, and, unfortunately, it is very common 
in this part of the world, as also in Europe and America. The disease is 
confined to stone fruits, and it more particularly affects the Apricot, 
Peach and Cherry. It is caused by the glutinous sap exuding from 
wounds or cracks in the bark and forming masses of gum, hence 
the name. The causes of this disease are not known with certainty. 



95 

and no thoroughly effective remedy for it has been found. One of the 
causes appears to be over-luxuriant growth and an excess of sap. Severe 
pruning undoubtedly is a cause of the disease, and more especially when 
large branches are removed. The disease may also be induced by the 
action of boring or bark-puncturing insects. In fact, wounds of any 
kind in wood more than one year old encourage the direct exudation 
of sap and the formation of masses of gum. The only means by which" 
gumming can be reduced to a minimum is to practise systematic 
summer pruning, and avoid winter cutting as far as is practicable. The 
wounds made in the young shoots are small and heal quickly during the 
period when growth is active, consequently there is little or no loss of 
sap. When large wounds have necessarily to be made they should, 
without delay, be painted over with some composition that will prevent 
the exudation of the sap, and atiord protection from sun, wind and rain. 
A good composition is formed by a mixture of two parts resin and one 
of shellac, melted together, with a little tallow added. Though there is 
no absolute cure for the disease, it will be advisable to scrape off the 
gum masses upon affected trees, and paint over the parts that were 
touched with the composition. 

Leaf Galls. — These may be caused either by the attacks of insects or 
fungi, and though in most cases they are not sufficiently numerous to 
materially affect the vigour of the plants, yet sometimes they cause 
serious injury. Their formation necessarily causes a derangement of the 
circulatory system, more or less, and though only certain parts of the 
foliage may be affected, yet the plant loses in vigour. Then, again, 
these galls afford breeding grounds for the development of particular 
insects and fungi. Whenever galls make their appearance, if few in 
number, and they can be easily reached, it will be advisable to remove 
the affected leaves by hand and burn them, so as to destroy the germs 
of whatever may have caused the trouble. If this plan is not practic- 
able, as will be the case with large trees, or when the galls are very 
numerous, the affected plants should be frequently sprayed with some 
solution for insects or fungi, as the case may demand. Bordeaux Mix- 
ture and Kesin compound are effective remedies, as are also fresh slaked 
lime and sulphur dusted over the foliage. 

Root Galls. — Trees are often troubled with excrescences that form 
upon the roots and small fibres, which consequently are unable to perform 
their proper functions, and the plants perish sooner or later. On their 
first appearance they are in the form of small swellings or " galls " of 
various shapes, and they sometimes increase in size up to the diameter 
of half-an-inch or more. Some plants will succumb in a few weeks after 
they are attacked, but, on the other hand, strong, well-established trees 
may be able to withstand the disease for several years. But the vitality 
of the strongest trees will steadily decrease after they are attacked, and 
they will gradually die off. The cause of this disease is due to Nematode 
worms of various species which establish themselves in the soil. These 
insects, commonly known as Thread Worms, or Flask Worms, are very 
minute, and their mode of action is to bury themselves in the roots, and 
whenever this is done *' galls " are formed. As the insects increase 



96 

with great rapidity, they are always found in large numbers, and 
consequently trees are attacked in many of their roots at the same time. 
There is some uncertainty as to whether the same worm attacks different 
plants, or if each one has its own special insect. When land becomes 
infested with these worms it is not an easy matter to destroy them, as 
they spread rapidly, and are very tenacious of life. In fact, some species 
can remain dormant for years, and then resume activity. Leaf, bark or 
fruit-destroying pests that can be seen and got at are comparatively easy 
to deal with ; but these Nematode worms may be classed as dangerous 
enemies that are difficult to destroy. When trees are affected it will 
be advisable to uproot them at once, as there is no known cure. In 
this way it may be possible to destroy the worms if they are 
merely local. But when the insects are spread through a large 
area, to destroy them is a difficult matter. Possibly the most 
effective way of coping with the evil is to keep affected land free 
from vegetation for a time, so that through lack of sustenance the 
insects will die out. This cannot be done without the destruction of the 
trees or other plants, but even this heroic remedy is necessary, or 
otherwise the worms may spread over large areas. Various chemicals 
in solution have been recommended, but they are somewhat uncertain 
in their action, and are open to the objection that they may poison the 
soil as well as the worms. Possibly some effective means of destruction 
may be discovered and it will be well if such is the case, as the evil is 
serious, though not generally known. Without doubt many trees die 
from the attacks of these Nematode worms in what appears often a 
mysterious way, and the true cause unsuspected. 



Various Forms of Fruit Tree Poot Galls. 




-A' ■• 






Fig. 



€rrape. 




Peach. 



Boot hot. — This disease, which often causes serious trouble, is most 
commonly caused by fungi, though sometimes it is due to insects. 



97 

There are various kinds of fungi that cause the trouble, some confining 
themselves to particular plants or families, while others take a wider 
range. In most cases these parasites attack plants that are wanting in 
vigour from some cause, in preference to those that are robust and 
healthy. Sometimes, however, they attack trees that are perfectly 
healthy. The effects of root rot are very injurious, and if unchecked 
the affected plants must sooner or later perish. The disease is ratEei~ 
difficult to cure and ordinary remedies are somewhat uncertain in their 
action. One remedy is to carefully amputate all diseased pieces of roots 
before the malady has obtained a strong hold. When plants are badly 
affected the better plan is to root them up altogether. But even after 
the plants are removed it must be remembered that fungus germs may 
remain in the soil, and affect trees that have replaced those destroyed. 
Therefore, before replanting, it will be advisable to adopt any practicable 
means of destroying the germs of fungi. In the case of small fruits, 
such as Strawberries and Raspberries, which are prone to the attacks of 
root fungi, affected plantations should be entirely destroyed, and the 
land not used again for the same purpose for at least three or four 
years. It will also be advisable, when orchard trees have suffered from 
this disease, not to replant land if there are reasonable grounds for 
believing that it contains fungus germs. 

Sunburn. — This complaint, known also under the terms of 
" Sunstroke" and " Scalding," causes a considerable amount of damage in 
this part of the world, and more particularly in the case of young trees. 
It occurs on very hot days, when there is little wind stirring, and the 
full power of the sun falls on the bark of the trees. The effects may be 
noticed by patches of discoloured bark on the northern or sunny side of 
the trees. Very frequently in the case of young trees the bark is 
discoloured in a regular strip on the exposed sides. As to what extent 
this scorching affects the constitutions of the trees is not known with 
certainty, but it is reasonable to suppose that the abnormal excitement 
of the sap, which must necessarily take place, will prove injurious. 
Sometimes the burning is so severe that the affected bark is actually 
killed, and even the wood is often injured ; and such results are 
undoubtedly very injurious to the trees. Then, again, it must be 
remembered that dead or ruptured patches of bark afford harbour for 
the germs of insect and fungoid parasites. Many thousands of young 
trees in this part of the world are seriously, and sometimes fatally, 
injured from the effects of sunburn. In order to prevent injury it is 
advisable to keep the heads of trees low, and to arrange growth, as far 
as may be practicable, so that the wood will be effectively shaded by the 
foliage. When the heads of the trees are not large enough to afford 
the necessary shade, the stems should be protected by covering them 
during the hot weather. Strips of bark from small saplings make 
excellent coverings, and they have the additional advantages of being 
easily obtained in most localities, and they require no tying. Wrap- 
pings of canvas, straw or other materials may be used if most convenient. 
Care, however, must be taken to remove tne wrappings in the autumn, 
when the sun has lost some of its scorching power, as it is essential that 



98 

the bark of the trees should be exposed fully to the light for the greater 
part of the year. 

Insecticides and Fungicides. 

Fruit-growers are apt to be puzzled by the many remedies sug- 
gested by entomologists and vegetable pathologists for coping with the 
numerous insects and fungi that are injurious. They are also often 
uncertain as to the preparation of these remedies, and when and how to 
apply them in the most effective way. This want the writer proposes 
to supply, as far as is practicable, in the following remarks, but as a 
matter of course the subject has not been dealt with so exhaustively as 
some may consider desirable. The first essential in treating insect or 
fungoid pests is that the grower should clearly identify the particular 
one or the class it belongs to, in order that the proper remedies may be 
applied. This is a matter of primary importance, as without this 
knowledge time and materials may be wasted. The next consideration 
is how the various remedies, either simple or compound, can be most 
effectively applied. These specifics are used in the forms of powders 
for dusting, paste for painting, in a liquid form for spraying, and vapour 
or smoke. Consequently, the fruit cultivator must take care to utilise 
each form in the proper way, and in such a manner as will be productive 
of the best results. 

The remedies most commonly used at the present time for insects are 
based upon arsenic, petroleum, and pyr^thrum, or their compounds. 
The first of these classes acts upon the stomach and are serviceable 
against the mandibular insects or those with biting mouths. The second 
and third act by contact with the bodies of insects, and can be applied 
more generally. 

Alkaline Wash. — A useful preparation for destroying borers and 
other insects in the trunks of trees. It is made by mixing a strong 
solution of washing soda with soft soap till it has the consistency of 
paint. 

Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Carbonate. — This mixture has been 
used successfully to destroy Grape Mildew, Fusicladiums, and some 
borers. It is prepared as follows : — Three ounces of copper carbonate 
dissolved in one quart of ammonia. When used, dilute with 22 gallons 
of water. A weaker solution is made by using 28 gallons of water. Use 
as a fine spray. 

Benzole. — This remedy is the only proved effective one for the 
Kutherglen " Fly " pest, and its use is recommended against other 
insects that attack fruit as it is ripening. It kills insects by contact, 
and leaves no perceptible flavour upon the fruit. When used, the 
benzole must be kept well stirred, and distributed as a very fine 
spray. 

Bisulphide of Carbon. — A powerful and useful insecticide for many 
root-feeding insects and ants. Its vapour has a deadly effect upon 
insect life, and all other living animals, therefore it must be used with 



99 

caution. Apply it by making small holes round the affected trees ; and 
into each of these pour about half a wine-glass of the material. Being 
very volatile, the holes must be firmly covered up immediately, and the 
insecticide kept in tightly-corked vessels. It is a very cheap remedy, 
and this is a recommendation. 

Bluestone {Sulphate of Copper). — This material is used in several 
compound mixtures, as follows : — Bluestone and Ammonia, dissolve 1 lb. 
of bluestone in a gallon of warm water, then add IJ pints of ammonia 
and 20 gallons of water. Useful as a spray for Mildews, Rusts and the 
softer insects. Bluestone and Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda), 
dissolve 2 lbs. of bluestone in a gallon of water, and the same quantity 
of sodium carbonate, in separate vessels. Then add 1 J pints of ammonia 
and 30 gallons of water. Use as a fine spray. Useful specially for 
JB'usicladium or Scab Fungi j also for Mildews, Rusts and the softer 
insects. 

Bordeaux Mixture. — Bluestone, 5 lbs., dissolved in 4 gallons of warm 
water ; fresh slaked lime, 3 lbs., dissolved in 3 gallons of warm water. 
When cold, pour the lime-water into the bluestone solution, and 
thoroughly mix the ingredients. Add 20 gallons of water, and use in the 
form of a fine spray ; or may be dried without adding water, and used as 
a powder. Useful for vine and some other Mildews, Fusicladiums, Peach 
Rust, Black Spot on vines, and is also serviceable in dealing with some 
of the troublesome plant insects. If the arsenical product called 
" London Purple," which is obtained in the manufacture of aniline dyes, 
is added at the rate of 1 lb. to 100 gallons of the Bordeaux Mixture, the 
latter will be a still more effective application against insects. 

Carbolic Acid Emulsion. — A useful mixture used as a wash for bark 
Scales and Borers. It consists of one part carbolic acid to seven parts 
of a solution made of one pound of soap dissolved in two gallons of water. 

Caustic Soda and Potash. — One pound of concentrated lye, the same 
quantity of caustic soda, and half-a-pound of commercial potash. 
Dissolve in six gallons of water. This is an excellent wash for 
deciduous trees in the winter, as it materially assists in destroying 
insect and fungoid germs. 

Eau Celeste. — This consists of lib. sulphate of copper, IJ pints of 
ammonia, and 22 gallons of water. Dissolve the sulphate in 2 gallons 
of hot water, then add the ammonia, and afterwards the remainder of 
the water. Considered a good remedy for Black Spot in vines and 
various Mildews. Use as a fine spray. 

Eau Orison. — This is a popular remedy in some parts of Europe for 
various kinds of Mildew. It is made by mixing 31bs. of lime, the same 
quantity of sulphur, and 6 gallons of water, and boiling till reduced to 
2 gallons. When used dilute with 100 parts of water. Use as a fine 
spray. 

Elder-leaf Water. — An infusion of the leaves of the Elder (Sain- 
hucus) is a powerful, useful and excellent insecticide, that should be 
generally used. It is very effective for any kind of Aphis, Thrips and 
Red Spider. Take leaves fresh from the tree and pour over about 
twice their bulk of boiling water, covering the vessel to keep the steam 



100 

in. Let the leaves scak for 48 hours, then pour off the liquid, and 
apply as a fine spray. 

Hellebore. — Powder of hellebore, applied either dry or in a liquid 
fora), was formerly considered to be one of the most useful insecticides 
for Caterpillars and other soft-bodied pests, but now it appears to be less 
popular, though for no apparent reason, as it is very effective. Lightly 
dust the powder where necessary, or if required, apply as a spray ; mix 

1 lb. to 10 gallons of water. 

Kerosene. — This is one of the cheapest and most effective materials 
for destroying insect pests, and is also useful in checking the spread of 
some fungi. It is mostly used in the form of an emulson, in which 
soap is a prominent factor, and other materials may be added to effect 
special objects. Solutions may be made of different degrees of strength 
to suit various purposes. No 1 (strong) may be made by dissolving 

2 lbs. of soft or ordinary soap in 2 gallons of boiling water ; add 
2 gallons of kerosene while boiling hot, and churn violently till the oil 
is emulsified ; then add thirty gallons of water and use as a spray. This 
emulsion may be used for deciduous plants before growth commences, 
and on hard-leaved evergreens. No. 2 (mild) use the same proportion 
of soap and water, but only half the quantity of kerosene. This pre- 
paration will be better adapted for the more tender-foliaged trees. The 
blending of the oil with the soapy water will be facilitated by first 
mixing the kerosene with an equal bulk of milk and violently churning 
it. Kerosene emulsion is an excellent remedy for the Scale insects 
when sprayed or syringed over the trees. Various additions may be 
made to these emulsions to increase their effectiveness for particular 
purposes. Thus, 2 oz. of Balsam of Fir added to 20 gallons of the 
mixture will make the material more adherent to the surface of the 
leaves. A small quantity of carbolic acid will increase the effect upon 
some insects ; so will London Purple, in the proportion of 1 oz. to 20 
gallons. Kerosene mixed with castor, linseed or whale oil in the 
proportion of one part to four of oil makes a useful winter dressing 
for the trunks and branches of deciduous trees that are troubled with 
Scale. 

Lime. — This is a very serviceable insecticide, and may be used to 
advantage in various forms. Slaked lime is a good remedy for Cater- 
pillars, Slugs, Snails, Wood Lice, and other pests, when dusted over the 
foliage and under the trees. It also checks Scale insects to some 
extent, and facilitates the dispersal of the Sooty Blight upon Orange 
and other evergreen trees. It is useful also in combination with blue- 
stone, as previously stated. When mixed in the proportion of two 
parts to one of sulphur, with sufficient water to bring it to the consis- 
tency of a thick paint, adding half a pint of kerosene to 2 gallons, it 
makes an excellent dressing for the stems and branches of fruit trees. 
When painted with this mixture, many crevices, in which lurk the 
germs of insect and fungoid pests, will be filled, and their development 
prevented. It is an excellent practice to dress all fruit trees and vines 
with this mixture every year. Gas lime is useful when scattered over 
the ground in keeping down Slugs, Snails and other pests. 



101 

London Pur fie. — This is an active arsenical poison, which is very 
highly recommended by American authorities as a powerful insecticide 
against various plagues ; it is a by-product in the manufacture of dyes. It 
should be mixed at the rate of of 1 lb. to 200 gallons of water. Being 
a powerful poison, it must be used with care, and only while the fruit 
is very small or after it is gathered. Said to be one of the best remedies 
for the Codlin Moth and similar insects. 

Paris Green {Ar senile of Copper). — Another very active arsenical 
poison, which is strongly recommended by American entomologists. 
It may be prepared in the same way as London Purple, and used for 
similar purposes. As the powder does not dissolve, it must be kept 
well stirred while being used. It is an excellent insecticide for all 
classes of leaf and fruit-eating insects. Paris Green may also be used 
eflfectively in a dry state when mixed with wood ashes, lime or flour, 
and dusted over the affected parts. 

Pyrethrum, — The powder obtained from the flowers of two species 
of Pyrethrum has long been known as possessing powerful properties as 
an insecticide, and is largely used for dressing animals under the name of 
" insect powder." It is very effective with Aphides and other small 
insects, but it is too costly to be generally used. In using, sprinkle the 
powder over the affected plants by a dredger or the sulphur-bellows. It 
may also be used as a liquid in the proportion of one ounce ot powder 
to two gallons of cold water. Apply as a spray, and as the material 
is not poisonous may be used safely when fruit is advanced in 
growth. 

Quassia. — This gives a very bitter solution that is useful in keeping 
down the various species of Aphides and preventing their coming. 
Boil lib. of quassia chips in 3 gallons of water for two hours. Apply 
as a fine spray. 

Resin Compound. — This is formed by dissolving lib. of caustic soda 
in a gallon of boiling water. Take away half the mixture, then add 
81bs. of resin slowly to the remainder, keeping the whole boiling, and 
stirring rapidly. When thoroughly dissolved, slowly add that portion 
that was held back. Dilute with sufficient water till it will pass readily 
through a thin cloth. Before using increase the bulk to 30 gallons by 
the addition of water. Use with a fine syringe or spray. This is 
considered to be an excellent remedy for the Scale insects. Two ounces 
of London Purple added is said to make the compound still more 
effective. 

Salt. — This material may be used in moderate quantities to keep 
down Slugs, Snails and Caterpillars, by sprinkling it overground infested 
by these pests. Care must, however, be taken not to use it too freely, 
as though in moderate quantities it is beneficial to most soils, yet an 
excess may produce very injurious effects. 

Soap. — In various forms soap is very useful as an insecticide, and 
either the common or soft soap makes an excellent wash for trees, when 
diluted in hot water. They are also very serviceable when used in 
combination with kerosene, sulphur and other things. 

Soot. — This is useful as a substitute for lime when dusted over plants, 



102 

or around them, to keep down Caterpillars, Slugs or Snails. Rather more 
lasting in its effects than slaked lime. 

Sulphate of Iron {Green Vitriol). — This is said to be a very effective 
and cheap remedy for Mildews and Rusts. Mix at the rate of lib. to 5 
gallons of water. Apply as a spray when the atmosphere is damp, or 
in the evenings. This material may also be used in stronger solutions 
for watering the surface soil, where fungus germs are supposed to be. In 
addition to its value as a fungicide, sulphate of iron is also serviceable 
as a manure. 

Sulphur. — An old and excellent remedy for various fungi, and more 
especially the Oidium on vines, for which it is the most effective cure. 
Sulphur may be used as a powder dusted over the affected plants, or as 
a preventive. The fumes are also very effective when the sulphur is 
burnt, not only for fungi, but also with some of the smaller insects. 
Powdered sulphur may also be used with advantage in combination 
with soft-soap and lime. 

2W Water. — This is of some value as an insecticide, as it is very 
obnoxious to many pests, such as Caterpillars, Slugs and Wood Lice. One 
pound of tar to 50 gallons of water will yield a strong* solution, which 
may be used as a spray, or sprinkled over the surface soil, as may be 
necessary. 

Tobacco. — This is an old-fashioned but excellent insecticide, and may 
be applied with advantage to the Aphides and other soft small insects. 
It may be used as a powder, in a liquid form and as a vapour or smoke. 
Snuff or powder may be dusted over plants that are affected with any of 
the small "flies" with good effect. Tobacco water, made by steeping 
the leaves or stems in water for 48 hours, is a very effectual application 
when sprayed or syringed. The vapour or smoke, as a matter of course, 
can only be used effectively in an enclosed space, and is scarcely 
practicable by fruit-growers. Tobacco may also be used to advantage in 
combination with sulphur and soap. 

Walnut-leaf Water. — Though it is not generally known, the leaves of 
the Walnut yield an excellent insecticide that is very effective in keeping 
down Aphides, Red Spider, Thrips and other of the smaller pests. Take 
fresh leaves and pour over them about twice their bulk of boiling water ; 
let them soak for 48 hours, pour off the liquor and apply as a fine spray. 

There are also many excellent proprietary insecticides and fungicides 
which may be used with advantage by fruit-growers. 



FEUITS-SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 



ABOH. 
History. 

This fruit is obtained from two species of Vahea, florida and Owariensis 
(formerly known as Landolphia), a genus belonging to the natural order 
Apocynaceae or Dogbane family. They are strong-growing, climbing 
plants, indigenous to Western Africa, and adapt themselves to rather a 
wide range of elevation, being found on the high lands up to 2500 feet 
above the sea. The fruits are the size of small oranges or less, and have 
a sweet but slightly acid pulp, which is greatly relished by the natives. 
They are valuable as ornamental plants, as they produce abundantly, 
and in succession, large white jessamine-scented flowers. The species 
named, and others, also yield caoutchouc in great abundance, and are an 
important source of supply for this valuable materia). Aboh is the 
native African name. 

The order Apocynacese, like Solanacese, is remarkable for embracing a 
number of highly poisonous plants and others possessing wholesome 
properties. It includes the Oleander (Nerium)^ which is a deadly 
poison. The Periwinkle (^Vinca) is astringent and acrid, and others 
have similar properties. One of the most deadly plants of the order is 
Tanghinia venenata {Cerbera Tanghin), the famous Ordeal Tree of 
Madagascar, formerly used as a supposed test of the guilt or otherwise 
of those charged with certain crimes. On the other hand, another plant 
belonging to the family, Taherncemontana utilis, the Cow or Milk Tree of 
the West Indies, yields a wholesome juice, which is largely used as milk 
in Demerara and other places. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

Being natives of Western Africa, the plants that yield the Aboh 
fruit will only thrive in the warmer regions of Australia. The fruit is 
almost unknown in this part of the world, but might probably be found 
worth cultivating in a congenial climate. As the plants are strong 
feeders a rich deep soil is essential. When not naturally rich manure 
should be used freely in preparing the land. Being climbers the plants 
will require trellises or other suitable supports, and they are admirably 
adapted for covering fences and outbuildings in tropical or semi-tropical 
regions. Propagation is readily effected by seeds, which should be sown 
while fresh, covering them to the depth of half-an-inch. When the 



104 

young plants are a few inches high they may be planted out where 
required. Cuttings of the half ripened young shoots will strike freely in 
sand or light soil, under a hand glass, inserting them about an inch 
deep. Perhaps the easiest and surest means of raising plants is by 
layers, as the branches will root freely and quickly if simply covered 
with soil at the parts where they are wanted to strike. 

AFRICAN ALMOND. 

History. 

The plant called the African Almond is known botanically as 
Brahejum stellatifolium (^ stellatum )^ and it belongs to the natural order 
Proteacese or the Protea family. It is an evergreen shrub, or small 
tree, with long lanceolate leaves, and produces racemes of white, 
sweetly-scented flowers. There is some similarity between this plant 
and the Queensland Nut (Macada^nid), to which it is closely allied. The 
fruit or nuts have a hard outer shell, with a single kernel, which, when 
roasted, has a somewhat similar taste to the Chestnut. When eaten 
raw the nuts possess poisonous properties, but are considered wholesome 
after being roasted. The plant is indigenous to a wide area in South 
Africa, where it thrives in sandy and peaty soils. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

The African Almond can be utilised as an ornamental plant, as its 
foliage is very eflfective among other shrubs. It is a moderately hardy 
plant, and will adapt itself to various soils and climates. But it thrives 
best in a sandy or peaty soil. As, like most other plants belonging to 
the same order, it is capable of resisting the efTects of drought, it might 
be turned to account in the dry interior districts of Australia. Though 
the fruit is inferior in quality to many other nuts, yet the hardiness of 
the plant under certain conditions will cause it to be sei-viceable. 
Propagation may be eflfected by seeds, layers and cuttings. Seeds may 
be sown at any time, and should be covered to the depth of an inch. 
Notched layers will root freely if put down early in the spring or 
autumn. Cuttings of the ripened wood of the past season's growth, 
with the leaves left on, will rtrike freely in a frame or under a hand glass. 
They should be inserted about two inches deep in sand or light soil. 

AKEE. 
History. 
This is the fruit of Blighia sapida {Cupania sapida), an evergreen 
tree belonging to the natural order Sapindacese, or the Soapwort family, 
so called because the berries of a plant included in it (Sapindus 
saponaria) are used as soap in the West Indies. The same family 
embraces the Chinese fruits known as Longan and Litchi, and the well- 
known European Horse Chestnut. The Akee is a native of Western 
Africa, and was taken to the West Indies by Captain Bligh, who also 
introduced the Bread Fruit to that part of the world, and became still 



105 



more famous by the mutiny of the Bounty in the South Seas. The 
botanic name was given in honour of Captain Bligh. Akee is 
the native African name. It forms a handsome tree, with large, 
broad, shining leaves, and attains a height of thirty feet or more. 
The flowers are white, pro- 
duced in racemes from the 
axils of the leaves, and as 
they are very fragrant, can 
be utilised for perfumery. 
The fruit is as large as a 
goose e:gg, and of a reddish 
orange colour. It contains 
a yellowish pulpy flesh, in 
which are embedded three 
black seeds. The edible por- 
tion of the fruit has a plea- 
sant sub-acid flavour, and in 
the West Indies it is very 
popular. It is, however, 
considered to be most desir- 
able when cooked. 




Akee. 



Cultivation and Pkopagation. 

As the Akee is a tropical fruit it can only be successfully cultivated 
in the warmer parts of Australia. It is, however, said to be more 
hardy than many other tropical fruits, and to be even able to withstand 
slight frosts. In sheltered places on the eastern coast of Australia 
north of the Clarence River, this tree should thrive well, and it ought to 
be at home in the Northern Territory and any of the sub-tropic regions. 
It will thrive in any ordinary good soil, but does best in a rich open 
sandy loam. AVhenever the climate is congenial the tree is worthy of 
attention, owing to its handsome foliage and flowers, as an ornamental 
plant, independent of its value as a fruit. Propagation may be effected 
by seeds, layers or cuttings. Seeds should be sown soon after the fruit 
is ripe, covering them an inch in depth. Layering may be done at any 
time of the year, but the most favourable periods are early in the 
spring, and at the beginning of autumn. Cuttings of the youn^ 
shoots, when the wood is about half ripe, with the leaves left on, will 
strike freely in a frame or under a hand glass. They should be inserted 
about two inches deep in light rich soil or sand. 

ALMOND. 

History. 

The Almond will thrive in many parts of Australasia, but yields larger 
and more certain crops in the medium warm districts as a rule. It is, 
however, very unreliable in localities that are subject to late spring frosts. 
Botanically the Almond is known as Prunus Amygdalus {^Amygdalus 
communis of some botanists), and it belongs to the natural order 



106 

Rosacece, sub-order Amygdalece. In its natural state it is widely- 
distributed, being found in many parts of Western Asia, Northern 
Africa and Southern Europe. Some authorities consider that the 
Almond originally came from the same source as the Peach, both having 
similar foliage and wood, but upon this point the evidence is not clear 
enough to allow a definite conclusion. There are two classes of Almonds, 
known respectively as '' sweet " and " bitter," and these by some 
botanists are set down as separate species — the former being called 
Arrygdalus dulcis and the latter Amygdalus amara. The bitter Almond 
is somewhat more robust and hardy than the other kind, and the 
blossoms are larger and paler, but in other respects there is but little 
difference in the appearance of the trees. Both classes again embrace 
" hard " and '* soft " shelled varieties, the latter being the sorts mostly 
cultivated for commercial purposes. 

Uses. 

Sweet Almonds are largely used by confectioners, and are also 
commonly eaten with raisins and other dried fruits. Considerable 
quantities are raised for these purposes in Southern Europe and Syria, 
where the cultivation of the Almond is an important industry. Both 
the " bitter" and the "sweet" Almond, by pressure, yield a bland oil in 
large proportions, which is used extensively for culinary and other 
purposes. It must be remembered, however, that by distillation the 
bitter Almond yields a deadly poison, known as ''essential oil of almonds," 
and therefore great care should be taken that the refuse from the press is 
not placed in the way of children or farm stock. The material that 
remains after pressing the oil from the " sweet" Almonds makes excellent 
food for cattle, sheep or poultry, and may also be turned to account for 
flavouring confectionery and pastry. 

The cultivation of the Almond should prove profitable in many places, 
and more especially in the moderately warm districts. There is a 
considerable demand in the colonies for "soft" shell Almonds, and if in 
the future a surplus is produced a good market can be found in Europe. 
As an oil-yielding plant the Almond should also prove profitable, and 
for this purpose alone it deserves attention. If properly treated, the 
kernels will yield as high as 25 per cent, of their weight of excellent 
oil, which will always find a market, locally or otherwise. 

Cultivation. 

The trees will grow in any ordinary good soil, though they thrive to 
the greatest perfection in a rich, sandy loam of fair depth, with a 
gravelly subsoil. In preparing the land, let it be worked deeply, and 
more especially if it is heavy, compact soil. Drainage should also be 
provided for when necessary, as the Almond will not thrive in ground 
that is soddened for any length of time. The best time for planting is 
July or early in August, according to the locality, and care must be 
taken not to put the trees too deep in the ground. If planted in orchard 



107 

style, the space between the trees should be from 24 to 30 feet apart, 
according to the robustness of the variety and the nature of the soil. 
Almonds, and more especially the robust bitter varieties, make very 
effective breakwinds for orchards or vineyards when planted round the 
boundaries. When used for this purpose the trees may be planted about 
10 feet apart in the lines. In the case of young trees, some attention 
in pruning is necessary, so as to get strong and well-formed specimens 
quickly. Mature trees will require but little pruning, and may be left 
pretty much to themselves. Let the ground be kept as free from weeds 
as possible, and mulch the surface soil as far as the roots extend before 
the warm weather sets in. Propagation is effected as with the Peach, 
and for details see article upon that fruit. 

In making a selection of Almonds, the " sweet " soft-shelled varieties 
are the more desirable sorts, as their produce is most in demand. They 
also yield a larger weight of kernels, the proportion to the shells being 
about one-half. The weight of kernels in the hard-shelled kinds will 
range from 25 to 35 per cent. On the other hand, however, growers 
must remember that the soft-shelled sorts are more tender than the other 
class, and consequently are more liable to injury from frosts. They are 
also less robust in growth. Almonds should be gathered as soon as the 
husks or outer coverings have burst open. The best mode is to spread 
canvas under the trees and shake down the Almonds. They can generally 
be brought down by jarring the branches if they do not fall readily with 
an ordinary shaking. Removing the husks by hand is a slow and 
troublesome process, but there are machines of American manufacture 
that do the work cheaply and quickly. As a light colour is essential to 
meet market requirements, the Almonds are usually subjected to a 
bleaching process with sulphur. This treatment, however, must not be 
given till the Almonds are perfectly dry, and the process should only 
last about half-an-hour, or even less in some cases. There are a number 
of varieties belonging to the '' soft " shelled class to be found in nursery 
catalogues^ but the following list embraces all that are most deserving of 
attention : — 

Jordan {Tender-shelled^ Soft-shelled Sweet, Ladies'* Thin-shell). — 
This is one of the best soft-shell Almonds, and is largely used as a dessert 
fruit, also by confectioners. The shell is large and very tender ; kernel 
large, white, and sweet. Fruit ripens early. Tree robust, and bears 
well. Flowers very small, pale-red, and are produced at the same time 
as the leaves. Brand's Jordan, Large Paper Shell and Nonpareil Paper 
Shell are sub-varieties, and all excellent kinds. 

Large-fruited Sweet (Sweet Hard-shelled). — This is the only hard- 
shelled variety that is worthy of attention, as its kernels are used to 
some extent in confectionery, being somewhat stronger in flavour than 
the other sorts. The tree is also somewhat hardier and more vigorous. 
Seeds large, long and broad ; kernels large, sweet and well flavoured. 
Ripens very late. 

Pistache. — An early variety, highly esteemed in France and other 
parts of Europe, but not well-known in this part of the world. The fruit 
is smaller than the other kinds, the stone terminating in a sharp point, 

H 



108 



and is about the size and shape of a Pistachia nut CPistachia vera), 
hence the name. The shell is tender, but not so soft as the Jordan 
varieties, the kernel being sweet and well-flavoured. 

Sultana. — This is an excellent soft-shell Almond, somewhat similar 
to the Jordan, but not quite so large, and ripens a week or two later ; 
kernel sweet and well-flavoured, and largely used by confectioners in 
Europe. 

ANCHOVY PEAR. 

History and Uses. 

The Anchovy Pear is a West Indian fruit, produced by a tall, slender, 
upright tree, without branches, which attains a height of from 40 to 50 
feet. Botanically, it is known as Grias cauliflora, and it belongs to the 
Barringtonia section of the Myrtaceae or Myrtle family. The trunk of 
the tree is bare, and terminates with a crown of smooth, glossy, elliptical 
leaves, which are from two 
to three feet in length, and 
proportionately broad. Large 
white flowers grow out of 
the stem below the leaves. 
The fruit is large, oval in 
shape, brown russet in colour, 
and has a single kernel. It 
has a flavour somewhat simi- 
lar to that of the Mango, 
and is used in the same way 
as that fruit, when fully ripe, 
and in the form of a pickle 
when gathered green. The 
fruit is highly prized in the 
West Indies, but has not 
received much attention in 
other parts of the world. 




The Anchovy Pear — Grias Cauliflora. 



Cultivation and Propagation. 



This fruit being a native of a warm region can only be grown success- 
fully in the tropical or semi-tropical parts of Australia. It would thrive 
in localities where the Banana, Mango and Pine Apple will flourish. 
In suitable localities it might prove worthy of attention, and the fruit 
may, when better known, become popular. Like most tropical plants, 
this tree requires a rich soil, and will thrive to perfection in a sandy 
loam. It must also be well protected from high winds, and the most 
suitable locality for this tree is a sheltered valley. Propagation can 
only be practically eff'ected by seeds, though cuttings of the heads and 
stems will strike root under a glass or in a frame. Seed may be sown 
at any time of the year, covering it about two inches deep. Young 
plants from seed may be planted out the following season. 



109 



APPLE. 

The Apple is par excellence the principal fruit of the cooler regions of 
the world, being more widely used and generally cultivated than any 
other kind, and it remains longer in season. This fruit is very popular, 
and it is utilised in a variety of ways. When eaten raw the fruit is 
considered to be wholesome and refreshing by most persons, and, there- 
fore, it is in great demand. For culinary purposes the Apple is also 
consumed in large quantities, and is utilised in various ways. In some 
parts of the world considerable quantities of the fruit are turned to good 
account in a dried state, and in the shape of cider it supplies a staple 
beverage in some parts of England and other European countries, as 
also in the United States of America. The Apple will thrive to 
perfection throughout the larger portion of Australasia, and is more 
especially suited for the more elevated and cooler regions. It is a fruit 
deserving of greater attention from cultivators, as there is a large and 
rapidly-expanding home demand, and an outlet in the United Kingdom 
for any surplus that can be raised for many years to come. 

History of the Apple. 

The Apple belongs to the natural order Hosacece, or the Rose family 
(sub-order, Fomeoi), and is known botanically as Pyrus malus. The 
generic name is supposed to be derived from peren, the Celtic word for 
the Pear — a fruit to which the Apple is very closely allied. The 
common, or English, name is said to have originated from the Celtic 
apball or abhall, derived from ball in the same language, and signifying 
a round body. In its wild state the species is indigenous to the United 
Kingdom and throughout a large portion of Northern Europe. It is 
also found in a wild state in some parts of Northern Asia. In its wild 
state the fruit of the Apple is widely different in appearance and quality 
from the modern cultivated varieties, being small, astringent, acid and 
unpalatable. The wild fruit in England is commonly known as the 
"Crab Apple." There is no certainty as to when or where the first 
improvements originated, but, according to historical records, it must 
have been at a very early period. 

Pyrus coronaria, a robust species, yields the American " Crab 
Apple," and Pyrus rivularis^ also an American species, growing in the 
North-western portion of the continent, furnishes an edible fruit that 
is eaten by the Indians as food. Pyrus salicifolia, or amygdalceformis, 
a European species, also yields edible Apples. Possibly by cultivation 
these species might be improved, or they may be crossed with varieties 
of Pyrus malus. They might also prove serviceable for stocks if fairly 
tried. 

The Apple appears to have been well known and extensively used by 
the early Hebrews, Greeks, Romans and other ancient nations, as it is 
frequently mentioned by their writers. It is frequently referred to in 
the fables and traditions of these peoples. The allegorical tree of 



no 

knowledge, the fruit of which is supposed to have tempted Mother Eve 
in the Garden of Eden, is said to have borne Apples. Then, again, 
according to the legends of some of the old writers, the golden fruits in 
the orchard of Hesperus, which were guarded by a sleepless dragon, 
eventually slain by Hercules, were also Apples. Other ancient 
authorities, however, inform us that it is the Orange, and not the 
Apple, that is referred to in those legends. According to their 
historians, the Apple appears to have been extensively cultivated by the 
nations of antiquity. Cultural knowledge to some extent appears also 
to have advanced considerably among these people, as they practised 
several of the arts in propagation and otherwise that are now common 
with modern growers. The art of pruning appears to have been 
generally practised. Pliny informs us that the art of grafting was well 
known and largely practised in his time, and he speaks of its value in 
the most enthusiastic and extravagant terms. This writer also informs 
us that in the villages around Rome the culture of the A pple was a most 
profitable industry, and that single trees were often let for one season 
for a sum equal to about £2 10s. of our money, and gave a better 
return than could be obtained from an ordinary farm. This appears to 
be a somewhat highly-coloured statement, yet we must remember that 
Pliny is generally regarded as one of the most reputable and reliable of 
the ancient historians. 

In Britain the ancient Druids reverenced both Apple and Oak trees, 
for the reason that the Mistletoe grew upon them only. The Mistletoe 
being the only parasitical plant known to these people, from its habit of 
growing upon the trees named, was supposed to have a divine origin, 
and was consequently highly venerated. It must be understood that 
the only fruit known to the ancient Britons was the wild or Crab Apple. 
There is some uncertainty as to when the improved fruit was first 
known in Britain, but there is good reason for believing that the 
Romans when they invaded England introduced such varieties as were 
cultivated in their own country. For several centuries history is mute 
as to any progress that may have been made, and there are no reliable 
tecords till the reign of Henry YIII. We are informed that in the 
16th year of that monarch's reign Pippins were first introduced to 
England *' from beyond the seas." They were called pippins on account 
of the trees being raised from the pips or seeds, instead of being grafted 
plants. The first-named variety on record is the Nonpareil, which is 
said to have been taken to England from France in the time of Queen 
Mary. Gerard, in his " History of Plants," published near the end of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, mentioned six desirable kinds, including the 
*' Quoining" (Queening or Queen of Apples), Summer Pearmain, Winter 
Pearmain, Nonpareil, Costard and a dwarf sweet-fruited sort called 
Paradisus (Paradise). These names are still to be found in modern 
catalogues, but, except in the case of the last-mentioned one, it is 
doubtful whether they are identical with the original varieties. As 
regards the Paradise, the sort now known as such, and used as a stock 
for dwarf trees, seems to be identical with the kind mentioned by Gerard. 
This writer also speaks highly in praise of cider, though that beverage, 



Ill 

said to have been known at the time of the Norman Conquest, was not 
common in England till the reign of Charles I. This writer also 
informs us that *' there is made an ointment with the pulp of Apples, 
swine's grease and rose-water which takes away the roughness of the 
skin, and is called pomatum." In the cider districts of England it was 
formerly a common practice to salute Apple trees in the hope of obtaining 
a great crop the following season, and this custom existed quite recently 
in some places. The ceremony consisted in pouring a portion of the 
contents of a wassail bowl of cider, with a piece of toast in it, about the 
roots of the trees. Pieces of toast were also hung in the branches of the 
most barren trees, and the owner, with his family and servants, would 
dance around them and sing appropriate songs. A large round Apple 
called the Costard, from historical records, appears to have been the 
kind most generally grown in England before the better sorts became 
numerous. From this the old English term Costard Monger (now 
Costermonger) came to be applied to dealers who hawk fruit and 
vegetables for sale. 

Uses of the Apple. 

As to the various ways of utilising the fruit, and the inducements to 
the cultivation of Apples as a commercial speculation, I am of opinion 
that there is a wide and profitable field in Australasia. There is in all 
the colonies a large and increasing demand for fresh fruit, both for 
dessert and culinary purposes, which lasts throughout the year. After 
this demand is supplied, a good market can be found in the United 
Kingdom for any surplus that we may have to spare for many years to 
come. It has been already proved that Apples can be profitably 
shipped to England, and it is only a question of time for a large trade 
to be developed. In opening up and continuing this trade Australasian 
growers have the great advantage, owing to our seasons being different 
from those of Europe and America, of being able to place large quantities 
of fruit in the British market when the main supplies from other 
sources are exhausted. In some countries, and more especially the 
United States, it is a common practice to dry Apples, and in the last- 
named country the industry has assumed large proportions. American 
dried Apples are in great demand for home use, and large quantities are 
exported to various parts of the world. The practice of drying 
deserves the attention of colonial growers, who may by this means be 
enabled to utilise unmarketable varieties or avoid sacrificing fruit in 
glutted markets. There cannot fail to be a good home demand for 
dried Apples if once brought into general use, and after supplying our 
wants there is no reason why a large export trade should not be 
developed. The process of drying is simple, and may readily be carried 
out by any cultivator. If drying is carried out upon a large scale it 
will, as a matter of course, be most economically and effectively per- 
formed by means of *' evaporators " or ovens, through which currents 
of heated air extract the moisture from the fruit. On a small scale, 
when the climatic conditions are favourable, the produce may be 



112 

prepared by diying it in the sun. In either case the fruit — which must 
be sound — should be carefully peeled, cored and cut into slices about 
the eighth of an inch thick. When the fruit is thoroughly dry it should 
be packed away in air-tight cases, casks or jars, pressing the material 
firmly. The quantity of Apples required to make 1 lb. of dried fruit 
will vary to some extent with the density and juiciness of the variety, 
but it is generally from 4 to 5 lbs. Many kinds of Apples may be 
utilised in this way, but some sorts are much better adapted for the 
purpose than others. In the list of varieties at the end of this article 
particulars will be found as to the varieties especially suitable for 
drying. 

Apple Butter. — An article called " Apple Butter" is much used in 
some parts of America, where it is very popular. It is prepared by 
stewing sliced sweet Apples in new cider until they become soft and 
pulpy, after which the material is packed away in jars or casks till 
required for use. In France a somewhat similar product is made by 
stewing the fruit in new wine instead of cider. Possibly Apples might 
to some extent be utilised in this way in Australia. As to the other 
uses to which the Apple may be put commercially, the unfermented 
juice, when evaporated, yields a sort of molasses, which is much used in 
the United States In perfumery the pulp of the fruit mixed with lard 
forms a good pomatum, which can be flavoured according to fancy 
with various extracts. The wood of the Apple tree is very hard and 
durable, being fine-grained and compact, and is much used by turners in 
Europe. When stained black it is often used as a substitute for ebony 
by cabinetmakers and others. 

Cider. — Apples are used extensively in some parts of England for making 
cider, as also in France and Germany. In the United States and Canada 
they are used to a still larger extent. Whenever cider is made in 
quantity it appears to have become the popular beverage of the 
community, and its consumption is extensive. As to whether cider is 
likely to become a popular beverage in Australia it is hard to say, but 
there is certainly a strong probability that if growers would turn their 
attention in this direction, a local market could be found for a not 
inconsiderable quantity. It is a beverage that would be likely to find 
much favour during the hot months, were it obtainable at anything near 
the prices that rule in other countries. The making of cider would be 
one of the safe-guards against over-production and glutted markets for 
fresh fruit. As a matter of course, there are kinds of Apples that are 
specially suited for making cider, and when grown for this particular 
purpose they should have the preference. The kinds that are specially 
suitable are those that have a piquant, sharp flavour, abundance of juice, 
and a fair amount of sweetness. But any kind of Apple maybe turned 
to account for making cider, though the yield may be smaller, and the 
quality not of the highest standard. It will be far better to turn crops 
to account in this way than let them go to waste, even if they are not 
the best for the purpose. There is no particular skill required to turn 
Apples into cider, and any grower can easily acquire the necessary 
knowledge. Cider should be made from fully but not over-ripe Apples. 



113 

These should be crushed in a mill till they become a uniform mass of 
pulp. This material is then allowed to stand from twenty-four to fofty- 
eight hours, according to the atmospheric temperature, to engender a 
slight fermentation. The pulp must then be passed through a press, 
and the liquor as it flows should be strained through a hair or 
other cloth. It should then be run into perfectly sweet and clean casks, 
which must be placed in a cool cellar or other place to ferment, leaving - 
the bungs out. When the strong fermentation ceases, which will 
generally be the case in two or three weeks if the weather is favourable, 
the bungs should be fixed in the casks loosely. After a while, when 
fermentation appears to have altogether ceased, they may be tightened, 
taking care, previously, to make good any deficiencies in the casks. The 
cider should be allowed to remain in the casks until it becomes clear 
and bright, when it must be racked off. The clarifying process may be 
hastened by the use of isinglass at the rate of 1 oz. to a barrel of 
cider. 

Conditions Necessary For Cultivation. 

The Apple may be grown successfully in many parts of Australasia, 
but the localities specially adapted for it are those which possess a com- 
paratively cool and moist climate. In these cooler districts the trees 
are likely to be longer lived, to attain a greater size, and to bear better 
and more regular crops than in less congenial localities. At the same 
time, the fruit will, as a rule, possess a higher flavour and keep much 
better. In the medium warm districts, the trees may grow well for a 
few years, and bear freely, but they will be comparatively short-lived, 
and the fruit is apt to be deficient in flavour, and does not keep well as a 
rule. Tropical regions are unsuitable for the Apple, as the heat is too 
great. Cultivation may be carried on successfully in various soils, 
but the one above all others is a strong deep calcareous loam with a 
gravelly or marly subsoil. When such a soil is available it should 
invariably be chosen, though any good deep cultivation land may give 
satisfactory results. Some vaiieties will adapt themselves to particular 
soils or localities much better than others, thriving and giving good 
returns where others fail. Horticultural science has not yet shown the 
reason for these differences, and, as a consequence, no precise rules can 
be laid down as a guide in making selections. The writer has a theory 
that these peculiarities are not so much due to the varieties themselves 
as to the stocks upon which they are worked. More precise knowledge 
upon this point than growers now possess is much required, but doubt- 
less it will be obtained in time, and then cultivators will know what 
stocks are best suited to particular varieties, soils and districts. 

In preparing land for Apples or any other fruit trees it will be 
advisable to do the work thoroughly, as a good foundation is as neces- 
sary for an orchard as a mansion. As a rule, the ground should be 
broken up to the depth of 15 inches at the least, and 18 inches or 
2 feet will be still better, and more especially in heavy soils. In light 
or shallow ground, where the subsoil is loose gravel, marl or sand, the 



114 

necessity for deep working is not so great. Care should be taken in 
preparing the land not to turn up a poor subsoil to the surface, it being 
sufficient to merely move or stir the ground. Many have made the great 
mistake of trenching up several inches of a bad subsoil to the surface, 
and the unsatisfactory results have caused them to condemn deep 
working. Drainage is a matter that should receive due attention, as 
trees cannot thrive if they are standing in soddened ground for 
lengthened periods. Whenever the soil is heavy and retentive, ample 
provision should be made for quickly carrying away any excess of water. 
The common practice of simply digging holes for fruit trees, and leaving 
the other portion of the ground, cannot be too strongly condemned, and 
it is the cause of many failures. These holes after heavy rains simply 
become so many basins of water, and trees growing in them must 
necessarily suffer. In very light soils, or where the subsoils are either 
open gravel, sand or lime-stone, there is often sufficient natural drainage, 
and therefore no occasion to provide for it. But in stiff, retentive land, 
artificial drainage should always be provided for as far as is necessary. 
Deeply-worked and well-drained soils hold moisture during periods of 
drought longer than shallow or wet land ; and, in the winter, through 
an excess of water being avoided, the temperature is several degrees 
higher. Then, again, owing to the more perfect aeration of the ground, 
the plant food that it contains is more readily soluble and available for 
the trees. The foregoing remarks are applicable to other fruit trees 
than the Apple, and will not be repeated at length in the following 
articles. 

Selecting Trees and Planting. 

In selecting young trees, give a preference to those that have strong 
clean stems, and are worked upon suitable stocks. Care should be taken 
not to expose the roots to a drying atmosphere, as is too often done 
thoughtlessly. For free-growing trees worked upon ordinary stocks the 
distance apart should not be less than 24 feet, and even 27 or 30 feet 
will be better. Under ordinary favourable conditions these trees will 
attain a good age, and must have room for their development. In 
Europe and America many instances are known of an Apple tree 
attaining an age of over 100 years. Care must be taken not to plant 
too deeply, a very common mistake that is the cause of many failures. 
It is sufficient to place the trees so that the crowns, or upper roots, are 
merely below the surface. Before the trees are put in the ground all 
broken or bruised roots should be removed, as when allowed to remain 
they are of no service to the plants, but are liable to become cankered 
and cause serious injury. Planting may be done at any time between 
the fall of the leaf and the spring, and some difference of opinion exists 
as to the advantages of early planting or otherwise. According to the 
observations of the writer, the most favourable time is in the latter part 
of the winter — a week or two before active growth commences. For 
small gardens, where it is necessary to economise space and a large 
number of varieties are required, it may be an advantage to grow dwarf 



115 

trees, worked upon the Doucin or Paradise stocks. By using these 
stocks the trees will not be much larger than gooseberry bushes, and 
may be planted 6 or 7 feet apart. This mode of cultivation is not likely 
to find much favour with growers for market who have plenty of space 
at their command, as the trees require greater care, are more troubled 
with blight, and are comparatively short-lived. As a matter of course,, 
the trees when planted should be securely staked and tied, so that they 
will not be damaged by heavy winds and rains. 



Training and Pruning. 

Fruit trees should invariably be trained with low heads in this part 
of the world. Trees with high heads sufifer more from strong winds than 
others, and also through their stems being insuflSiciently shaded from 
the sun. Young trees are more especially liable to injury through the 
bark being scorched by the sun's power. In order to avoid this con- 
tingency, it will be well to cover the stems of young trees during the 
summer months with strips of bark or some other material that will 
answer the purpose. Young trees require more attention in pruning 




Wood Branch. Two year-old Fruiting Branch Branch showing the ten- 

Branch, showing one year-old. All dency of some varie- 
Fruit Buds. the Buds are ties to bear on the 

Fruit ones. points of the shoots. 



116 

than those that have reached a mature age, as the object of the grower is 
to assist development as much as possible. His aim is a strong woody 
growth in particular directions, and well-balanced and symmetrical heads. 
To attain this object but a few branches are left, and the strength of the 
plant concentrated in to a limited number of channels. All shoots not 
likely to serve a useful purpose should be removed. Though as a rule 
in shortening back the shoots of young trees, it will be advisable to cut 
the points outioards, yet with some kinds this system must be reversed. 
Upright growing varieties should be invariably cut with outward buds. 
On the other hand, varieties that are inclined to pendular or horizontal 
growth require to be cut with inward buds, so as to encourage the 
branches to rise. By assisting to throw the new growth upward for a 
year or two better formed trees can be obtained than by allowing the 
branches to spread too much. Summer pruning is very useful with 





Upright Tree cut back to outside 
Buds. 



Spreading Tree cut back to inside 
Buds. 



young trees, as by rubbing off unnecessary shoots a waste of energy is 
prevented to a great extent. Care must, however, be taken not to thin 
out the shoots too much, as a fair proportion of foliage is required for 
shade and to promote healthy root action. The ends of the shoots must 
also be pinched back when necessary to prevent a straggling growth and 
keep the trees compact and well furnished. Mature trees, if they have 
been well managed when young, will in most cases require but compara- 
tively little in the way of pruning. As a rule, all that is necessary is 



to keep the heads moderately 
open, to remove misplaced 
shoots or rank ones growing 
from the stems, and to shorten 
back those that are running 
away from their fellows. Then, 
again, some varieties have too 
great a tendency to produce 
their fruit towards the ends of 
the branches, and these should 
be kept shorter than others. 
Care must also be taken not to 
let the trees make a weakly 
extended growth, which is a too 
common thing in this part of 
the world, and to prune so that 
the heads will be compact and 
well furnished. The ordinary 
pruning may be done at any 
time while the trees are at 
rest, but growers must bear in 
mind that if the operation is 




Tree the second year after it is planted. 
Cross lines, showing where the branches 
should be cut. 







A good form for an Apple Tree. 



118 

performed very early it is favourable to the production of wood, 
and if done late in the season it is more conducive to fertility 
and therefore best suited for mature trees. Koot-pruning may be 
practised with advantage in the case of over-luxuriant mature trees 
which make an abundance of wood but produce little or no fruit. It is 
a too common practice, in dealing with trees of this class, to top prune 
and thin out the branches severely, but this is just the thing that ought 
not to be done, and cultivators must understand that the more trees are 
cut the more woody growth will they make. The proper treatment is to 
check growth rather than stimulate it, and this may be eflfected by root- 
pruning. This operation can be performed at any time while the trees 
are at rest, and may readily be effected by digging a semi-circular trench 
a spade wide at such a distance as will depend upon the size of the 
trunk. Cut all the roots in this trench, and the following season treat 
the other side of the tree in the same way. By adopting this plan trees 
will often be brought into good bearing condition. 

Keeping Clean. 

Clean cultivation is essential to the successful culture of the Apple 
and other fruit trees in this part of the world. An undergrowth of grass 
and other vegetation absorbs a deal of nutriment and moisture in the 
summer that otherwise would be available for the trees. Though 
orchards in grass may do very well in the United Kingdom and other 
parts of the world, yet experience has taught us that a different system 
must be adopted here. The cleaner the surface can be kept the better, 
and weeds should never be allowed to make much headway if it is 
possible to prevent them. But, though cleanliness is desirable, the too 
common practice of roughly ploughing or digging between the roots of 
mature trees cannot be too strongly condemned. When these operations 
are performed roughly a large proportion of the upper rootlets are des- 
troyed or injured. These rootlets are the mouths or feeders of the trees, 
provided by nature to supply plant food ; and it stands to reason, if a 
large percentage are destroyed, growth must suffer more or less. It 
would be wiser to preserve these feeders as much as possible, unless root- 
pruning is required, and the work can be better done with the scarifier 
or hoe than the plough or spade. The work can also be more economi- 
cally done, as four or five scarifyings or hoeings will not entail more 
labour than one ploughing or digging. The frequent stirring of the 
surface soil is also exceedingly beneficial to the trees. The practice of 
mulching is deserving of general adoption, as in this part of the world 
it is of great assistance to the cultivator during the summer months. 
Long stable manure, straw, grass, seaweed, or any other material that 
will answer the purpose should be spread as far as the roots extend 
before the hot weather sets in, taking care to keep the stems of the trees 
free. When the surface soil is protected by this means from the direct 
action of a burning sun and drying winds, the moisture that is in the 
ground is conserved to a large extent, and will last much longer than 
otherwise. 



119 

Manuring. 

In the cultivation of the Apple and other fruits caro must be taken 
that the trees are not allowed to suffer through lack of proper nourish- 
ment. Their wants must be supplied, or otherwise they will fail more 
or less. Many people seem to be under the impression that if the trees" 
are cared for till they reach maturity they ought then to yield crops for 
all time without receiving anything in return. This is unreasonable, as 
if the soil is not compensated for what it yields in the shape of plant 
food the supply of the latter must become exhausted sooner or later. 
Lack of attention in this respect is the cause of so many fruit trees 
dying off prematurely, to the disgust and disappointment of their owners. 
Many trees that go off from supposed diseases or insect and fungoid 
attacks simply die from sheer starvation through neglect. Cultivators 
should never allow their trees to suffer through the lack of proper food. 
Though sometimes soils naturally contain a large amount of plant food, 
yet this cannot be expected to last for all time. Every crop removes 
materials in certain proportions, and these should be returned in the 
shape of manures, in order that the supply may be kept up. An 
occasional dressing of manure will be of great assistance to old fruit 
trees, and materially aid in keeping them in a thrifty condition. 
Special manures are also serviceable to make good the deficiencies in 
the soil caused by the exhaustion of lime, potash, and other essential 
materials. 

Watering. 

"When a supply of water, by irrigation or otherwise, is at the com- 
mand of the cultivator it gives him a very great advantage, as he is 
able to stimulate the growth of his trees when otherwise they would 
languish from the effects of drought. But with the Apple and other 
deciduous fruit trees water must be used with judgment — it should be 
used only when it is wanted and in proper quantities. The number of 
waterings required must, as a matter of course, depend to some extent 
upon the season and the character of the soil. Three or four waterings 
will usually be quite sufficient for all practical purposes in the driest 
season. If the winter has been dry a good soaking may be given in 
the spring, just as growth is commencing; another maybe given as 
soon as the fruit is fairly formed ; the third (and fourth, if necessary) 
may be given when the fruit is from two to three parts grown. Water 
after the fruit attains its full size does more harm than good, and causes 
deterioration in quality. The fruit, also, becomes more tender, and will 
not keep or carry so well as it would if grown with less water. 

Propagation. 

Propagation may be effected in a variety of ways, but for the per- 
petuation of established varieties the usual methods are budding and 
grafting. Grafting is most generally practised with the Apple, the best 



120 

time for performing the operation being immediately before the sap 
commences to rise in the spring. The stocks now generally used in this 
part of the world for the Apple are the Northern Spy for the stronger 
kinds and the Winter Majetin for those that are less robust. Both 
these kinds are absolutely proof against the American Blight or Woolly 
Aphis, and have given satisfaction. The Irish Peach, New England 
Pigeon, Isle of Wight Pippin and Devonshire Stubbard are also more or 
less blight-resisting. The same quality is also claimed for several colonial- 
rajised seedlings, but further experience is required before they can be 
ranked as absolutely blight-proof varieties. An addition to the list of 
non-blighting kinds will be an advantage, as it will allow a wider 
selection of stocks. We may in this way get stocks better adapted for . 
particular climates, soils and varieties than those now generally used 
For dwarf trees the Doucin or Broad-leaved Paradise and the English 
Paradise stocks must be used. European cultivators use the ordinary 
Crab Apple to a large extent as a stock when large trees are required. 
For trees of smaller size the Siberian Crab finds favour with many. 
Stocks are obtained from cuttings, which usually strike freely, but their 
growth may be accelerated by grafting small pieces of root upon them 
before putting them in. Budding, though not nearly so generally prac- 
tised as grafting, is preferred by some growers, and may be successfully 
performed during the growing season when the bark will separate freely 
from the wood. Usually the best time for budding is a little past mid- 
summer. For the propagation of new or rare varieties budding is a 
useful method, as it allows every bud to be utilised. Layering is a 
method practised for the raising of dwarf stocks, but not to any great 
extent. It should be done during the winter. New varieties, as a 
matter of course, can only be obtained from seed ; and if a quantity of 
pips are sown they will for a certainty produce in time a number of 
kinds. Some of these may possibly be useful kinds, but the number of 
Apples under cultivation at the present time is so large that it is not 
desirable to add to the list, except in the case of varieties having 
qualities that specially recommend them. If we can get a new variety 
that is earlier, later, more highly-flavoured, or will keep better than 
others of its class, then it may be regarded as an acquisition. Then, 
again, if cultivators, by cross fertilisation, can manage to raise varieties 
which combine in the one firuit the distinctively good qualities of two 
older sorts, the horticultural world will gain — for instance, a combina- 
tion of the rich flavour of the Pibston Pippin with the keeping quality 
of the French Crab or Stone Pippin would be an undoubted acquisition. 

Insects. 

Various insect pests are troublesome to the Apple, and several to 
a considerable extent. The following is a descriptive list of the more 
prominent insects that specially affect this fruit : — 

American Blight. — This troublesome pest, known also as the Woolly 
Aphis {Schizoneura lanigerd), is widely spread through the Australasian 
colonies. Its peculiar white woolly appearance, which is too familiar 



121 



Amekican or Woolly Blights. 





Branches of Affected Tree. 





Larvse (highly magnified). 



Perfect insect (highly magnified). 



to fruit-growers, renders a description unnecessary. Various remedies 
are in use, and each one finds numerous advocates. Painting the 
affected parts with a mixture of kerosene and soft-soap, in about equal 
proportions, is an old and fairly effective remedy. Resin compound is 
a good remedy that has been used with great success in America. This 
should be applied with a fine syringe or spray pump during the time the 
trees are at rest. When the disease is upon the roots of the trees, one 
of the best remedies is, in the winter, to bare the main ones as rcuch as 
possible, and apply a thick dressing of slaked lime. 

Apple Beetle. — This insect is known scientifically as Doticus pestilenSf 
and is likely to prove a troublesome pest to Apple trees. It is a very 
small brownish beetle, with comparatively long legs, and is as yet but 
little known. The grub of this beetle perforates Apples, which in about 
a month begin to shrivel, and it remains and develops in the withered 
fruit till it is ready to deposit its eggs for the following season. 
Remedies : — Kerosene emulsion and resin compound. 



122 

Apple Moth {Curve-winged) {Erechthias mystacinella). — This is a 
very small motb, but is a very destructive insect. It is destructive to 
Apples and other trees, through the larvae boring into the branches, 
interrupting the flow of sap, causing them to break off, and also the 
formation of knots on excrescences. Kerosene emulsion is said to prove 
an effective remedy. 

Apple Moth (Light-brown) (Caccecia responsana). — A troublesome and 
widely-distributed insect, commonly known as the Australian Apple 
Moth. The perfect insect is light-brown, with lightly-bronzed wings, 
which are about three-quarters of an inch across. Its action is similar 
to that of the Codlin Moth, and it destroys fruit in the same way. 
Remedies : — The same as for the Codlin Moth. 

Apple Boot Borer [Leptops Hopei). — A very des- Apple Root Borer. 
tructive indigenous beetle, belonging to the Weevil 
family. In colour it is a light greyish-brown, 
and its body is more than half-an-inch in length. 
Its mode of action is to bore into the roots of the 
trees, and it destroys their vitality. Remedies : — 
Let holes, about half-a-dozen in number, be made 
with a crowbar round the stem of an affected tree. 
The holes should be from 6 to 12 inches deep ; 
pour in about a wine-glassful of bi-sulphide of 
carbon, then cover as tightly as possible. Paint- 
ing the larger roots with corrosive sublimate is also Perfect insect 
likely to be effective. (natural size). 

Apple Borer Beetle. — This is a very small but destructive beetle, known 
scientifically as Rhizorpertha collaris. It is widely distributed in all the 
colonies, and its depredations among Apple trees are great, though it 
attacks many other kinds, including indigenous timbers. Its mode of 
attack is to bore holes into the wood, in which the eggs are deposited and 
hatched. Remedy : — Scraping off of loose bark, and syringing with a 
strong solution of kerosene emulsion. 

Apple Borer Beetle. 




lf> ^ 



Perfect insects (natural size). Perfect insects (magnified). 

Codlin Moth {Carpocapsa pomonella). — A well-known and terribly 
destructive insect, which causes great losses to growers of Apples, and 
to some extent attacks Pears. It is very widely spread, and cultivators 
in many parts of the colony are seriously troubled with the pest. The 
moth in colour is light-brown and bronze, and measures with wings 
extended about half-an-inch across. The larvae or grub is yellowish- 
white, with a very dark-brown head. Remedies : — Bandaging the tree 



123 



with strips of cloth or other material to trap the larvse, large numbers 
of which can be caught in this manner and destroyed. Hanging lanterns 
in the trees, with dishes of water and kerosene under them, when the 
moths are about. All the nocturnal moths readily approach light, and 
manyof this and other kinds may be trapped and destroyed by adopting-fehis- 
plan. Spraying with solutions of kerosene emulsion and the arsenical 
compounds known as London 



Purple and Paris Green are 
also eflfective. One spraying 
should be given as soon as 
the fruit has formed, and a 
second one two or three weeks 
later. Possibly something 
may be done towards mitigat- 
ing this pest by the introduc- 
tion and cultivation of natural 
enemies. Several of these are 
known, and probably more 
will be discovered. An Aus- 
tralian beetle {Telephorus 
pulchellus) is known to be an 
active enemy, as is also an 
American species {Chauliog- 
nathus pennsylvanicus). Vari- 
ous American flies are also 
known to be parasites of the 
Codlin Moth. 



CoDLiN Moth. 




Apple showing Caterpillar of Codlin Moth 
at work. 





Perfect insect on win| 
(natural size). 



Perfect insect in 
repose (natural size). 



Caterpillar (enlarged). 








Showing how the Cater- 
pillar eats into the Fruit. 



An American enemy of An Australian enemy of 
the Codlin Moth (C^aw- the Codlin Moth {Tele- 
liognaihus pennsylva- jphorus pulchellus) . 



124 



Scale. — Several of the 
insects known under 
this name are more or 
less injurious to Apple 
trees, but the one most 
to be dreaded is the 
Apple Mussel Scale 
(ispic?io^is), which is un- 
fortunately very widely 
distributed throughout 
Australasia. For treat- 
ment see page 85. 

Fungi. 

The Apple, like other 
fruits, suffers a good 
deal from the attacks of 
fungi, which embrace 
several species, though 
the majority of cultiva- 
tors are unconscious of 
many of these enemies. 

Apfle Scab or Black 
Spot [Fusicladium den- 
driticum). — This is the 
most widely-spread and 
best- known of fungi that 
attacks the Apple, and 
a troublesome one to deal 
with. It causes great 
damage to the fruit, 
which is marked with 
unsightly scabs and 
cracks that materially 
injure its appearance, if 
it is not absolutely des- 
troyed. When attacked 
while small the young 
Apples either drop off 
the trees, or they crack 
and shrivel up so as to 
be useless. If attacked 
at a more advanced stage 
of growth the Apples 
may reach maturity, but 
they will carry unsightly 
scars. Sometimes the 
scabs will cause one side 



American Enemies of the 



Moth. 




Pimpla annulipes (greatly magnified). 




Macrocentrus delicatus (greatly magnified). 



125 



Apple Scab or Black Spot. 




of a fruit to be drawn and prevent it from assuming its proper 
shape. The leaves are also seriously affected by this fungus, which 
appears at first in dark green spots. Afterwards the spots assume 
a brownish colour and the tissue cracks and dries up, leaving holes 
in the leaves. Sometimes the spots are so numerous that the leaves 
are reduced to fragments. The spores of this fungus are pro- 
duced in enormous numbers, and each one under favourable con- 
ditions may develop into a " scab." Remedies : — The affected leaves 
and fruit, when practicable, should be destroyed by fire — that is, 



126 




Bitter Eot 



such fruit and leaves as may fall or can readily be gathered. 
Spraying with Bordeaux Mixture, Eau Celeste, or Ammonia Carbonate 
of Copper. One spraying should be given just as growth is starting in 
the spring, but before the floi^ers appear. A second spraying should^be 
given when the leaves are half-grown, and further ones at intervals^of 
two or three weeks till the fruit has attained about two-thirds of its 
growth. 

Bitter Rot or Ripe Rot. — This disease is 
caused by a fungus known scientifically as 
Glceosporium versicolor. It is widely spread, 
but does not affect all Apples to the same 
extent, and some varieties are comparatively 
free from its attacks. Others, again, are 
specially liable to it, and many losses occur 
from it, though the true cause is not sus- 
pected by cultivators. The disease first 
makes its appearance when the Apples are 
beginning to ripen, and, hence the name 
" Ripe Rot." The fungus first makes its 
appearance in the form of small circular 
brown spots on the surface of the fruit. 

These spots rapidly increase in size till they measure a quarter- 
of-an-inch across, or more. At this stage of growth the spores are 
developed and scattered, and the old spots continue to increase in 
size till they, more or less, cover the fruit. The effect upon the 
fruit is that it becomes brown and rotten, and has an intensely bitter 
flavour ; consequently, the disease has obtained the name of " Bitter 
Rot." This fungus propagates with great rapidity, and if not kept in 
check will cause serious damage in an orchard. Though generally 
regarded as an Apple pest, this fungus is said to also affect several 
other fruits. Remedies : — All aff'ected fruit should be destroyed as far 
as may be practicable, as each spot contains some thousands of germ 
spores. Spraying with (1) Ammonia Carbonate of Copper, (2) Blue- 
stone and Sodium Carbonate, (3) Bordeaux Mixture. IJse as recom- 
mended for Apple Scab. 

Mouldy Core. — This is a somewhat obscure 

disease, though it is supposed to be caused by 

some mould fungus that first appears upon 

the core, hence the name. The fungus germs 

are supposed to enter the fruit through the 

eye, from which there is a passage to the core. 

The spores germinate in the eye, and then 

force their fine threads to the interior of the 

fruit, i'rom the core they again fructify, and 

the threads gradually force their way into the 

pulp. This is a very troublesome disease, and „ i -, ^ 

4. i. J i. 1. 1 1 -.1 A 1 xi ^ Mouldy Core, 

not easy to detect or deal with. Apples that 

are aff'ected often appear to be sound, but on cutting them in halves the 

cores, and sometimes a considerable portion of the flesh, are found to be 




127 

mouldy, and more or less rotten. In the more advanced stages of this 
disease the fruit becomes thoroughly rotten. As the disease works 
from the centre of the fruit, fungicides cannot be applied, and there are 
no known remedies. It might be eradicated by destroying affected 
fruit for a season or two, and, consequently, getting rid of the germs. 
But as it does not affect all varieties of Apples, perhaps the safest plan^ 
will be to discard those sorts that are specially liable to its attacks. 
The varieties most liable to this disease are those having the more open 
passages between the eyes and the core chambers. 

Powdery Mildeio. — This disease is somewhat prevalent, and, strange 
to say, atiects young trees to a greater extent than old ones. It is 
caused by a fungus known as Podosphcera Kunzei, which appears upon 
the young leaves and branches in the form of a white felt, and hence the 
name. Powdery Mildew. The leaves when attacked turn brown, 
become brittle and dry, and fall off. As a rule, the foliage near the 
points of the shoots suffers most, and affected trees sometimes have the 
appearance of being scorched. The disease spreads rapidly, and should 
be dealt with promptly as soon as it is detected. Remedies : — Ammonia 
Carbonate of Copper, or Eau Celeste, applied as a spray as recom- 
mended for the Apple Scab. 

Disease. 

Water Core. — This is a term applied to the supposed cause of the 
transparent, or waxy, appearance that may sometimes be noticed in 
Apples. Sometimes the fruit is only partially transparent, but in other 
cases the whole of the flesh has this appearance. The cause is an excess 
of water in the tissues of the fruit, to the exclusion of air. The name 
has originated from the fact that the disease (if it is really one) generally 
originates from the core. This, however, is not invariably the case, as 
frequently it starts from the outside of the fruit. There is no accounting 
for the appearance of this complaint, though it is supposed to be through 
the absorption of an excess of water from the stalk cavity. As a rule 
it is most prevalent after heavy rains, and generally makes its appear- 
ance just as the fruit is beginning to ripen. Some varieties are very 
liable to it, while others are rarely or never affected by this disease. 
Possibly the reason why some kinds are affected to a greater extent 
than others is that their flesh tissues are moi-e open. There are no 
remedies for Water Core, and in order to avoid it, the only thing in the 
power of cultivators is to reject such varieties as appear to be most liable 
to it. 

Types of Apples. 

There are several types of Apples, but their classification according 
to well-defined characteristics that could be easily recognised is a work 
of the future. Though some pomological writers of repute have made 
efforts in this direction, yet no one has succeeded in producing a satis- 
factory scheme. Apples are mainly classed as Codlins (or CodUngs), 



128 

Nonpareils, Pearmains, Pippins, and Keinettes, indiscriminately. 
Though formerly the meaning of these terms may have been well 
understood, this is not the case at the present time, and people do not 
know how to distinguish one class from the other. The Codlin 
section seems to have been kept more true than any other to a distinctive 
type. The word was originally written codling, from coddle, to stew or 
boil, in allusion to the value of this section for culinary purposes. 
Nonpareil is a French word, meaning incomparable, but varieties to 
which this term is applied have nothing to distinguish them from 
Pippins or other classes. The term Pearmain means pear-shaped, and, 
though appropriate to some of the kinds classed under the name, it is by 
no means suitable for others. The term Pippin originally signified a 
seedling, but now has lost that meaning, and is applied to varieties, 
grafted or budded, that diflfer materially in characteristics. 

Varieties. 

There are an immense number of varieties in cultivation — in fact, far 
more than are required for practical purpose?. In Australasia we have a 
large number, most of the leading European and American varieties 
having been imported. Australasian growers have also been active in 
producing new kinds, and our lists contain several superior colonial 
varieties. As a matter of course, a great many varieties that have been 
introduced are comparatively worthless, because other kinds have proved 
to be superior to them. Many kinds alter materially from their 
characteristics in Europe or America, some improving and others falling 
off. Consequently, a correct estimate of the value of any variety cannot 
be obtained from the description given by European or American writers. 
Many of the British varieties have considerably more colour than when 
grown in the United Kingdom, and to such an extent sometimes that 
they are difficult to recognise under their original names. Though many 
popular kinds have been originated within the last few years, yet there 
are some sterling old sorts that can still hold their own. For instance, 
the celebrated Kibston Pippin was raised in Yorkshire considerably more 
than 100 years ago, and the equally famous Golden Pippin, which was 
originated in Sussex, can claim to be older still. As regards the last- 
named Apple, it is said that the Empress Catharine of JRussia was so 
passionately fond of this variety that she employed special messengers 
to bring her supplies from England. 

Qualities Bequired in Apples. 

The qualities required in Apples must depend to some extent upon 
the objects of the grower. Dessert Apples should not be above medium- 
size, regular in form, well coloured, and the fruit must be firm, crisp, 
juicy and pleasantly flavoured. Culinary or kitchen Apples should 
possess the property of cooking evenly into a tender pulpy mass, those 
having an acid flavour being the best. The terms, dessert and culinary 
Apples, are somewhat arbitrary, as some of the finest flavoured of the 



129 

former are excellent for cooking. Then, again, some varieties generally 
regarded as cooking Apples are also first class for eating. It must 
also be remembered in using Apples for culinary purposes, that some 
varieties contain naturally far more sugar than others. Consequently, 
sugar should be used with more descrimination than it usually is. Cider 
Apples should be firm and juicy, with a piquant flavour. For drying, 
most culinary sorts are available, though some, which are particularised 
in the list that follows, give more satisfactory results than others. ~ln~ 
making a selection the grower must also take into consideration local 
conditions to some extent. If he intends to supply the colonial markets 
with fresh fruit, he will require early, medium and late varieties. On 
the other hand, if he grows for exportation the kinds selected should 
be those that keep and carry well, and early sorts will be useless. The 
same remark will apply to Apples grown for drying and cider making. 
But for whatever purpose Apples may be grown it is unwise for growers 
to have too many varieties. More satisfaction is likely to be obtained 
from a dozen kinds than from a hundred. 

Gathering and Storing. 

The earlier varieties «how, in various ways, when they are ready for 
gathering, but the later kinds give fewer signs, and some little judgment 
is required to secure them in the best possible condition. There are 
three tests by which the cultivator is supposed to be able to tell when 
a crop is fit to gather. The first of these is when the Apples begin to 
fall of their own accord, but this is by no means a reliable teat, as fruit 
will often begin to drop before it is properly ripened. The second test 
is when the fruit stalks will separate from the branches when lightly 
raised, and this is a fairly safe guide. The third test is when the pips 
become plump and brown, and perhaps this may be regarded as the 
safest criterion. It is not advisable to wait till the pips become 
thoroughly black, as the fruit will then be rather over-ripe for keeping, 
though it will be in excellent condition for present use. If Apples are 
left too long upon the trees they are apt to become mealy when stored. 
The Apples should always be gathered in dry weather, and they must 
be handled with the greatest care from the time they are taken from the 
trees till packed for market, or stored away. If required for export to 
Europe, or other distant parts of the world, the fruit should be exposed 
to the air for a day or two, so that it will wilt slightly. When this 
plan is adapted, a good deal of moisture exudes from the skins, and less 
is given off during the period of transit. Full directions for packing 
and storing are given at page 66. 

Markings in Apples. 

There is some confusion as regards the coloured markings of Apples, 
and the descriptions often fail to convey to the mind exactly what is 
meant. The following definitions of the terms used may therefore prove 
serviceable to many : — 



130 

Striped. — When there are alternating broad lines of colour. 
Streaked. — When the lines are long and narrow. 
Blotched. — When there are broad and abrupt markings. 
Splashed. — When tlie coloured markings are narrow and much broken. 
Stained. — When the markings are of a light shade and broken. 
Marbled. — When the stripes are wide, irregular, and faint. 
Clouded. — When there are broad blotches of colour showing faintly. 
Mottled. — When the skin is thickly and irregularly covered'with faint 
dots. 

Dotted. — When there are more or less dots upon the skin. 
Spotted. — When the dots are large. 



Principal Forms of Apples. 



Round or Roundish. — When the outline is round, or nearly so, the 
length being about equal to the breadth. 

Flat or Oblate. — When the ends are much compressed, the width 
being considerably greater than the length. 

Conical. — In the form of a cone, tapering from the base to the eye. 

Ovate or Egg-shaped. — When the form is somewhat similar to an 

Ribbed. — When there are ridges running from the stalk to the eye. 

In addition to these main forms there are numerous modifications of 
each, and sometimes it is difficult to find any single term that will give 
an exact description of the shape of an Apple. To some extent, how- 
ever, this difficulty is surmounted by the use of such compound terms 
as roundish-conical, roundish-oblong, and others. Certain peculiarities 
of form are also described as angular and one-sided. 



Principal Fo-rms of Apples. 




Kound. 





Conical. 



Ovate. 



131 





Flattened or Oblate. 




Oblong. 



Eibbed. 



Varieties. 



The following list includes most of the principal European, American 
and colonial varieties. Sectional illustrations show the normal forms of 
many prominent varieties, but cultivators must bear in mind that some 
kinds will often differ considerably. In fact, it is not an uncommon 
thing for two or three distinct forms to be found upon the one 
tree. 

Adams' Pearmain {Matchless, Norfolk Pippin). — A first-class and 
popular variety, supposed to be of English origin. Eruit medium- 
size, oblong-conical, and very distinct in shape. Skin greenish-yellow, 
thickly tinged and striped with red. Elesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, with 
a brisk rich flavour. Ripens late, will keep for several months ; is a 
first-class dessert Apple, and well suited for an export trade. Tree strong, 
and an excellent bearer. 

Ailes. — An excellent American variety, with large oblate or flat fruit. 
Skin yellowish-green, thickly striped and flushed with red. Elesh 
yellowish, crisp, juicy, with a rich brisk flavour, ripens late, and will 
keep a very long while ; an excellent Apple for cooking and for dessert 
when kept for a few months. Suitable for export. Tree vigorous and 
productive. 



132 




Jidanas' Pearmain. 



;^A^ 



Alfriston 



133 

Alfriston (Lord Gwyder^s Newtown Pippin, Oldaher's New, Shepherd's 
Seedling). — An old and popular English variety, with large roundish 
fruit, which is slightly ribbed. Skin greenish-yellow, netted with russet, 
with a little colour. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, juicy, with a brisk, 
acid flavour. Kipens late, keeps well, and is an excellent culinary 
Apple. A good kind for local markets, and also for export. Tree 
strong^ and a good bearer. — - 

Allanbank Seedling. — An excellent and popular culinary variety, with 
large roundish-conical fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with faint streaks of 
red. Flesh firm and juicy. Ripens medium late ; and is a first-class 
cooking Apple. 

Ainerican Golden Pippin (Golden Apple, Newtown Greening, New 
York Greening). — An American variety with medium-sized oblate fruit. 
Skin deep-yellow, with a brownish-blush, thickly sprinkled with grey 
dots, and slightly netted with russet. Flesh yellowish- white, crisp, 
juicy, sub-acid. Kipens late, keeps well, and is a good dessert Apple. 
Tree strong, spreading, and prolific. 

American Golden Russet ( Bullock'' s Pippin, Golden Russet). — A very 
popular American Apple with roundish-ovate fruit, rather below the 
medium size. Skin dull-yellow, thickly sprinkled with russet. Flesh 
yellowish, tender, juicy, with an aromatic flavour. Kipens medium 
late, and will keep three or four months. A good dessert Apple. Tree 
moderately robust, but very productive. 

American Summer Pearmain. — A very good early American variety, 
with medium-sized oblong fruit. Skin richly streaked with red and 
yellow. Flesh yellow, very tender, with a rich pleasant flavour. 
Ripens about mid-season. Tree moderately vigorous and fairly pro- 
ductive. 




Annie Elizabeth. 



134 

Annie Elizaheth. — An excellent and popular English variety, with 
large round showy fruit, prominently ribbed. Skin yellow, richly 
striped with red. Flesh yellowish white, crisp, juicy, with a sharp 
flavour. Ripens late, keeps a long time ; is an excellent cooking or 
dessert variety, and suitable for export. Tree vigorous and a free 
bearer. 

Aromatic Russet (Brown Spice, Eook^s Nest, Spice Apple). — An old 
English variety, with medium-sized conical fruit. Skin green, with a 
brownish cheek, and nearly covered with dark-grey russet. Flesh 
greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, and richly aromatic. Ripens late, 
keeps well, and is a first-class dessert Apple. Tree vigorous, upright, 
and a great bearer. 

Ashmead's Kernel. — A first-class English variety, with roundish-oblate 
fruit, rather below medium-size. Skin greenish-yellow, with a brown 
tinge, and marked with russet. Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy and 
richly flavoured. Ripens lat€, keeps well, and is an excellent dessert 
Apple. Tree hardy and prolific. 

Baddow Pippin {Spring Ribston). — An excellent English variety, 
with medium-sized fruit, roundish-oblate, with ribs on the sides, and 
corresponding ridges at the crown. Skin yellowish-green, with a dull 
red cheek. Flesh greenish-white, firm, crisp, juicy, with a flavour 
somewhat similar to the Ribston Pippin. Ripens late, keeps well, and 
is a good dessert variety, 

Baldwin (Butters^ Woodpecker). — One of the best and most useful of 
the American Apples. Fruit large, roundish. Skin yellow and orange, 
richly striped with red, and slightly streaked and dotted with russet. 
Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, tender, slightly sub-acid, with a rich pleasant 
flavour. Makes a good dessert Apple, cooks well, and is suitable for 
drying. Ripens medium late, and may be kept for some time. Tree 
strong and an abundant bearer. 

Barcelona Pearmain (Speckled Golden Reinelte, Speckled Pearmain). — 
A variety of uncertain origin, popular in some parts of England. Frwit 
medium-sized, roundish-oblong. Skin nearly covered with red, and 
speckled with large dots of russet. Flesh yellowish-white, firm, 
crisp and highly aromatic. Ripens late, keeps well, and is an 
excellent dessert Apple. Tree strong, hardy, and an excellent 
bearer. 

Bauman^s Reinette. — A Belgian variety, with medium-sized roundish- 
oblate fruit. Skin highly coloured with red. Flesh yellowish-white, 
firm, juicy and highly flavoured. Ripens late, keeps well, and is a 
good culinary Apple. 

Baxter's Pearmain. — An English variety, with large roundish-conical 
fruit. Skin pale-green, with shades and streaks of red. Flesh yellowish 
firm, juicy, and briskly sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep for several 
months, and excellent either for dessert or cooking. Tree hardy, 
vigorous and productive. 

Beauty of Hants. — This is a comparatively new English variety, 
with large roundish-conical fruit. Skin deep-yellow, heavily striped with 
red. Flesh yellowish, juicy, sweet and well flavoured. Ripens medium 



135 



late, keeps for some time, and an excellent cooking Apple. Tree robust 
and a good bearer. 

Beauty of Kent. — A handsome English variety, with large roundish- 
ovate fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, heavily marked with stripes of dark- 
red. Flesh juicy, crisp, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Rip£ns_ 
medium late, will keep fairly well, and a good culinary Apple. Tree 
strong, upright, and bears freely. 

Bedfordshire Foundling {Cambridge Pippin). — A first-class English 
culinary variety, with large roundish slightly ribbed fruit. Skin deep- 
green, with a yellowish tinge on one cheek. Flesh yellowish-white, 
juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens late, keeps well, and is an 
excellent cooking Apple. Tree strong and prolific. 

Ben Davis (Baltimore Red, Carolina Red Streak, Kentucky Pippin^ 
Red Pippin, Victoria Pippin). — A popular and very good American 
variety, with medium-sized, or larger, roundish-conical fruit. Skin 
yellow, but nearly overspread with stripes and splashes of two shades 
of red. Flesh white, tender and sub-acid. Ripens late, keeps well ; a 
good dessert and showy market fruit ; also a good Apple for exporting. 
Tree bears early, is very productive, and as it blooms late is suitable for 
districts where frosts linger in the spring. 

Benoni. — An excellent early American variety, with roundish-conical 
fruit, rather below medium size. Skin pale-yellow, striped, shaded and 
marbled with dark-crimson. Flesh yellowish, juicy and pleasantly sub- 




Ben Davis. 



136 

acid. Ripens second early, and is a nice dessert Apple. Tree vigorous, 
hardy, upright, and a prolific bearer. 

Bess Pool. — An old and excellent English variety, with showy conical 
fruit, above medium-size. Skin yellow, washed and striped with red. 
Flesh white, juicy, with a rich vinous flavour. Ripens late, keeps well, 
and a good Apple for dessert or cooking. 




Benoni. 




Blenheim Pippin. 



137 

Betty Geeson. — An excellent old English culinary variety, with large 
roundish fruit. Skin green, with faint stripes. Flesh juicy and briskly 
flavoured. Itipens late, will keep for several months, and is a first-class 
cooking Apple. Tree hardy and a good bearer. 

Blenheim Pippin (Blenheim Orange, Northwick Pippin^ Woodstoek- 
Pippin). — An old and very popular English variety, with large roundish- 
conical fruit. Skin deep orange-yellow, heavily stained and striped 
with dull-red. Flesh yellowish, juicy, with a sweet pleasant flavour, i 
Ripens medium late, keeps fairly well, and is good both for dessert and 
cooking. Suitable for export. Tree robust and an abundant and 
regular bearer. 

Blondin. — An American variety, with large oblate, often unequal, 
fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, splashed and striped with red, and dotted 
with grey. Flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, and briskly flavoured. Kipens 
medium late, keeps well, and a good dessert Apple. 

Blue Pearmain. — An American variety, with very large regular 
roundish-conical fruit, Skin dull-green, thickly striped with purplish- 
red, and covered with bloom that gives a bluish appearance. Flesh 
yellowisb, juicy and aromatic. Ripens well, keeps a long time, and is a 
good dessert variety. Suitable for export. Tree robust and bears 
moderately well. 

Bonum. — An American variety, with medium-sized oblate fruit. 
Skin mostly shaded with deep crimson, with splashes and stripes of 
deep-red. Flesh white, often stained next the skin, firm, juicy, mildly 
sub-acid, and richly flavoured. Ripens late, will keep several months, 
and is a good dessert and market Apple. Tree vigorous and an early 
and abundant bearer. 

Borovitsky. — A Russian variety, with medium- sized roundish- 
angular fruit. Skin yellowish-white, faintly striped with pale-red. 
Flesh, white, juicy, sweet, briskly flavoured, and a good early dessert 
Apple. 

Borsdorffer (Garnet Pippin. Queen' s^ King George). — An excellent 
German dessert variety, with small roundish-oblate fruit. Skin pale- 
yellow, with a full deep-red cheek, and sprinkled slightly with russet. 
Flesh yellowish-white, firm, crisp, juicy, with a rich vinous flavour. 
Ripens late and keeps well. Suitable for export. 

Boston Russet (Howe's Busset, Putnam Russet, Roxbury Russet, 
Warner Russet, Sylvan Russet). — A popular and excellent American 
variety, with medium-sized roundish fruit, flattened at the ends. Skin 
thickly covered with brownish-russet. Flesh greenish-white, juicy, sub- 
acid, and richly-flavoured. Ripens late, keeps a long time, and is an 
excellent dessert Apple ; also suitable for drying and export. Tree 
vigorous, bears early, and is very prolific. 

Brabant Bellejleur (Iron Apple). — A first-class variety, of Dutch 
origin, with large roundish-oblong slightly-ribbed fruit. Skin pale 
yellow, rather heavily striped with red. Flesh firm, juicy, with a rich 
sub-acid flavour. Ripens rather late, and will keep some time. A 
first-rate cooking Apple, and also useful as a dessert fruit. 

Braddick's Nonpareil (Ditton Nonpareil), — An excellent English 



138 

variety, with roundish-orate medium-sized fruit, compressed at the 
ends. Skin green, tinged with yellowish-brown, and a brownish-red 
cheek. Flesh yellowish, juicy, sweet, and aromatic. Hipens late, keeps 
well, and an excellent dessert Apple. Tree strong and usually a very 
free bearer. 




Boston Kusset. 




Brownlee's Eusset. 



139 

Bramley's Seedling. — An English variety, with large roundish- 
conical fruit. Skin yellow, heavily tinged with red, and striped with a 
deeper shade. Flesh yellowish-white, tender, brisk, and pleasantly sub- 
acid. Ripens late, may be kept for a long time ; is an excellent 
culinary Apple, and good also for dessert. Tree hardy, vigorous, and_a 
good bearer. 

Broiunlee's Russet. — A popular English variety, with large roundish- 
ovate fruit, rather flattened. Skin thickly covered with russet, and a 
brownish-red cheek. Flesh greenish-white, juicy, sweet, aromatic, and 
briskly flavoured. Kipens late, keeps well, an excellent dessert Apple, 
and also good for cooking. Tree vigorous and prolific. 

Bucki7igham {Bachelor, King, Queen). — A good American variety, 
with medium-sized to large roundish-oblate fruit. Skin thickly shaded, 
striped, and splashed with two shades of red. Flesh yellowish, tender, 
juicy, and sprightly sub-acid. Ripens very late, will keep for some 
time, and is an excellent dessert and market Apple. Tree moderately 
vigorous and productive. 

Buff. — An American variety with large roundish irregular fruit. 
Skin pale yellow overspread with broad broken stripes and splashes of 
dark-crimson. Flesh white, juicy, breaking, sub-acid. Ripens late, 
keeps well, and a good dessert Apple. Tree vigorous and productive, 
but rather liable to blight. 

Buncombe {Red Winter Pearmain). — A variety of American origin, 
with medium-sized roundish-oblong fruit. Skin pale yellow, mostly 
shaded with maroon, and thickly sprinkled with large light dots. Flesh 
yellowish-white, tender, juicy, mildly sub-acid, and slightly aromatic. 
Ripens late, keeps a long time, and an excellent dessert Apple. Suitable 
for export. Tree moderately vigorous, of upright growth, and a good 
and regular bearer. 

Cannon Pearmain. — An American variety, with medium-sized 
roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellow, striped and marbled with red and 
dark-crimson with large grey dots. Flesh yellowish, firm, juicy, with a 
brisk sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, keeps a long time, and is a good 
dessert and market Apple. Suitable for export. Tree vigorous and 
very productive. 

Carlisle Codlin. — An old English variety, with ovate and angular 
fruit above medium-size. Skin pale yellow, speckled with russet. 
Flesh white, crisp, and juicy. Ripens rather late, will keep for some 
time, and an excellent culinary Apple. Tree hardy and an abundant 
bearer. 

Carolina Red June. — An American early variety, with oval irregular 
fruit, medium-sized or under. Skin nearly wholly covered with deep 
purple-red. Flesh white, tender, juicy, with a brisk sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens very early ; and a good dessert fruit. Tree vigorous, bears early 
and abundantly. 

Carter's Blue {Lady Fitzpatrick). — An American variety of excellent 
quality, with roundish-oblate fruit, above medium size. Skin yellowish- 
green, washed and striped with dull-red, and covered with a blue bloom. 
Flesh yellowish- white, crisp, juicy, sugary, and aromatic. Ripens late, 



uo 



will keep a long time, and is a first-class Apple for the dessert or 
cooking. Tree vigorous, productive, and an early bearer, but very subject 
to blight. 

Cellini. — An old and popular English variety, with above medium- 
sized roundish fruit. Skin deep-yellow, thickly streaked and mottled 
with dark-crimson. Flesh white, juicy, with a brisk aromatic flavour. 
Ripens medium late, will keep fairly well ; is an excellent culinary 
Apple,Jand may be used as a dessert fruit. Tree moderately vigorous 
and bears freely. 




CelUni. 

Chamberlain's Late Scarlet. — An excellent late dessert Apple, with 
showy medium-sized fruit. Skin deep-yellow, richly streaked with red. 
Flesh firm, juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens late, keeps well, and 
suitable for export. 

Christie's Pippin. — An excellent English dessert Apple, with roundish 
fruit below medium-size. Skin deep-yellow, mottled with red, and 
dotted with russet. Flesh, yellowish- white, juicy, with a brisk sub- 
acid flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a long time, and a good market, 
kind. Tree moderate in growth, but a very good bearer. 

Chronical {Cotton Apple). — An American variety, with medium-sized 
slightly-conical fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with splashes and stripes 
of dull-red and light dots. Flesh, yellowish-white, compact, juicy and 
mildly sub-acid. Ripens later, will keep for many months, and an 



Ul 



excellent dessert and market Apple. Tree hardy, thrifty, and a moderate 
and regular bearer. 

Clay gate Pearmain. — A well-known and popular English variety, with 
medium-sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin greenish, yellow with a \ 
brownish-red cheek, and dull-red dashes and stripes. Flesh yellowish, 
juicy, with a rich aromatic flavour, somewhat similar to the Ribsten - 
Pippin. Ripens late, keeps well, and a first-class dessert variety. 
Suitable for export. Tree robust, and an abundant bearer. 

Cleopatra (New York Fippin, Ortley Pippin, Yellow Pippin, White 
Pippin, White Belljlower). — A well-known and excellent American ] 
variety that is very popular in Australia. Fruit medium to large, and I 
in shape oblong-conical. Skin a rich deep yellow, with sometimes a / 
sunny cheek. Flesh white, fine grained, juicy, sub-acid, and pleasantly ' 
flavoured. Ripens late, keeps a long time ; an excellent culinary Apple, 
useful as a dessert fruit, and one of the best sorts for an export trade. 
Tree strong, hardy, and generally bears very freely. 




Cleopatra. 

Cockle Pippin (Nutmeg Pippin). — A first-class English dessert 
variety, with medium-sized conical and slightly-ribbed fruit. Skin 
yellow, thickly covered and dotted with brown russet. Flesh, yellowish, 
firm, juicy, with a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens late, and will keep 
for several months. Tree hardy and prolific. 

Cooper^s Market. — A showy American variety, with medium-sized 
roundish-conical fruit, somewhat similar to Cox's Orange Pippin. Skin 



142 

greenish-yellow, flushed and striped with two shades of red. Flesh, 
white, tender, with a brisk acid flavour. Ripens late, keeps a long 
time ; an excellent dessert Apple, and suitable for export. Tree hardy, 
vigorous and very productive. 

Cornish Aromatic. — A well-known and popular English variety, with 
roundish-angular fruit, rather above medium size. Skin deep yellow, 
with a full deep-red cheek, and thickly marked with russet on the other 
side. Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy and briskly aromatic. Kipens 
late, will keep three or four months, and a first-class dessert Apple. 
Tree moderately vigorous and prolific. 

Cornish Gilliflower (Cornish July-Jioicer). — Another old and popular 
English variety, with roundish-conical slightly-ribbed fruit, rather above 
medium-size. Skin dull dark yellowish-green, thickly tinged and 
striped with brownish-red. Flesh, yellowish, firm, very juicy, with a 
rich aromatic flavour. Ripens late, keeps a long time, and is a good 
dessert Apple. Tree strong and fairly prolific, though in England it 
has the reputation of being .a shy bearer. 

Court Pendu Plat [G anion's Pippin^ Russian, Wollaton Pipjmi).^- 
A popular French variety, with medium-sized roundish-flat fruit. Skin 
nearly covered with rich deep crimson, with a little greenish-yellow on 
the shaded side. Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, with a brisk acid flavour. 
Ripens medium late, keeps for some time, and a good dessert or cooking 
Apple. Tree vigorous and a good bearer. 




Court Pendu Plat. 



Coicrt of Wick (Golden Drop, Fry's Pippin^ Knight wick Pippin, 
Week's Pippin, Yellow Pippin). — A popular old English variety of the 
Golden Pippin class, with small roundish. oblate fruit, somewhat 
flattened. Skin yellow, with an orange cheek slightly flushed with red. 
Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, with a rich pleasant flavour. Ripens late, 



U3 

will keep for a long time, and is a first-class dessert Apple. Tree hardy, 
vigorous and very prolific. 

Coxs Orange Pippin. — A. well-known and highly-esteemed English 
variety, with medium-sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin greenish- 
yellow, shaded, splashed and mottled over most of the surface wiUi 
bright-red. Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy and briskly flavoured. Ripens 
late, will keep for some time, and is a favourite dessert and market 
Apple. Suitable for export. Tree strong and a good bearer. 

Cox's Pomona. — This is another well-known and popular English 
variety, with ovate fruit, medium-sized or larger. Skin deep-yellow, 
streaked and shaded with bright crimson. Flesh white, tender, juicy, 
with a brisk subacid flavour. Ripens medium late, will keep for some 
time, an excellent culinary Apple, and useful as a deesert fruit. Tree 
vigorous and fairly productive. 



Cox's Pomona. 



Cox's Red Leaf Russet. — An excellent English dessert variety, with 
medium-sized roundish-oblate fruit. Skin thickly covered with brown 
russet. Flesh greenish-white, juicy, with a brisk rich flavour. Ripens 
late, keeps a long time, and one of the best dessert Apples of the russet 
class. Tree strong and productive. 

Craike's Seedling. — A very good Victorian Apple, raised in the 
Sandhurst district, after the style of the Stone Pippin, from which it 
has evidently originated. Fruit similar to the Stone Pippin, though not 



\ 



144 

quite so large, but with ratter more colour. Flesh very juicy, crisp 
and briskly flavoured. Ripens late, keeps a long time, and an excellent 
market Apple. 

Cullasaga. — An American variety, with a large roundish fruit, 
inclining to conical. Skin yellowish, to a large extent shaded and 
striped with crimson, and sprinkled with large dots. Fruit, yellowish, 
firm, moderately juicy, and mildly sub-acid. Ripens late, keeps well, 
and is an excellent dessert and cooking variety. Tree strong and very 
prolific. 

Devonshire Quarrenden (Bed Quarrenden, Sack Apple). — An old and 
popular English variety, with medium-sized roundish fruit, somewhat 
compressed at the ends. Skin covered with very deep dark crimson. 
Flesh greenish-white, crisp, juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens medium early, and is a good dessert and cooking Apple, but 
will only keep a short time. Tree hardy and an excellent bearer. 

Devonshire Red Streak. — This is another old and well-known English 
variety, with medium-sized, or under, roundish-conical fruit. Skin 
yellowish-green, thickly-striped with red and dotted with brown. 
Flesh yellowish white, juicy, brisk and well flavoured. Ripens about 
mid-season ; not a good keeper ; a moderately good dessert variety, but 
an excellent cider Apple. Tree robust and very prolific. 

Downton Pippin {Downion Golden Pippin, Elton Pippin, KnigMs 
Golden Pippin, St. Mary's Pippin). — A very old and well-known 
English variety, a seedling from the famous Golden Pippin. Fruit 
small, but a little larger than the Golden Pippin, roundish and flattened 
at the ends. Skin bright-yellow. Flesh yellowish, crisp, with a rich 
brisk sub-acid flavour. Ripens medium late, and will keep for two or 
three months. An excellent dessert variety. Tree moderately vigorous 
and bears freely. 

Dr. Hogg. — An excellent English variety, with fruit rather above 
medium-size, roundish-ovate, and prominently ribbed. Skin deep- 
yellow, with a full red cheek and faint stripes of crimson with traces of 
russet. Flesh white, crisp, juicy, and briskly flavoured. An excellent 
culinary variety, and keeps for several months. Tree robust and a good 
bearer. 

Dredgers Fame. — A very useful English variety, with roundish-ovate 
fruit, medium-sized or over. Skin greenish-yellow, with a red cheek 
and patches of thin russet. Flesh greenish-yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, 
sweet, and briskly-flavoured. Ripens medium lafee, keeps well, and 
suitable for dessert or cooking. Tree vigorous and bears freely. 

D. T. Fish. — A recently introduced English variety, with large 
roundish obtusely-angular fruit. Skin bright yellow, with a slight 
flush red cheek and dotted with small specks of russet. Flesh tender, 
juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, will keep two or 
three months, and is an excellent dessert, cooking and sauce Apple. 
Tree said to be vigorous and prolific. 

Duchess of Oldenherg (Beauty of Newark). — A first-class and popular 
Russian variety, with medium-sized, or over, roundish-oblate regularly 
formed fruit. Skin deep-yellow, heavily flushed and streaked with 



145 

crimson. Flesh yellowish-white, juicy, with a sprightly sub-acid[flavour. 
Ripens early in the autumn ; is an excellent dessert or culinary Apple, 
but does not keep long. Tree very hardy, vigorous, bears freely, and is 
nearly blight proof 




Duchess of Oldenberg, 




Dumelow's Seedling. 



146 

Duke of Devonshire. — An English variety, with medium-sized 
roundish-ovate fruit. Skin lemon-yellow, with a dull-red cheek and 
veined with russet. Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, with a rich aromatic 
flavour. Ripens late, will keep a long time, and is an excellent dessert 
Apple. Tree moderately vigorous and productive. 

Dumelow's Seedling (JVormanton Wonder, Wellington). — A well- 
known first-class English variety, with large roundish fruit, compressed 
at the ends. Skin yellow, with a blush check and marked with russet. 
Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, with a pleasant acid flavour. Ripens late, is 
a very long keeper and one of the best culinary Apples. Suitable also 
for drying and exporting. Tree robust and an excellent bearer. 

Dutch Mignonne (Copmanthorpe Crab, Stettin Pippin). — A well- 
known and popular old variety, raised in Holland, with medium-sized 
roundish-oblate fruit. Skin dull-yellow, with a blush cheek and mottled 
with russet. Flesh yellowish, juicy, slightly sub-acid, and highly 
flavoured. Ripens late, keeps a long time, a good dessert Apple, and a 
suitable kind for export. Tree strong and an excellent bearer. 




Dutch Mignonne. 



Early Harvest (July Pippin, Yellow Harvest). — An excellent 
American variety with medium-sized roundish fruit. Skin bright pale- 
yellow, with a few faint white dots. Flesh white, crisp, juicy, with a 
rich sprightly sub-acid flavour. Ripens in early summer, and is an 
excellent dessert and cooking Apple. Tree hardy, vigorous, and very 
prolific. 



147 




Early Harvest. 

Early Joe. — This is an American variety, with small oblate fruit. 
Skin yellowish, shaded and striped with red, and dotted with green. 
Flesh whitish, tender, juicy, with a piquant vinous flavour. Ripens at 
mid-summer ; and is a popular dessert Apple. Tree moderately vigorous 
and a fairly good bearer. 

Early Julien. — An old Scotch variety, with medium-sized roundish 
slightly-flattened fruit. Skin pale-yellow, with an orange cheek. Elesh 
yellowish-white, very juicy, with a brisk aromatic flavour. Kipens at 
mid-summer ; and suitable for either dessert or cooking. Tree strong, 
hardy, and a great bearer. 

Early Nonpareil [Summer JVonpareil). — A very old English variety, 
at one time popular, and still worthy of a place in an orchard. Fruit 
medium-size, or under, roundish-oblate. Skin dull-yellow, spotted 
with russet and grey dots. Flesh yellowish-white, juicy, brisk, with 
a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens soon after mid-summer ; and a suit- 
able Apple for either dessert or cooking. Tree hardy, robust, and 
very prolific. 

Early Red Margaret {Eve Apple, Bed Jimeating, Striped Juneating, 
Striped Quarrenden). — An English Apple, which is popular on account 
of its earliness. Fruit medium-sized, roundish-ovate, and tapering 
towards the eye. Skin heavily covered with stripes and shades of dark- 
red. Flesh white, juicy, with a brisk vinous flavour. Ripens very 
early, and therefore greatly in demand, and is a good dessert fruit, but 
soon gets mealy. Tree robust, a good bearer, and not usually much 
affected by blight. 

Early Stravjherry {American Red Juneating) . — A very early American 



148 

variety, with small roundish fruit. Skin finely striped, and stained 
with two shades of red upon a yellow ground. Flesh white, slightly 
tinged with red next the skin, tender, sub-acid, with a pleasant brisk 
aroma. Ripens very early, and is a favourite dessert fruit. Tree strong 
and productive. 

Emperor Alexander {Alexander, Aporta, Bussian Emperor). — A well- 
known, showy, and popular Russian variety. Fruit very large and 
nearly heart-shaped. Skin greenish-yellow, thickly striped with red. 
Flesh yellowish- white, crisp, juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens late in 
the summer, is a good culinary Apple, and may also be used for dessert, 
but will only keep a limited time. Tree vigorous and a free bearer. 




Emperor Alexander. 



\ 



English Russet. — A variety of uncertain origin, with medium-sized, 
roundish fruit, somewhat flattened. Skin thickly covered with light- 
brown russet. Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, juicy, with a brisk pleasant 
flavour. Ripens late, will keep a long time, and is a useful dessert 
Apple. Tree strong and prolific. 

Esopus Spitzenburg. — An excellent American variety, with large 
oblong fruit, tapering towards the eye. Skin nearly covered with lively- 
red, and dotted with pale-russet. Flesh yellowish, firm, juicy with a 
rich brisk flavour. Ripens late, will keep a long time, and is a first- 



149 



class dessert Apple. Suitable also for export. Tree fairly robust and a 
very good bearer. 




English Russet 




Esopus Spitzenburg. 



150 

Evening Party. — A first-class American Apple, with fruit below 
medium-size and rather flattened. Skin yellow, with a dark-red cheek 
and stripes and splashes of crimson. Flesh whitish, juicy, crisp, with a 
vinous aromatic flavour. Kipens late, keeps a long time, and is an 
excellent dessert variety. 

Fall Pippin {Round Pippin, York Pippin). — This is supposed to be 
an American variety, but its origin is uncertain. Fruit large, roundish, 
and a little flattened. Skin yellow, with a brownish-bluish cheek and 
a few scattered dots. Flesh white, tender, juicy, with a rich aromatic 
flavour. Ripens in the autumn, will keep for some time, and a useful 
dessert or cooking Apple. Tree strong, hardy and productive. 

Fear It's Pippin {Clifton Nonesuch, Ferris Pippin^ Florence Pippin). 
— An old and popular English variety, with medium-sized roundish- 
oblate fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, russety round the stalk, with a 
flush cheek and streaks of red. Flesh greenish -white, juicy, rich and 
well flavoured. Ripens late, keeps for a long time, and is a good Apple 
either for dessert or culinary purposes. Tree hardy, robust and an 
excellent bearer. 

Five-crowned Pippin {London Pippin, Royal Somerset). — A very 
old, excellent and popular English variety. Fruit above medium-size, 
flattened and angular, with five prominent ridges round the crown. 
Skin deep-yellow, with a tinge of red. Flesh yellowish-white, firm, 
with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens very late, an excellent 
keeper, a good cooking Apple, and useful as a dessert fruit ; also an 
excellent variety for drying, and for an export trade. Tree robust and 
a good bearer. 




Five-Crowned Pippin. 



151 

Ilower of Kent. — A well known and excellent English variety, with 
large roundish-conical irregularly-ribbed fruit. Skin dull-yellow, 
washed and striped with dull and bright red. Flesh greenish-yellow, 
very juicy, with a pleasant brisk sub-acid flavour, liipens in the 
autumn, will keep for two or three months, and is an excellent cooking 
Apple. Tree strong and bears freely. 

Forge. — An old and useful English variety, with medium-sized 
roundish-oblate obscurely-ribbed fruit. Skin deep-yellow, flushed, 
striped and mottled with red. Flesh yellowish-white, juicy, sweet, 
with a fine aromatic flavour. liipens late, and will keep a long time. 
A good culinary Apple, and also suitable for making cider. Tree robust 
and a heavy and regular bearer. 

Fox Wlielio. — An old English cider Apple, with medium-sized fruit, 
ribbed at the crown. Skin yellow, flushed and striped with red. Flesh 
firm, very juicy and sharply sub-acid. Ripens in autumn, and is an 
excellent Apple for cider, but not worth cultivating for other purposes. 
Tree hardy, strong and prolific. 

French Crab {Claremont Pippin, Easter Pippin, Winter Greening). 
— An old English variety, held in great esteem for its long-keeping 
qualities. Fruit globular and above medium-size. Skin dark-green, 
becoming yellowish as the fruit ripens. Flesh greenish-white, firm, 
juicy and pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens very late, and may be kept for 
twelve months or more. An excellent culinary Apple, a good dessert 
fruit, and suitable for export. Tree vigorous and bears abundantly. 

Gladney's Red. — An American variety, with medium-sized roundish 
fruit. Skin thickly shaded, striped and mottled with light-red. Flesh 
yellowish, firm, moderately juicy, sub-acid, with a slight aromatic 
flavour. Ripens in the autumn, will keep two or three months, and is 
a good dessert Apple. Tree moderately robust and prolific. 




Gloria Mundi. 



152 

Gloria Mundi {Baltiinore Pippin, Mammoth, Monstrous Pippin, Ox 
Apple). — A useful and showy variety of uncertain origin, with fruit 
very large, roundish and somewhat flattened. Skin greenish-yellow, 
with a faint blush cheek. Flesh white, juicy, with a pleasant acid 
jflavour. Ripens in the autumn, will keep two or three months, and is 
an excellent culinary Apple. Tree robust and productive. 

Golden Harvey (Brandy Apple). — An old English variety, with 
small nearly round fruit. Skin roughly russety on a yellow ground, 
with a tinge of red on the cheek. Flesh yellow, juicy, sub-acid, with an 
aromatic flavour. Ripens late, keeps fairly well ; a good dessert, and 
first-class cider Apple. Tree moderate in growth, but bears freely. 

Golden Knob. — An English variety, with small fruit, roundish and a 
little flattened. Skin yellow, much covered with russet, and a reddish 
tinge on one side. Flesh greenish-white, juicy and well flavoured. 
Ripens late, keeps well, and is a good dessert Apple. Tree strong and 
prolific. 

Golden Nohle. — A favourite old English variety, with large roundish- 
conical fruit. Skin clear bright-yellow, with small spots and patches of 
russet. Flesh yellow, tender and pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens in the 
autumn, will keep two or three months, and is a good culinary Apple. 
Tree strong and a free bearer. 

Golden Pippin {Old Golden Pippin). — A first-class and well-known 
old English variety, which has been cultivated for nearly 250 years. 
Fruit round, small and regularly formed. Skin deep golden-yellow, 
with white specks and dotted with russet. Flesh yellowish, brisk, juicy 
and highly flavoured. Ripens in the autumn, keeps fairly well, is a 
good dessert Apple, and suitable for making cider. In England this 
variety keeps better than here, and is superior in flavour, being 
generally considered to be the Queen of Apples. Tree strong and a 
good bearer in cool localities. 




Golden Pippin. 



153 

Golden Reinette {English Pippin, Dundee^ Elizabeth, Megginch 
Favoufite, Princess Noble, Wyker Pippin). — A very popular and excellent 
dessert apple of English origin. Fruit below medium-size, regular, 
roundish, and a little flattened. Skin smooth, golden-yellow, flushed 
and streaked with red on one side, and dotted with russet. Flesh 
yellow, crisp, juicy, and briskly sub-acid. Ripens medium late, wilL 
keep two or three months, and is a good dessert apple. Tree moderately 
vigorous and productive. 




Golden Eeinette. 

Golden Russet {English Golden Russet). — An old and popular English { 
variety, with medium- sized roundish-oblate fruit. Skin thickly covered ' 
with bright-yellow russet. Flesh yellowish white, firm, juicy, and 
mildly sub-acid. Ripens late, keeps well, and is a good dessert apple. 
Tree strong, prolific, and an early bearer. 

Golden Winter Pearmain {Hampshire Yellow^ King of the Pippins^ 
Southampton Pippin). — An old and favourite English variety, with 
medium-sized pearmain-shaped fruit. Skin deep yellow, flushed and 
streaked with red. Flesh yellowish-white, firm, juicy, with a sweet 
aromatic flavour. Ripens medium late, will keep three or four months, 
and a good apple either for dessert br cooking and suitable for export. 
Tree moderately vigorous and a free bearer. 

Gooseberry Pippin. — A good and popular old English variety, with 
rather small roundish fruit, somewhat flattened. Skin greenish-yellow, 
with splashes and marblings of red. Flesh greenish-white, tender, 
juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep for a long period, 
a good dessert apple, and suitable for an export trade. Tree robust and 
productive. 



154 

Grangers Pearmain (Grangers Pippin). — An old English variety of 
excellent quality, with, large roundish- conical fruit. Skin yellow, with 
broken stripes of red and white specks. Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, 
•juicy, with a brisk, pleasant flavour. Ripens late, will keep for three or 
four months, and is a first-class culinary apple. Tree vigorous and an 
excellent bearer. 

Gravenstein. — A well-known and popular German variety, with large 
round flattened fruit, a little one-sided. Skin pale-yellow, heavily 
striped and marbled with deep-red and orange. Flesh yellowish-white, 
crisp, vinous, and aromatic. Kipens about mid-season ; is an excellent 
dessert or culinary apple, but will not keep long. Tree hardy, robust, 
and very prolific. 




Gravenstein. 



Greenup^s Pippin. — An English variety, with roundish fruit, rather 
above medium-size. Skin yellow, with a bright red cheek. Flesh 
yellowish- white, juicy, sweet, with a brisk sub-acid flavour. Ripens 
medium late, will keep three or four months, and is a very good culinary 
apple. Tree hardy, strong, and a great bearer. 

Hamhledon Deux Ans. — An old and popular English variety, with 
large roundish fruit, rather broadest at the base. Skin yellowish-green, 
with a deep blush cheek, and heavily striped and splashed with red. 
Flesh greenish-white, firm, crisp, and richly flavoured. Ripens late, 
keeps for a long period ; is a good dessert or culinary apple and suitable 
for export. Tree vigorous and productive. 



155 

JJanwdl Souring. — A first-class old English culiliary variety, with 
medium-sized roundish-ovate fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with a red blush. 
Flesh firm, crisp, and briskly acid. Ripens late, keeps a long time, 
cooks well, and is a good cider Apple. Tree strong and productive. 

Harvey (Dr. Harvey). — One of the oldest English varieties, with 
large roundish-ovate fruit. Skin greenish yellow with a re4 blush and_ 
russet tracings. Flesh white, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. 
Ripens medium late, will keep three or four months, and is a good 
culinary Apple. 

Hawthorndtn. — An^old and favorite Scotch variety, with roundish 
flattened fruit, rather above medium-size. Skin yellowish green, with a 
deep blush. Flesh white, juicy, with a pleasant flavour. Ripens medium 
late, will keep two or three months, is an excellent culinary Apple, and 
suitable for drying. Tree robust and a great bearer. 




Hawthornden. 



Herefordshire Beefina. — A recently introduced English variety, that 
comes to us with a high character. Fruit medium-size or over. Skin 
nearly covered with dark-red, and dotted with light-brown spots, 
especially round the base of the fruit. Flesh greenish-white, very firm, 
and slightly acid. Ripens late, keeps well, and said to be an excellent 
Apple for cooking and drying. Tree said to be of vigorous growth, and 
a constant and heavy cropper. 

K 



166 

Herefordshire Pearmain (Old Fearmain, Royal Pearmain). — An old, 
well-known, and popular English variety, with rather large roundish- 
conical fruit. Skin yellowish-green, flushed, shaded, and marbled with 
dark-red, and dotted with russet specks. Flesh yellowish, crisp, firm, 
juicy, with a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens late, will keep a long time, 
suitable for dessert or cooking, and is a good Apple for export. Tree 
robust and prolific. 

Hoary Morning (Dainty, Downy, Sam Rawlings). — A well-known 
English variety, with large roundish-conical fruit, somewhat flattened. 
Skin yellowish, thickly striped and splashed with red, and covered with a 
thick bloom, like thin hoar frost. Flesh yellowish-white, tinged with 
red next the skin, crisp, juicy, and slightly acid. Ripens after mid- 
season, will keep a few weeks, and is an excellent cooking or drying 
Apple. Tree vigorous and prolific. 




Hoary Morning. 

Hollandhury (Hawherry Pippin, Horsley Pippin, Kirlce's Admirable). 
— An old English and popular variety, with large roundish fruit, flattened 
at the ends, and prominently ribbed. Skin greenish-yellow, but heavily 
flushed and striped with bright-red. Flesh white, juicy, and briskly 
sub-acid. Ripens in the autumn, will keep for two or three months, and 
is a first-class culinary Apple. Tree strong and bears freely. 

Holstein's Alpine Seedling. — An excellent Victorian variety, raised in 
the Bright district. Fruit medium-sized roundish-conical, Skin nearly 
'covered with deep bright-red. Flesh, yellowish, firm, juicy, with a 
piquant sub-acid flavour, Ripens late, will keep a long time, and an 
excellent market Apple, 



I 



167 

Hoover (Wattaugah).— One of the best and most popular of ^ the 
American varieties, with roundish fruit, medium sized or over. Skin 
overspread \^ith red, with darker stripes and light dots, with thin russet 
near the stalk. Flesh yellowish, firm, juicy, and richly sub-acid. Ripens 
late, will keep for several months, suitable for dessert or cooking, and a 
good Apple for market or export. Tree strong and prolific. 




HOOVCT. 

Hubbard's Pearmain. — An excellent old English variety, with small 
roundish-conical fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, often covered with pale- 
brown russet. Flesh yellow, firm, juicy, with a rich sugary aromatic 
flavour. Ripens late, keeps a long time, and is one of the richest dessert 
Apples. Tree vigorous and a very good bearer. 

Irish Peach (Early Grojton). — A well-known old English variety, 
with roundish flattened fruit, medium- sized or under. Skin nearly 
covered with brownish-red. Flesh white, tender, juicy, and well flavoured. 
Ripens before mid-season, is a fairly good dessert fruit, but will only 
keep a short time. Tree ha^dy, prolific, and not subject to bHght. 

Isle of Wight Pippin (Orange Pippin). — A very old English variety, 
with medium-sized roundish fruit, a little flattened. Skin deep yellow, 
with an orange-brown cheek and traced with thin russet. Flesh yellow, 
firm, juicy, with a pleasant aromatic sub-acid flavour. Ripens medium 
late, will keep for three or four months, and is an excellent dessert 
Apple. Tree moderately vigorous and fairly productive. 



. 158 




Iiish Peach. 



JewetVs Best— An American variety of excellent quality, wit!) large 
oblate or nearly globular fruit. Skin greenish -yellow, heavily shaded 
with deep-red. Flesh yellowish -white, juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. 
Ripens late, keeps well, and is a good dessert Apple. Tree strong, hardy, 
and px'oductive. 

Jollj/ Beggar. — A favorite old English culinary variety, with large 
roundish fruit. Skin pale-yellow, with an orange cheek. Flesh white, 
juicy, aud briskly sub-acid. Ripens medium late, and will keep two or 
three months. Tree hardy, comes into bearing early, and an extraordinary 
heavy cropper. 

Jonathan (King Philip). — This is one of the finest and best of the 
American varieties. Fruit medium-sized or larger, roundish-conical, and 
tapering towards the eye. Skin overspread with deep-red, with darker 
stripes. Flesh white, sometimes tinged with pink, tender, juicy, with a 
sprightly vinous flavour, Riijens late, will keep a long time, is an excellent 
dessert Apple, and suitable for export. Tree very hardy, vigorous, and 
a free bearer. 

Joanneting (Golden Beauty, Juneating). — A very old and formerly 
popular English variety, with small round flattened fruit. Skin light- 
yellow, with a red blush. Flesh white, crisp, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Ripens about mid-summer, and is a useful early dessert Apple. Tree 
vigorous and a fairly good bearer. 

Keddleiiton Ftp-pin^ — An English varietj', with small regularly formed 
conical fruit. Skin briglit-yellow with veinings and specks of russet. 



159 . 

Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, with an aromatic flavour, RipeHS late, 
keeps well, and is a first-rate dessert Apple. Tree moderately vigorous 
and j)roductive. 




Jonathan. 

Kentish Filihasket. — A well-known and popular English variety, with 
very large roundish-angular fruit. Skin ojreenish -yellow, with a brownish- 
red blush, and streaked with diarker-red, Flesh yellowish- white, tender, 
juicy, and sub-acid. Kipens after mid-season, will keep a few weeks, and 
is an excellent kitchen Apple. Tree strong, hardy, and prolific. 

Kentucky Red Streak (Winter lied Streak J. — An excellent American 
variety, with medium-sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, 
heavily shaded with dark pur[:(lish-red, and indistinctly striped, also 
spotted with light dots so thickly as to give a mottled appearance. 
Flesh white, tender, juicy, and mildly sub-acid. Ripens late, \Yin keep a 
long time, a good dessert and cooking Apple, and suitable for export. 
Tree vigorous, productive, and a regular bearer. 

Kerry Pippin (Edmonton Aromatic l^ippin).—A\\ old and popular 
Irish variety, with medium-sized oval fruit, flattened and wrinkled at the 
eye. Skin pale-yellow, tinged and streaked with red. Flesh yellowish, 
firm, crisp, juicy, with a rich sugary flavour. Ripens towards the end of 
summer, will keep for several weeks, and is a first-class dessert Apple. 

Kesivick CodUn. — A w^ell-known and popular old English culinary 
variety, with large conical irregularly angular fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, 
with a faint blush on one side. Flesh yellowish-white, juicy, and 
pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens about mid-season, is an excellent Apple 
for cooking or drying, but will ia^iily keep a few weeks. Tree vigorous, 
prolific, and an early bearer. 



160 




Keswick Oodlin. 




King of Tompkin*8 County. 



161 

King of Tompkiri't County (King AppUy Tommy Bed J. — A showy and 
good American variety, with very large globular inclining to conical fruit. 
Skin yellow, deeply shaded, splashed and striped with red. Flesh 
yellowish, juicy, tender, with a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens late, keeps 
a long time, and is a good dessert or culinary Apple. Tree vigorou», 
spreading, a regular bearer, and heavy cropper. 

Lady Apple (Api). — A French variety, popular in Europe, with very 
small round flattened fruit. Skin smooth and glossy, with a brilliant-red 
cheek upon a deep-yellow ground. Flesh white, crisp, juicy, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Ripens late, will keep for a long period, and is a 
handsome little dessert Apple. Tree hardy, vigorous, and bears freely 
the fruit forminc: in bunches. 




Lady Apple. 




Lady Henniker. 



162 

Lady Henniker. — A popular and showy English variety, with large 
roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellow, richly streaked with red. Flesh 
yellowish- white, juicy and well flavoured. Ripens late, keeps well, and is 
an excellent dessert and culinary Apple. Tree strong and productive. 

Lamb Ahhei/ Pearmain. — One of the finest old English dessert Apples. 
Fruit medium-sized roundish-conical flattened at the ends. Skin greenish- 
yellow, splashed and striped with two shades of red. Flesh yellow, crisp, 
juicy, with a rich sweet aromatic flavour. Ripens late, keeps for a long 
period, and well suited for an export trade. Tree fairly vigorous and 
very prolific 




Lamb Abbey Pearmain, 

Lane's Prince Albert. — A newly introduced English Apple, which is 
said to possess great merit. Fruit large, varying in shape from conical to 
ovate. Skin pale-yellow, heavily streaked and tinted with deep-crimson. 
Flesh very firm, crisp, juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens late, keeps well, 
and said to be a high-class culinary Apple. Tree robust, very hardy, and 
bears freely. 

Late Wine. — An excellent American variety, with roundish-conical 
fruit, rather below the medium size. Skin shading from light to dark 
crimson and purplish-red. Flesh white, tender, juicy, and sub-acid. 
Ripens medium late, will keep two or three months, and is a good Apple 
for either dessert or cooking. Tree vigorous, bears early and freely. 

Lemon Pippin. — An old and popular English variety, with medium 
sized oval fruit. Skin lemon-yellow. Flesh yellowish- white, firm, juicy, 
with a brisk flavour. Ripens late, will keep well, and is a good Apple 
for dessert or cooking. Tree moderately vigorous, and bears freely. 




Herefordshire Pearmain. 



Letvis' Incomparable. — An excellent English variety, with large conical 
fruit. Skin lively-red, streaked with a darker shade. Flesh yellowish, 
firm, crisp, juicy, with a slight aromatic flavour. Ripens medium late, 
will keep for three or four months, and is a good dessert and culinary 
Apple. Tree hardy, strong, and productive. 

Lincolnshire Holland Pippin (Striped Holla, ul Pippin). — An old 
Enghsh variety, with large roundish flattened fruit. Skin yellow, with 
stripes of red. Flesh white, crisp, and slightly acid. Ripens medium 
late, will keep for two or three months, and is a fairly good cooking 
Apple. Tree strong and prolific. 

Lnddivgton Seedling (Stone's Apple).— A recently introduced English 
variety, and said to be a first-class Apple. Fruit large and showy. Skin 
shining yellowish-green, with a brown-red cheek and broken streaks of 
crimson. Flesh white, solid, tender, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens late, will keep for a long period, and said to be an excellent 
culinary Apple. Tree vigorous, prolific, and comes into bearing early. 

Lodgemore Nonpareil CGlissolds Seedling). — A favourite English 
variet}, with medium-sized roundish fruit. Skin deep-yellow, with a 
blush of red on one side and dotted with grey. Flesh yellowish, firm, 
crisp, juicy, with a rich aroma. Ripens late, can be kept for a long time, 
is a first-class dessert Apple, and suitable for export. Tree strong and 
productive. 

Lord Biirghley. — An excellent English variety, with medium-sized 
roundish fruit, slightly flattened, ribbed at the eye, and somewhat angular. 
Skin g«jlden-yellow, with a deep crimson cheek and dotted freely with 



164 

russet specks. Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, with a rich fine flavour. 
Ripens late, keeps for a long period, a first-class dessert Apple, and 
suitable for export. Tree vigorous and a very good bearer. 

Lord Derby. — An English culinary Apple of excellent quality, with 
large roundish fruit having prominent ridges. Skin dark-green, with 
russet dots. Flesh greenish-white and very juicy. Ripens late and will 
keep for several months. 

Ix)rd Grosvenor. — An English variety, with large roundish-conical fruit, 
irregularly and prominently ribbed, and puckered towards the eye. Skin 
pale-yellow, with traces of russet. Flesh white, tender, juicy, and sub-acid. 
Ripens early, and a good cooking Apple. Tree a very good bearer. 

Lord Lennox. — A very useful English dessert variety, with rather small 
roundish-oblate fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with a bright-red flush and 
streaked with a darker shade. Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, and highly 
flavoured. Ripens late, is a first-class dessert Apple, and will keep for a 
long time. Tree strong and prolific. 

Lord Nelson fKirke's Lord, Nelson). — A well-known and popular 
Fuglish variety, with very large roundish fruit. Skin pale-yellow 
heavily streaked with red. Flesh yellowish-white, sweet, and juicy 
Ripens after mid-season, suitable for cooking and dessert, but is not a 
very good keeper. Tree vigorous, very hardy, and bears freely. 



Lord Nelaon* 



165 

Lord Suffield. — A valuable and popular English variety, considered by 
many to be an improvement upon the Keswick Codlin. Fruit above 
medium-size, conical. Skin greenish-yellow, with a slight red tinge upon 
the cheek. Flesh white, firm, juicy, and briskly flavoured. Kipens after 
mid-season, will keep for several months, is one of our best cooking 
Apples, and a good kind for cider. Tree hardy, strong, and a great 
bearer. 

Lord Wolseley. — An excellent New Zealand variety that has obtained a 
high reputation, and is said to be a cross between the Irish Peach and 
Stone Pippin. Fruit medium-sized roundish-conical. Skin light-green. 
Flesh firm, juicy, and briskly flavoured. Ripens late, keeps for a long 
time, and is a good dessert and culinary Apple. Tree robust, a heavy 
cropper, and said to be quite blight -proof. 

Lucomhe's Seedling. — An English variety, with large roundish-angular 
fruit. Skin yellowish-green, with darker spots and streaked with crimson 
on one side. Flesh white, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. Ripens late, 
will keep a long time, and is an excellent cooking Apple. 

Maclean's Favorite. — A first-class English variety, with medium-sized 
roundish fruit. Skin yellow. Flesh crisp, juicy, with a flavour resembling 
the Newtown Pippin. Ripens medium late, will keep two or three 
months, and is a good dessert Apple. Tree not very robust, but an 
excellent bearer. 

McAfees Nonesuch. — An American variety, with large globular fruit, 
inclining to oblate. Skin yellowish-green, shaded and heavily striped 
with crimson. Flesh whitish, solid, crisp, and sub-acid. Ripens late, 
keeps a long time, and is an excellent dessert Apple. Tree strong and 
very productive. 

M auk's Codlin (Frith Pitcher, Irish Pitcher, Irish Codlin). — An old 
English culinary Apple, with medium-sized conical fruit. Skin pale- 
yellow, with a blush-red cheek. Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, sub-acid, 
with a slight aroma. Ripens in the autumn, mil keep two or three 
months, and is an excellent cooking Apple. Tree hardy, productive, and 
comes into bearing early. 

Maideits Blush. — A handsome and useful American variety, with 
medium-sized, or over, roundish-conical fruit. Skin pale-yellow, with a 
deep-crimson cheek widely spread. Flesh white, tender, and pleasantly 
sub-acid. Ripens about mid-season, will keep for several weeks, suitable 
for both dessert and cooking, and an excellent apple for drying. Tree 
rolust and v^ery prolific. 

Manningtons Pearmain. — A high-class English variety, with medium- 
sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellow, heavily shaded and splashed 
with red, with tracings of russet and dotted with grey. Flesh yellow, 
firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, with an aromatic flavour. Ripens late, will 
keep for several months, and is an excellent dessert Apple. Tree hardy, 
productive and an early bearer. 

M argil {Ntverfail, Murches Pippin). — An old English variety, with 
small ovate-conical slightly-angular fruit. Skin orange, streaked and 
mottled with red with tracings of russet. Flesh yellow, firm, juicy, with 
a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a long period, and is 



166 

one of the richest flavoured dessert Apples. Tree moderately robust and 
a fairly good bearer. 




Mannington's Pearmain. 




Margii. 



167 



Marston's Red Winter. — A useful and excellent American variety, with 
roundish conical fruit, above the medium-size. Skin ground colour 
yellow, but very heavily shaded and striped with crimson and sprinkled 
with minute dots. Flesh yellowish-white, very juicy, and pleasantly 
sub -acid. Ripens late, will keep for several months, and an excellent 
dessert or culinary Apple ; also suitable for export. Tree hardy, of 
moderate growth, and a great bearer. 

Maveracl^'sSiveet, — A good American variety, with large roundish-oblate 
fruit. Skin yellow, but mostly shaded, with rich deep-red, and sprinkled 
with grey dots. FlesJi yellowish, tender, rich, and sweet. Ripens late, 
will keep for three or four months, and is a good cooking or dessert 
Apple. Tree vigorous, productive, "and an early bearer. 

McLellan. — An American variety, with large roundish-oblate fruit. 
Skin yellow, richly splashed, striped, afid marbled with red. Flesh white, 
very tender, with a rich sweet vinoiis flavour. Ripens late, will keep 
for a long period, a good dessert and culinary Ap2>le, and is suitable for 
drying. Tree vigorous, productive, and a regular bearer. 

Mela Gar la (Male Car la, Charles Apple). — A well-known and popular 
Italian variety, with medium-sized roundish-ovate fruit. Skin thin, of a 
clear waxen-yellow on one side and bright-crimson on the other. Flesh 
white, very juicy, sweet, aromatic, with a vinous flavour. Ripens late, 
keeps for several months, and is a delicious dessert Apple. Tree somewhat 
tender in cold districts, but thrives iti warmer localities, and bears freely. 




Meloii Apple. 



168 

Melov Apple (Norton's Melon ^ Watermtlon). — An excellent American 
variety, with medium-sized, or larger, roundish-oblate fruit, narrowing a 
little towards the eye. Skin lemon-yellow, with a light-crimson cheek, 
and splashed, striped, and mottled with a darker shade. Flesh yellowish- 
white, tender, crisp, juicy, sweet, and vinous, with a delicate aroma. 
Ripens medium late, will keep for three or four months, and is a fine 
dessert Apple. Tree only moderately vigorous but a good bearer. 




Mere de Menage. 

' - Mere de Menage {Comhermere Apple, Flanden^ Pippin). — A showy 
variety of uncertain origin, somewhat similiar to the Emperor Alexander. 
Fruit very large roundish-ovate. Skin nearly overspread with red, with 
numerous darker streaks. Flesh yellowish-white, crisp, juicy, and briskly 
sub-acid. Ripens about mid-season may be kept for a few weeks, is a 
good cooking Apple, and suitable for drying. Tree strong and bears 
freely. 

Minchall Crab (Lancashire Crab). — An old English culinary variety, 
with large round fruit, considerably depressed. Skin greenish-yellow, 
with traces of russet and one side tinged and striped with dull-red. 
Flesh white, firm, and briskly acid. Ripens late, keeps a long time, and 
is a good cooking Apple. Tree hardy and a good bearer. 

Minier^s Dumpling. — An English variety, with large roundish, some- 
what flattened, and slightly angular fruit. Skin dark-green, with a dull- 



169 

red cheek. Flesh greenish -white, firm, juicy, and sub-acid. Ripens late, 
keeps for a long period, and is a first-class cooking and drying Apple. 
Tree robust and an excellent cropper. 

MohUs Royal. — A large and excellent culinary variety, which is some- 
times known as Fillbasket. Fruit very large, round, and somewhat 
flattened. Skin bright-green, with a yellow tinge and a brownish-red 
flush. Flesh firm, very juicy, with a brisk sub-acid flavour. Ripens 
after mid-season, is an excellent cooking Apple, and suitable for drying. 
Tree robust and a free bearer. 

Morgan's Seedling. — An excellent and popular variety, with medium- 
sized roundish fruit. Skin yellow, with stripes of red. Flesh juicy and 
well flavoured. Ripens late, keeps well, and a good dessert or culinary 
Apple. Tree strong and a prolific bearer. 

Moss's Incomparable. — An English variety, with medium-sized roundish- 
oblate fruit, bkin yellow ground, heavily streaked with red. Flesh 
yellowish, crisp, and juicy. Ripens after mid-season, and is an excellent 
dessert or cooking Apple. 

Mr. Gladstone. — A very popular English variety, with rather small to 
medium-sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin heavily shaded with dull-red, 
and thickly striped with crimson. Flesh tender, juicy, with a brisk 
pleasant flavour, ripens early, and a first-class dessert Apple. Tree 
vigorous and bears freely. 

Munroes Favourite. — A popular culinary variety, with very large 
roundish-conical irregular fruit. Skin yellowish-green, with a slight red 
cheek. Flesh juicy and briskly flavoured. Ripens medium late, is an 
excellent cooking Apple, and will keep for some time ; suitable for export 
Tree hardy, robust, and very prolific. 

I^ewtown Pippin (American Newtown Pippin, Brooke's Pippin, Hun^s 
Newtown Pippin, Green Winter Pippin). — A well-known and popular 
variety of American origin, with medium-sized roundish rather irregular 
and slightly ribbed fruit. Skin olive-green, with a brownish-red cheek, 
dotted with grey specks, and tracings of russet near the stalk. Flesh 
greenish- white, crisp, very juicy, with a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens 
late, may be kept for a long period, is a first-class dessert Apple, and also 
suitable for export This Apple is largely shipped from America to the 
British market. Tree moderately vigorous and a fairly good bearer. 

New England Pigeon. — An American variety which is blight-proof. 
Fruit medium -sized, rather irregular roundish-conical. Skin highly 
coloured. Flesh juicy and well flavoured. 

Nev) Rock Pippin. — An English variety, with medium-sized, roundish, 
flattened, and somewhat irregular fruit. Skin dull-green, with a brown 
blush and traced with russet. Flesh yellow, juicy, firm, and well flavoured. 
Ripens late, will keep three or four months, and is a good dessert variety. 
Tree vigorous and productive. 

Newtown Spitzenburgh (Burlington, Matchless, Ox Et/e). — A first-class 
and popular American variety, with medium-sized roundish-oblate fruit. 
Skin yellow, sprinkled with grey specks, washed with light-red, and 
heavily striped and splashed with a deeper colour. Flesh yellow, crisp, 
tender, juicy, with a rich vinous flavour. Ripens late, keeps a long time, 
and is a fine dessert Apple. Tree moderately vigorous and bears freely. 



170 

Nichajacl', {Carolina Spice, Bed Pij^jnn, Winte?^ Rose). — One of the 
best and most popular of the American varieties. Fruit medium -sized 
or over, roundish-oblate. Skin nearly covered with red, splashed and 
striped with a darker shade, and speckled with small yellowish dots. 
Flesh yellowish, compact, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. Ripens late, a 
very long keeper, a good dessert and market Apple, and suitable for 
export. Tree robust, very hardy, and bears in abundance. 




Nickajack. 

Novesuch. — A very old popular and excellent English variety, with 
medium-sized round flattened fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, striped and 
spotted with dull-red. Flesh white, tender, juicy, aud pleasantly sub- 
acid. Ripens after mid-season, will keep for several weeks, and is a 
useful Apple either for dessert oi- cooking. Tree vigorous and a good 
bearer. 

Nonpareil [English Xonjoareil, Hunt's Nonpareil, Lovedon^s Pippin). — 
A very old and well-known English variety, with medium-sized roundish- 
conical fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with a brownish-red cheek and 
patches and tracings of russet. Flesh greenish-white, crisp, aromatic, 
with a sprightly sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a long time, 
and is a first-class dessert Apple. Tree vigorous and very productive. 

Norfolk Bearer. — A useful English variety, with medium-sized roundish 
fruit, somewhat angular round the eye. Skin yellowish-green, with a 
heavy dark-crimson cheek. Flesh greenish- white, juicy, tender, crisp, 
with a brisk agreeable flavour. Ripens medium late, will keep three or 
four months, is an excellent culinary Apple, and suitable for making 
cider. Tree strong, hardy and a very great bearer, hence the name. 



171 




Nonpariel. 




Norfolk Beefing. 

Norfolk Beefing (Norfolk Beaufin, Catshead Beefing, Read's Baker). — 
A very old and well-known English variety, with large round fruit 
slightly flattened. Skin dull-green, with a deep brownish-red cheek. 
Flesh greenish-white, firm, crisp, juicy, with a brisk acid flavour. Ripens 
late, will keep for a very long time, is a first-rate cooking Apple, and one 
of the best for drying. Tree robust and prolific. 



172 

Northern Greening (W aimer Court).— A. very good old English culinary- 
variety, with large roundish ovate fruit. Skin dull yellowish-green, 
strewed with large grey dots, with a brownish-red cheek Flesh greenish 
white, juicy, and sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep a long time, and is an 
excellent cooking Apple. Tree strong and generally bears freely. 

Northern Spi/. — A well-known useful American variety, which is 
highly valued through its being blight-proof. Fruit rather large ovate- 
conical. Skin yellow, but to a large extent covered with streaks of light 
and dark red. Flesh yellowish white, tender, juicy, slightly sub-acid, and 
richly flavoured. Ripens late, will keep for a \ery long time, is an 
excellent dessert and market Apple, and suitable for export. Tree 
robust, upright in growth, is late in coming into bearing ; rather shy in 
fruiting for a few years, but afterwards bears as freely as other kinds 
This variety, owing to its being blight-proof, is used as a stock for 
grafting other kinds upon. 




Northern Spy. 

OsHn (Arbroath Pippin, Mother Apple).— An old Scotch variety, with 
medium-sized roundish rather flattened fruit. Skin lemon-yellow, sprinkled 
with a few greyish-green dots. Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, with a 
rich aromatic flavour. Ripens at mid-season, and is an excellent summer 
dessert Apple, but will only keep a few weeks. Tree vigorous, hardy, 
and very prolific. 



173 

Fearsons Plate. — An old and excellent English variety, with rather 
small roundish-flattened fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with a red cheek. 
Flesh greenish-white, crisp, tender, juicy, with a brisk sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens late, will keep for several months, and is a first-class dessert Apple. 
Tree moderately vigorous and bears freely. 




Pearson's Plate. 




Pease^ood's Nonesuch. 



174 

Peasegood's N'onesuck. — A popular and useful variety, with large 
roundish-oblate fruit. Skin yellow, with red stripes. Flesh very juicy 
and briskly flavoured. Ripens rather late, is an excellent culinary or 
dessert Apple, and keeps well. Tree strong and an abundant bearer. 

Feck's Pleasant ( Waltz Apple). — An excellent American variety, 
belonging to the Newtown Pippin class. Fruit above medium-size, 
roundish, and slightly ribbed. Skin deep-yellow, with a bright-red blush 
and dotted slightly with grey. Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, and well 
flavoured. Ripens late, an excellent keeper, and a good table Apple. 

Perfection (Shepherd's Perfection). — A variety of excellent quality, 
raised at Somerville, in Victoria, which is to some extent in appearance 
and quality similar to the well-known Scarlet Nonpareil. Fruit above 
medium-size, roundish ovate. Skin greenish-yellow, richly striped and 
dashed with different shades of red. Flesh white, juicy, and highly 
flavoured. Ripens medium late, will keep for a long time, and is an 
excellent dessert Apple ; also a good Apple for exporting. Tree vigorous, 
an abundant bearer, and but slightly affected by blight. 

Pineapple Russet. — A first-class English russet variety, with medium 
sized, roundish-ovate, and somewhat angular fruit. Skin greenish yellow, 
dotted with white, and thickly covered on one side with light-russet. 
Flesh yellowish- white, tender, juicy, with a sprightly pineapple flavour. 
Ripens medium late, may be kept two or three months, and is a good 
dessert Apple. Tree of moderate growth and a fairly good bearer. 

Pitmaston Nonpareil (Russet Coat Nonpsireil). — An English variety, 
with medium-sized roundish-oblate fruit. Skin dull-green, with a faint- 
red cheek, and covered with thin yellow-russet. Flesh greenish-yellow, 
firm, with a rich aromatic flavour. Ripens medium-late, may be kept two 
or three months, and is a good dessert Apple. Tree moderately vigorous 
and a fair cropper. 




Pomme de Neige. 



175 

Pomme Je Neige (Fo.meuse, S^ioiv /I/j^^/c),- An excellent and favorite 
variety from Canada, and probably of French origin. Fruit medinm-sized 
or under, roundish, somewhat flattened. Skin with a ground of greenish 
yellow, but heavily marked with blotches, shades, and stripes of red. 
Flesh very white, tender, juicy, with a rich and slightly aromatic flavour. 
Ripens medium late, and will keep two or three months. Tree moderately 
robust, bears freely, and is but little aff'ected with blight. 

Prince Bismarh —A showy, well-known, and popular Victorian variety, 
said to have been raised at Carisbrook. Fruit very large, roundish- 
conical, and somewhat similar to Emperor Alexander. Skin yellow, 
heavily streaked with different shades of red. Flesh creamy-white, crisp, 
juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens about mid-season, will 
keep for a few weeks, and is a good Apple either for dessert or cooking. 
Tree robust, hardy, prolific and an early bearer. 

Prince of the Pippins. — A very good Victorian variety with medium - 
sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin heavily flushed and striped with 
various shades of red. Flesh juicy, firm, and highly flavoured. Ripens 
after mid-season, is a very good dessert Apple, and keeps moderately well. 
Tree fairly vigorous and a free bearer, 

Queen of the Pippins {Reine des Reinettes). — A variety of uncertain 
origin, with medium-sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin deep bright- 
yellow, shaded, splashed, and marbled with red, and a few grey dots, 
Flesh yellowish- white firm, crisp, juicy, and slightly aromatic. Ripens late, 
will keep three or four months, and is a first-class dessert Apple. Tree 
moderately vigorous, and a good bearer. 




Red Astrachan. 



176 

Red Astrachan (Anqlesea Pippin). — A well-known, popular, and useful 
Swedish variety, with roundish-ccnical fruit, somewhat angular. Skin 
almost entirely overspread with deep bright-red, and covered with a white 
bloom. Flesh white, crisp, moderately juicy, sub-acid, and well flavoured. 
Ripens early, is an excellent dessert Apple, and a serviceable market 
variety. The fruit however will only keep a short time, and must be 
gathered before it is dead ripe, or otherwise it becomes too mealy. Tree 
hardy, vigorous, very prolific, and an early bearer. 

Red Inqestrie. — An old and excellent English variety, with rather small 

roundish-oblong fruit. Skin deep-yellow, with a heavy-red cheek and 

.speckled. Flesh pale-yellow, firm, very juicy, with a rich flavour. 

Ripens late, will keep three or four months, and is a first class dessert 

Apple. Iree moderately vigorous and generally bears freely. 

Redstreak (Herefordshire Redstreak, Scuddamore's Grab). — A first-class 
old English cider Apple, with medium-sized roundish fruit. Skin deep- 
yellow, streaked all over with red. Flesh yellowish, firm and sub-acid. 
Ripens medium late, may be kept for a few weeks; is a good culinary 
Apple, and one of the best kinds that can be grown for cider. Tree very 
robust, hardy, and a great bearer. 



Reinette du Canada. 



177 

Red Warrior. — An American variety, somewhat re=5embling Nickajack, 
with large roundish oblate fruit. Skin nearly covered with stripes and 
marblings of two shades of red. Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, and well 
flavoured. Ripens late, will keep a long time, and is a good dessert or 
cooking Apple. Tree vigorous and productive. 

Reinette du Canada {h'ortugal, St. Helena Russet). — One of the best 
known and most useful Apples, which, notwithstanding its name, is of 
doubtful origin,, but supposed to have been raised in France. Fruit very-^ 
large, roundish-conical, angular, and somewhat flattened. Skin greenish- 
yellow . marked with brown, and sprinkled with patches and dots of russet. 
Flesh white, firm, juicy, with a rich sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, will 
keep a very long time ; is a good dessert Apple, and excellent for cooking. 
It is also one of the best Apples for an export trade. Tree vigorous in 
habit, hardy, and very productive. 

Reinette Rouge Hatif. — A handsome and useful early French variety 
with medium-size roundish fruit. Skin thickly striped with red and 
carmine. Flesh firm, juicy, and richly flavoured. Ripens early, and is a 
very good dessert Apple. Tree moderately robust and generally a good 
cropper. 

Reinette van Motis. — An excellent dessert Apple, whose origin is 
uncertain. Fruit below medium-size, roundish-ovate, flattened, with five 
slight ribs. Skin rich-yellow, witli an orange-red cheek and a thin, 
coating of brown russet. Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, sub-acid, with an 
aromatic flavour. Ripens late, can be kept for a long period, and is a 
first-cla^s dessert Apple Tree strong and bears freely. 

Rhode Island Greening {Burlington Greening., Jersey Greening). — An 
excellent and well known American variety, with, large roundish fruit, a 
little flattened. Skin greenish-yellow, and sometimes a dull blush near 
the stalk. Flesh yellow, crisp, very juicy, with a rich sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens late, will keep for a long time, and is a good culinary and dessert 
^■^pple. Tree very hardy, robust, and a good bearer. 

Rihston Pippin (^Formosa Pippin, Glory of York, Traver's Pippin). — 
A well-known old English variety, which in the United Kingdom is 
considered to be the King of Apples, on account of its rich, pecuUar, and 
distinct flavour, and being a good keeper. In this part of the world, 
however, it does not maintain its high English character, as there is a 
great falling off in flavour, and the fruit will not keep for any length of 
time. Fruit medium-sized or larger, roundish. Skin greenish -yellow, 
clouded and streaked with dull-red. Flesh, yellow, crisp, juicy, with a 
rich aromatic flavour when perfect. Ripens soon after mid-season, and 
will keep for three or four months. Tree not very robust, a good bearer, 
but rather liable to blight. Better adapted for the colder parts of Aus- 
tralasia than other districts. 

Rokewood (Bullock's Seedling) — A very good variety raised in Victoria, 
which promises to prove a useful acquisition to the list of cultivated 
sorts. Fruit roundish-conical and regularly shaped. Skin deep- 
orange, heavily shaded with crimson and dotted with brown-russet. 
Flesh yellowish, firm, and juicy, with a rich aromatic flavour. Ripbns 
late, will keep for a very long time, is an excellent dessert Apple, 



178 

and a good kind for exporting. The original tree lias proved to be a 
regular and heavy bearer. 




Bibston Pippin. 




Komanite* 



179 

Ho'nianite. — A first-class American variety, with roundish-conical fruit. 
Skin yellow ground, but nearly overspread with bright-red and sprinkled 
with light dots. Flesh yellowish, juicy, mildly sub-acid, and pleasantly 
flavoured. Ripens late, will keep for a long time, an excellent dessert 
Apple, and suitable for export. Tree vigorous, hardy, and very pro- 
ductive. 

Home Beauty {GilleWs Seedling). — An excellent American variety, with^ 
large, ronndish, and &!^<j;htly conical fruit. Skin ground-yellow, but to a " 
large extent shaded ana striped with bright-red and sprinkled with light 
dots. Flesh yellowish, juicy, with a sprightly sub-acid flavour. Ripens 
late, may be kept for a long period, is a fii-st-cla&s dessert Apple, and an 
exeellent variety for a local market and export. Tree vigorous and a good 
bearer. 




Rome Beauty. 

Rosemary Russet. — An old English variety, with medium-sized roundish- 
conical fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with a light-red blush and covered 
with thin pale-russet. Flesh yellowish, firm, juicy, with a rich aromatic 
flavour. "Hipens medium late, will keep for three or four months, and is 
an excellent dessert Apple, Tree moderately vigorous and a fairly good 
bearer. 

Ross' Nonpareil. — A good old Irish variety, with medium-sized roundish 
fruit, narrowing a little towards the eye. Skin covered with thin brown- 
russet, with a faint-red cheek. Flesh greenish-white, with a pleasant 
aromatic flavour. Ripens late, will keep three or four months, and a very 
good dessert Apple. Tree strong and bears profusely. 

Royal Russet (Leather coat Russet). — An old En lish variety, with 
medium-sized roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellowish-green, mostly covered 



180 

with light-brown russet. Flesh greenish-white, firm, briskly acid, and 
slightly aromatic. Ripens late, will keep for a long period, and is an 
excellent culinary Apple. Tree vigorous, hardy, and productive. 

Ryme {Caldwell) — A first-class and popular old English variety, with 
medium-sized, or larger, roundish-oblate regularly-formed fruit. 8kin 
yellow ground, but to a great extent shaded with red. Flesh yellowish, 
firm, juicy, sub-acid, and well flavoured. Ripens late, will keep for a 
long time, and an excellent dessert and culinary Apple ; also a good 
variety for exporting. Tree robust and an excellent bearer. 

Sam Young {Irish Rmset). — An old Irish variety, with rather small 
roundish, slightly flattened, and regularly formed fruit. Skin bright- 
yellow, nearly covered with grey-russet, with a reddish tinge on the 
cheek- Flesh greenish-yellow, juicy, and richly flavoured. Ripens late, 
will keep for three or four months, and is an excellent little dessert Apple. 
Tree hardy, robust, and' productive. 

Scarlet Nonpariel. — A well-known and very popular old English variety, 
with medium-sized, roundish, somewhat flattened^ regularly-formed fruit. 
Skin greenish-yellow, richly striped and shaded with red. Flesh yellowish- 
white, firm, juicy, and rich flavoured. Ripens medium late, will keep 
for several months, and is one of the finest dessert Apples. Is also a 
very popular market variety, and suitable for export. Tree moderately 
robust and a good bearer, but often badly affected by blight. 




Scarlet Nonpariel 

Scarlet Pearrnain {BeWfi Scarlet, Hood's Seedling, Oxford Peach). — A 
first-class old English variety, with mediuni-jsized conical fruit. Skin 



181 

yellow ground, but to a large extent covered with various shades of red. 
Flesh white, slightly tinged with pink, crisp, juicy, sub-acid, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Ripens late, will keep for several months, and is 
an excellent dessert Apple. Tree robust and very prolific. 




Scarlet Pearraain' 

Shepherd^s Fame. — An old English variety, with large roundish-oblite 
slightly-ribbed fruit. Skin deep-yellow, richly streaked with various 
shades of red. Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, and well flavoured. 
Ripens late, will keep three or four months, and is a good dessert or 
culinary Apple. 

ShocUei/. — A first-class American variety, with roundish-conical fruit, 
rather below the medium size. Skin pale-yellow ground, but overspread 
with red and with conspicuous minute dots. Flesh yellowish-white, 
crisp, juicy, with a rich vinous flavour. Hipens late, will keep for a very 
long period, and is an excellent dessert Apple, a profitable market 
variety, and suitable for export. Tree moderately, vigorous, very 
productive, a regular cropper, commences to bear early, and does not 
suffer much from blight. 

Shorland Queen. — An excellent Victorian variety, with medium-sized 
conical fruit. Skin richly flushed and streaked with red. Flesh juicy 
and pleasant. 

SmaiCs Admirable. — A good English variety, with roundish-ovate and 
somewhat flattened fruit, above medium-size. Skin of a uniform 



182 

lemon colour. Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, sub-acid, with a rich delicate 
flavour. Ripens medium late, will keep three pr four months, 
and is a good dessert or culinary Apple. Tree a very prolific bearer, and 
well suited for dwarf culture. 




Shockley. 

Smith's Cider. — An American variety, with medium-sized to large 
roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellow, shaded and striped with red, and 
thinly sprinkled with grey dots. Flesh whitish, juicy, crisp, and mildly 
sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep several months, and is an excellent 
culinary and cider Apple, Tree very vigorous, hardy, and a heavy 
cropper. 

Stamford Pippin. — An old and popular English variety, with medium- 
sized roundish-ovate fruit. Skin bright-yellow, with a deep-orange cheek. 
Flesh yellowish, crisp, very juicy, with a brisk pleasant and slightly 
aromatic flavour. Ripens late, will keep three or four months, and is a 
good Apple for dessert or cooking. Tree moderately robust and a fairly 
good bearer 

Stansill. — A first-class American variety, with roundish-oblate fruit, 
medium-sized or larger. Skin yellowish-green, richly striped with red, 
and sometimes a blush cheek. Flesh yellow, juicy, sub-acid, and well 
flavoured. Ripens, late will keep a long time, and is an excellent dessert 
Apple. Suitable for export. Tree vip:orous, hardy, productive, and an 
early bearer. 

Stewarts Seedling, — An excellent Victorian variety, raised in the 
Ballarat district, with roundish ovate fruit, above the medium-size. Skin 



183 

yellowish-green, heavily flushed, and shaded with red. Flesh greenish- 
white, juicy, with a good flavour. Kipens late, will keep several months, 
and is a first-class dessert Apple ; also suitable for export. 

Stone Pijypin — A well-known and popular English variety, which is 
largely cultivated in Australasia. Fruit medium-sized, or larger,' roundish- 
conical. Skin pale-green, sometimes with a brownish-red tino-e on the 
cheek, and dotted with white specks. Flesh greenish-white, firm, crisp, 
juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a very 
long time, and is a first-class culinary and dessert variety ; also a-^ood 
Apple for exporting, and one of the most popular kinds for our local markets. 
Tree upright in habit, vigorous, hardy, and a very free bearer. 




Stone Pippin. 



Striped Beefing. — An excellent old English culinary variety, with large 
roundish and slightly-flattened fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, almost 
entirely covered with broken streaks and patches of red. Flesh yellowish, 
firm, crisp, juicy, with a pleasant acid flavour. Ripens late, will keep 
for a long time, is a first-class culinary Apple, and well suited for drying. 
Tree vigorous and prolific, 

Sturmer Pippin. — A popular and first-class old English variety, with 
roundish somewhat flattened fruit, medium-sized. Skin yellow, with a 
brownish-red cheek. Flesh yellowish, firm, with a rich sub-acid flavour. 



]H4 

Ripens late, will keep for ca long period, and ranks as one of the finest 
dessert Apples. A very popular variety in our local markets, and 
suitable for export. Tree hardy, thrifty, and bears freely. 

Summer Fearmain (Autumn JPearmain). — An old English variety, with 
medium-sized, or lai'ger, roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellow, striped 
and mottled with red and orange, and dotted with brown. Flesh 
yellowish-white, crisp, juicy, with an aromatic flavour. Ripens medium 
late, will keep for three or four months, and is an excellent dessert 
Apple. Tree rouust and productive. 

Summer Goh^en Pippin. — An old and good English variety, with ovate 
fruit, below the medium size. Skin bright-yellow, with an orange-red 
cheek Flesh yellowish, firm, very juicy, with a rich vinous flavour. An 
excellent early dessert Apple, but will only keep a few weeks. Tree 
moderately robust and a free bearer. 

Swaar {Hardwich) . — A first-class American variety, raised by a Dutch 
settler, that derives its name from the unusual weight of the fruit, which 
in Low Dutch means heavy. Fruit roundish-oblate, large, and regularly 
formed. Skin deep-yellow, with numerous brown specks and faint 
traces of russet. Flesh yellowish, firm, juicy, with a rich aromatic 
flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a long period, is an excellent dessert 
or culinary Apple, and suitable for export. Tree vigorous and a very 
good cropper. 

Sykehouse Russet. — An old English variety, with rather small roundish 
fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, with a brownish-red cheek and partially 
covered with russet. Flesh yellowish, firm, crisp, with a sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens late, will keep four or five months, and is an excellent dessert 
Apple. Tree robust, spreading in habit, and productive. 

Sandringham. — A recently imported English variety, and said to 
possess valuable qualities. Fruit large, conical, and very heavy. Skin 
green, sprinkled with small russet spots. Flesh greenish-white, firm, 
crisp, juicy, and sub acid. Ripens late, will keep for a long period, an 
excellent cooking Apple, and suitable for the dessert. 

The Queen. — A variety imported two or three years ago from England 
with a high character. Fruit medium-sized to large, roundish -oblate, 
with a ribbed eye. Skin lemon-yellow, but almost covered with bright- 
crimson, with broken streaks and patches or darker-red. Flesh white, 
tender, and juicy. Ripens late, a good cooking and dessert Apple, and 
will keep a long time. Tree bears freely. 

Tower of Glammis (Carse of Gowrie, Glammis Castle). — An old and 
popular Scotch variety, with large roundish-conical and somewhat unequal 
sided fruit. Skin pale-yellow, with a blush of red on the cheek. Flesh 
whitish, crisp, very juicy, and briskly sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep 
three or four months, and is a first-class cooking variety, also suitable for 
drying. Tree robust, hardy, and a free bearer. 

Twenty Ounce (Aurora, Coleman, Cayuga Bed Streak, Lima, M organ! i 
Favorite). — A favorite and useful American variety, with very large 
roundish slightly uneven fruit. Skin greenish-yellow, heavily splashed, 
marbled, and striped with red. Flesh greenish-white, crisp, juicy, and 
briskly sub-acid. Ripens medium late, will deep for three or four months, 



185 

is a good culinary Apple, and suitable for drying. Tree hardy, vigorous, 
and a free and regular bearer. 




The Queen. 

Twyford Beauty. — An excellent Victorian variety, with medium sized 
roundish conical fruit. Skin yellow, with a blush cheek and broken 
streaks of red. Flesh crisp, juicy, and richly flavoured. Ripens medium 
late, and is a good cooking and dessert Apple. Tree a free bearer. 

7uscaloo.m. — An American variety, with medium-sized, or larger, 
roundish- conical fruit. Skin yellow, shaded, striped, and marbled with 
red, speckled with a few grey dots, and russety near the stalk. Flesh 
yellowish, firm, juicy, and mildly sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep three 
or four months, and is a good, dessert or culinary Apple. Tree moderately 
vigorous, spreading in habit, and productive. 

Wadhurst Pippin. An old English culinary variety, with medium- 
sized, \)r larger, roundish-conical, and somewhat angular fruit. Skin 
yellow, splashed and marbled with red on, the check. Flesh yellowish, 
c ri.'- p, juicy, and briskly acid. Ripens medium late, will keep three or 
four months, and is an excellent cooking Apple. Tree strong, hardy, and 
bears freely. 

WaWiam Ahhey Seedling. — An excellent English variety, with large 
roundish-conical fruit. Skin yellow, with a red blush on the cheek and 
speckled with minute russet dots. Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Ripens medium late, will keep three or four months, 
a good culinary Apple, and when cooked is a pale-amber colour. Tree 
moderately vigorous and a good bearer. 



186 

Wageiier.— A first-class American variety with medium-sized, or larger, 
roundish- oblate fruit. Skin yellow ground, but heavily shaded with 
crimson, obscurely striped with red, and sprinkled with light dots. Flesh 
yellowish, tender, juicy, with a brisk vinous flavour. Ripens late, will 
keep a long time, and is an excellent dessert Apple. Tree hardy, thrifty, 
and an early bearer. 

Warner's King. — A good and useful English culinary variety, with 
large roundish-ovate fruit. Skin deep-yellow, marked with patches and 
dots of russet, Flesh white, tender, juicy, with a brisk sub-acid flavour. 
Ripens late, may be kept for a long period, and an excellent cooking 
Apple. Tree very hardy, vigorous, and an excellent bearer. 

Westfield Seek-no- Further. — An American variety, with roundish-conical 
regularly formed fruit. Skin nearly covered with pale or dull red, and 
sprinkled with obscure russet dots. Flesh whitish, tender, juicy and 
well flavoured. Ripens late, will keep for some time, and is a good 
dessert and culinary Apple. Tree thrifty and prolific. 



White Calville. 



fo,!nlf ^«"^^(^«^^^^^'^ Blanrhe^ White Winter CaMlle).-kn old and 

veiow wH ' ^"'^ ''"^"^'' '^^^^ extending to the crown. Skin deep 
yellow, with sometimes a faint blush of red on the cheeks. Flesh white 



187 

tender, very juicy, with a slightly aromatic flRvour. Ripens soon after 
mid-season, will keep two or three months, and is a good dessert or 
culinary Apple. Tree robust and productive. 

White Spanish Reinette (Cobbetf.s Fall Pippin^ Eeinette Blanche 
(TEspagne). — A very old and popular Spanish variety, with very large 
roundish -oblate fruit, somewhat angular. Skin greenish yellow, with an 
orange-red cheek and sprinkled wHh brown dots. Flesh yellowish-white, 
crisp, tender, with a rich sub-acid flavour, Ripens late, will keep for au. 
long time, and is a good culinary and also a dessert Apple. Tree hardy, 
vigorous, and a very good bearer. 

Whorle Pip2nn {Thorle Pippin). — An old and good English variety, 
with roundish-oblate fruit, rather below the medium size. Skin nearly 
covered with bright-crimson. Flesh yellowish white, firm, crisp, very 
juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens about mid-season, will keep for a few 
weeks, and is a useful summer dessert Apple. Tree moderately vigorous 
and a fairly good bearer. 

Winter Codlin. — An old English culinary variety, with large roundish 
conical fruit, five-sided and ribbed. Skin yellowish-green, with sometimes 
a blush cheek and sprinkled with a few grey dots. Flesh greenish-white 
tender, juicy, and sub-acid. Ripens late, will keep three or four months 
and is an excellent cooking Apple. Tree vigorous, spreading in habit 
and productive. 

Winter Ilawthornden {^New Hawthornden). — A culinary Apple of 
EngHsh origin, similar in appearance to the old Hawthornden, but later, 
and a better keeper. Skin yellowish-green, with a brownish-red cheek. 
Flesh white, tender, juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens 
medium late, will keep three or four months, and is a good cooking 
Apple. Tree rather dwarf in habit, but an abundant and early bearer. M 




Winter Majetin 
M 



188 

Winter Majetin. — An English variety that has become well known and 
popular as it is not affected by the American blight, and therefore 
largely used to supply stocks for grafting other kinds upon. But is is an 
excellent variety to grow for its fruit, which is large, roundish, and has 
at the apex five prominent crowns like the London Pippin. Skin 
yellowish-green, with a dull-red cheek. Flesh gieenish-white, firm, with 
a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, may be kept for a long period, 
and is an excellent culinary Apple, Tree hardy, robust, and bears very 
freely. 

Winter Pearmrdu {Old Pearmain). — One of the oldest varieties in 
cultivation, and supposed to be of English origin. Fruit large roundish- 
conical. Skin greenish-yellow, with a lively red cheek. Flesh yellowish- 
white, firm, crisp, juicy, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. Ripens late, 
will keep for a long period ; a valuable Apple for dessert or culinary 
purposes, a popular market kind, and suitable for export. Tree hardy, 
and an excellent bearer. 

Winter Quoining [Winter Queening). — Another very old English 
variety, with medium-sized, or larger, conical fruit. Skin ground greenish- 
yellow, with a widespread red cheek and streaks of the same colour. 
Flesh greenish-yellow with an aromatic flavour. Ripens late, will keep 
for a long period, and is a good apple either for dessert or cooking. Tree 
hardy and an excellent bearer. 

Winter Strawberry. — An American variety, with medium-sized, 
roundish-conical fruit- Skin yellow, shaded and striped with red. 
Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, slightly sub-acid, with an aromatic flavour. 
Ripens late, keeps a long time, and is a useful dessert or culinary Apple ; 
also suitable for exporting. Tree moderately vigorous, upright in habit, 
and a good and regular bearer. 

Wine Sop {Wine Sap)' — A first. class and very useful American variety, 
with medium-sized roundish-oblong fruit. Skin ci fine dark-red, with a 
few streaks and a small patch of yellow sometimes. Flesh yellowish, 
firm, crisp, juicy, with a rich flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a long 
time, and is an excellent dessert Apj^le. It is also a first-class cider 
variety, and the fruit has the good quality of hanging well upon the trees 
after it it is ripe. Tree very hardy, will thrive in almost any soil, and it 
is considered in America to be one of the most profitable varieties. 

Worcester Pearmain. — A recently introduced English variety, said to 
be of excellent quality. Fruit medium-sized or larger, roundish-conical. 
Skin nearly covered with bright scarlet-red. Flesh tender, juicy, and well 
flavoured. Ripens after mid-season, will keep for several months, and 
useful both as a dessert and cooking Apple. Tree said to be strong and 
productive. 

W(>rmsley Pippin, — An English variety, with medium-sized, roundish 
fruit, narrowing towards the eye. Skin greenish-yellow, with an orange- 
red flush on the cheek, and dotted with dark specks. Flesh white, crisp, 
juicy, and highly flavoured. Ripens soon after mid-season, will keep for 
a few weeks, and is a good dessert and culinary Apple,. Tree moderately 
strong and bears pretty freely. 

Wyken Pipiin^ {Arley^ Girkin Pippin, Wanoickshiie Pippin,) — Avery 



189 

old but excellent English variety, with roundish-conical somewhat flattened 
fruit, rather under the medium size. Skin yellowish -green, with a dull- 
orange cheek and dots and tracings of russet. Flesh greenish-yellow, 
crisp, very juicy, with a sweet rich flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a 
long period, and is a first-class dessert Apple. Tree hardy, upright in 
growth, and a free bearer. 




Worcester Pearmain. 

^Fa^es.— A first-class and popular American variety, with rather small 
oblate fruit. Skin nearly overspread with shades, stripes, and splashes of 
red, and freely sprinkled with light dots. Flesh white, sometimes stained 
near the skin, tender, juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens late, will 
keep a long period, and is an excellent little dessert Apple. Tree strong, 
upright in habit, and a heavy bearer. 

Yetlov) Bellefleur (Bishops Pijjj^in, Lady Washington, Wa?v'eji Pippin). 
— An excellent American variety, with very large oblong and somewhat 
irregular fruit. Skin pale-lemon colour, with often a slight blush on the 
cheek. Flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, with a slightly sub acid flavour. 
Ripens late, will keep for a long time, and is a first-class cooking or 
dessert Apple. Tree moderately vigorous and a free and regular bearer. 

Yellow ^tiDtown Pippin (Albermarle Pippin). — An American variety, 
somewhat like the common Newtowii Pippin, but with harder flesh, and 
rather more flat in shape,. Skin deep-yellow, with sometimes a red 
cheek- Flesh firm, crisp, juicy, with a rich flavour. Ripens late, will 
keep for a long period, and is a good des.sert and cooking Apple, Tree 
hardy, robust, and an excellent bearer. 



190 




Yellow Bellefleur. 



Yellow Newtown Pippin. 



191 

Yorkshire Benutt/. — A good English culinary Apple, wit'i large 
roundish-oval fruit. Skin yellow-green, with a rich flush on the cheek 
and large dots of russet. Flesh juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. Ripens 
after mid-season, is a first-class cooking Apple, and will keep for a few 
weeks. Tree a good bearer. 

Yorkshire Greening (Ooates, Yorkshire Goose Sauce). — An old and 
excellent English variety, with large roundish-oblate irregular slightly- 
ribbed fruit. Skin dark-green, with shades and broken stripes of dull-— ^____ 
red and traces of russet. Flesh greenish- white, firm, crisp, very juicy, 
with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Ripens late, will keep for a long time, 
and is a first-class cooking Apple. Tree vigorous, hardy, and very 
productive. 

Crab Apples. 

The term " Crab Apple '' is applied to the fruit of several species of 
the genus Ptjrus when growing in a wild or unimproved state. There are 
various kinds in cultivation, though they are mainly grown for ornament, 
the fruit being of but little value for commercial purposes. Several are 
utilized for making cider and preserving, but the fruit is too harsh to be 
utilized in any other way, though very attractive in appearance. The 
Siberian Crab {Pyrus haccata) has been used with eff'ect in hybridizing 
the ordinary varieties of Pi/rus malus, and some good kinds have been 
obtained in this way. Several good American Apples are said to have 
originated in this way, the Crab giving a harder constitution, which makes 
them better adapted for certain localities than the ordinary sorts. The 
following list embraces the more popular kinds : — 

Coral. — Raised in America, a variety with very small conical fruit, 
flattened at tiie ends. Skin rich-yellow, with a crimson cheek. Flesh 
yellowish, crisp, juicy, and sprightly acid. 

Currant. — A variety with fruit not larger than Currants, and like 
them borne in clusters. Skin red, slightly striped with a deeper tint. 
Flesh rather harsh . Very ornamental. 

Foxley. — An English variety raised from the Siberian Crab. Fruit as 
large as Cherry Plums, roundish-oblate, and produced in clusters. Skin 
deep-yellow. Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, sub-acid. Is used for cider and 
preserving. 

Ladij Crab. — A handsome English variety somewhat resembling the 
Lady Apple in appearance, hence its name. Fruit roundish-oblate and 
about the size of a large Cherry. Flesh yellowish, moderately juicy, and 
sub-acid. Very ornamental. 

Marengo. — A handsome variety of the Siberian Crab, with roundish- 
oval fruit, which is rather larger than that of the parent. Skin warm-red 
on a yellow ground, with a few scattered dots. Flesh yellowish-white, 
crisp, juicy, and sub-acid. An ornamental variety, and one of the best of 
the Crab Apples. 

Scarlet Siberian {Cherry Crab). One of the handsomest and most 
popular of Crab Apples for ornament. Fruit small, roundish-oblong, the 



192 

size of a Cherry, and in colour a bright shining scarlet. Flesh crisp, 
juicy, and sub-acid. 

Transcendent. — An early variety, with roundish-oblong fruit, which is 
rather large for its class, and slightly ribbed. Skin golden yellow, with a 
rich crimson cheek, covered with a white bloom. Flesh creamy-yellow, 
crisp, juicy, and somewhat astringent. A very ornamental variety. 

2'ransparent. — A pretty variety, with small roundish-flattened fruit. 
Skin yellowish white, with a waxy appearance. Flesh translucent, juicy, 
with a briskly acid flavour. Makes a good ornamental tree. 

Yellow Siberian (Amber). — A handsome variety, somewhat similar to 
the common Siberian, but the fruit is a little larger, and in colour a fine 
golden-yellow, with sometimes a tinge of red. 

APRICOT. 

History. 

This fruit belongs to the natural order Bosaceoe, or the Rose family 
sub-order Amygdalece, its botanical name being Armeniaca vulgaru. 
By some botanists it is classed as a plum, under the name of Prunwi 
Armeniaca. There is no certainty as to where the Apricot originated, as, in 
its wild state, it is widely diffused in Asia and Northern Africa. It is said 
to be found growing naturally in Barbary, Egypt, China, Japan, Persia, 
India, on the slopes of the Caucasus, and in other countries remote from 
each other. The scientific name has been obtained through the Apricot 
almost covering the slopes of the mountains of Armenia, nearly up to 
the margin of perpetual snow. By the ancient Romans this fruit was 
known as the Early Persian Apple [Mala per sica pi^ecocia), because it 
ripened before the Peach and most other kind^. This name was in time 
shortened to Precocia, and from this the common name is supposed to 
have originated. -In the early English horticultural works this fruit was 
always styled A-precok, and it was not till the end of the 17th century 
that the word Apricot was used. Some authorities, however, are of 
opinion that Apricot has been derived from the Arabic name of the fruit 
Berkoche. 

The Apricot is said to have been introduced to England in the reign 
of Henry VIII., but according to some accounts it was known in that 
country at a much earlier date. Being of a somewhat tender nature for 
the climate of the United Kingdom, the Apricot never became so popular 
as the hardier fruits, and in that part of the world, where it can only be 
successfully cultivated with the protection of walls, its use has been mainly 
confined to the wealthier classes. In milder climates it does well as a 
standard, and under favourable conditions becomes a thrifty tree of from 
twenty to twenty-five feet in height. 

Uses. 

In addition to its value as a dessert fruit and for culinary purposes, the 
Apricot is utilized to a great extent in various other ways. Very large 



193 

quantities of the fruit are used for making jam and jelly. The Apricot is 
also extensively used for canning, and when preserved this way is 
preferred by many to any other fruit. For drying there is no better 
fruit than the Apricot, and none in greater demand. In the south of 
Europe and America large quantities of Apricots are now dried and 
exported to other countries. Drying may be affected by simply splitting 
the fruit, removing the stones, and exposing it, the cut side uppermost, 

upon trays to the sun till the moisture has evaporated. The fruit m?ky~ 

also be dried with artificial heat in an evaporator. Apricots are excellent 
when preserved in syrup or brandy, and the Chinese by these means can 
keep the fruit for several years, so that it will retain its full flavour. In 
the south of Europe an excellent wine is commonly made from the Apricot, 
and by distillation it yields a highly flavoured spirit. The Chinese make 
lozenges from the clarified juice of the Apricot, and when these are 
dissolved in water they afford a very agreeeble beverage. From the kernels 
of the wild Apricot, which affords but little pulp, these people also 
extract an oil that is greatly esteemed. The wood of the Apricot is fine 
grained, takes a good polish, and is much used by the Chinese and 
Japanese for cabinet work and other purposes. Sometimes these people 
use a yellow dye for woollen cloth which is extracted from the young 
shoots. 

Cultivation. 

The Apricot may be grown successfully in most parts of Australasia 
but it is a fruit better adapted for the warmer than the cooler districts 
In the warmer parts (not tropical), the fruit develops the richest flavour 
and is produced with greater certainty. This fruit deserves special atten- 
tion from growers in any of the moderately warm districts, as there is a large 
and growing demand for dried and canned Apricots. Produce prepared in 
these ways is in great demand locally, and if in the future a surplus is 
obtained, a market can be opened for it elsewhere. Cultivators must, 
however, bear in mind that, either for canning or drying, varieties with 
fruit that has a firm, tough fibre are preferable to those whose flesh is 
more melting and juicy. Apricots are broadly divided into two classes, 
viz. — Freestones, whicli separate readily from the seeds ; and cling-stones, 
in which the flesh adheres to the stones. As this fruit is only in season 
for a comparatively short period of the year, cultivators require but a 
few sorts, which will give greater satisfaction than a large number. If 
dessert fruit is required, the grower should select not more than half-a- 
dozen kinds, highly flavoured and luscious, as also to mature early, at 
mid-season, and late. The requirements for drying or canning have been 
already stated, and it does not matter whether the sorts are early, medium 
or late. 

Apricots will thrive in any ordinary good soil, but the one most 
congenial is a rich sandy loam. The ground should be deeply stirred, 
when the soil is heavy more especially, and the root bed ought to be from 
fifteen to eighteen inches deep at tht^ least. In loose land, or when the 
subsoil is an open sand, gravel, or limestone, the necessity for deep working 



194 

is not so great. Drainage should always be provided for in heavy, retentive 
soils, as Apricots are especially liable to suffer if the ground remains 
soddened for any length of time. In the case of land with open gravelly 
or sandy subsoils, there will often be sufficient natural drainage, but if 
not provision must be made for it. 

Planting may be done at any time between the fall of the leaf and the 
time when growth commences, but the writer prefers from the end of July 
to the middle of August, according to the district. Vigorous young trees, 
with straight stems, well-formed heads, and plenty of fibrous roots, should 
be selected in preferance to others. The trees should be planted not less 
than eighteen feet apart, and care must be taken not to place them too 
deeply in the ground. It will be sufficient if the upper roots are just below 
the surface, In order to fully utilize the ground, temporary trees may be 
planted between if desirable, but care must be taken that tiiey are not 
allowed to remain long enough to injure the Apricots. Before the hot 
weather sets in it will be advisable to uiulch the trees four or five inches 
deep with long stable manure or other convenient material, taking care to 
spread it ovei* the ground as far as the roots extend. Care must also be 
taken to keep the mulching material clear of the stems of the trees. The 
surface should be kept as free from grass and other weeds as possible, as 
an undergrowth of this kind is injurious, and more especially in the spring 
and early summer. The work of keeping down weeds is most economically 
and effectively done by frequent and light stirrings of the surface soil wdth 
scarifier or hoe. Deep ploughing or digging is hurtful, causing much 
damage to the roots, and should be avoided as a rule. Apricots like all 
fruit trees, mu.^t be supplied with congenial food, and as the land becomes 
exhausted suitable manures should be given to make good any deficiencies. 
Even the richest soils will fail sooner or later if the materials exti acted 
from them are not returned in some sliape or form, and their wants should 
be attended to before the trees suffer to any extent. Ordinary manure will 
generally keep the trees in a thrifty state but if there are special 
deficiencies — as for instance, a lack of lime, or other necessary mineral — 
these should be supplied. 

Pruning. 

The Apricot requires more attention in the way of pruning than any 
other stone fruit, excepting the Peach and Nectarine. The fruit is 
mainly produced upon wood of the previous season's growth, but also to 
a large extent upon spurs of older wood. It is advisable in pruning to 
thin out the previous season's shoots when too numerous, shortening 
those that are left to one or two leaf buds beyond two or three well- 
developed fruit buds. By adopting this method of pruning growth is 
kept compact, and the fruit is not only finer but is produced more 
regularly than if the wood is left to advance at random. In the case of 
young trees, a strong and regular growth of wood is more required for 
two or three years than the production of fruit, and the shoots should be 
thinned out and shortened so as to best effect this object. tSunimer 
pruning should be practised when practicable, and more especially in the 



195 




Branch showing Fruit 
Buds. A Place where 
it should be cut. 



The same Branch the 
following season if not 
shortened back. 



Branch the second year 
Line A showing where it 
should be shortened to 
strengthen the lower 
branches. 



case of young trees, as it helps to conserve the energies of the plants and 
lessens the necessity for trimming in the winter. Care must, however, 
be taken not to bare the trees too much, as a good proportion of foliage 
is essential to perfect root action ;ind is also wanted to shade the trees. 
It is advisable to always train the trees with low heads, which are, for 
various reasons, preferable to tall ones. The fruit on low-headed trees 
suffers least from the effects of liigh winds and is more easily gathered, 
there is a better shade for the stems (a matter of some importance in this 
part of the world), and pruning is more easily effected. Koot prunir.g is 
not often required by the Apricot, though it may sometimes be practised 
with advantage when trees are making an over-luxurious growth of wood 
and produce but little fruit. Sometimes trees will produce flowers in 
abundance but little or no fruit sets. When this happens it is a good 
plan to ring the bark half-way round the tree just as it comes into 
flower. The writer for several years adopted this practice with success, 
and through it managed to obtain crops that otherwise would have been 



196 

failures. Late frosts often seriously injure or destroy crops of Apricots, 
and in order to avoid this risk the writer has with success built light 
roofs of brushwood over the trees, which remained while the danger lasted. 
The plan is not expensive, and can be easily followed. The directions 
are as follows : — Sink firmly in the ground at equal distances four posts 
or saplings, nail lighter ones or battens across the tops, and then cover 
with a light layer of bushes. It is astonishing what an amount of pro- 
tection this covering gives, and the extra trouble and expense will 
generally prove a sound investment in localities where late frosts are 
troublesome. 

Propagation. 

Propagation is effected by seeds, budding, and grafting. Plants from 
seeds aie, as a matter of course, uncertain in character, which is not 
known till the fruit is produced. Budding is the method most usually 
adopted for perpetuating recognised varieties, and may be performed at 
any time during the growing period when the bark rises freely from 
the wood. The work, however, is mostly done within a few weeks 
after midsummer. Apricots, as a rule, thrive best when worked upon 
their own stocks, and there can be no doubt but that, as in the case of 
other trees, the closer the affinity between root and scion the more 
enduring is the tree likely to be. Very frequently the Apricot is worked 
upon the Plum, Peach, or Almond, but these stocks, as a rule, are not 
desirable except to meet peculiar local conditions. Plum stocks are 
objectionable because of their tendency to throw up suckers, which are 
troublesome to the cultivator, and, though growth may be vigorous for a 
time, the trees often go off at an early age. The Cherry Plum is less 
objectionable than other Plums, and trees worked upon it will often attain 
a good size and age. For heavy soils, or where retentive sub-soils are not 
far below the surface, the Plum will often prove the better stock. When 
worked upon Almond or Peach stocks the trees will often make vigorous 
growth for a few years, but they are generally short-lived and more prone 
to diseases than when grown upon their own roots. Some growers are 
of opinion that the Almond is a seviceable stock for the Apricot in very dry 
soils, but this has not been sufficiently proved. Grafting is less practised 
than budding in raising Apricots, and should be done, if necessary, before 
growth becomes active in the spring. Stocks for either budding or 
grafting should invariably be seedlings, as suckers and layers never make 
good trees. 

Varieties. 

The following list embraces the most desirable varieties ; — 
Beauge. — A hardy, prolific and very late variety, belonging to the 
Moorpark class. Skin deep yellow, with a red tint on the sunny side. 
Flesh deep-yellow, firm, but scarcely so well flavoured as the Moorpark 
and some otner varieties, and separating freely. Stone large, and kernel 
bitter. A good sort for carrying well, canning, and drying. 



197 



Bleriheim (Shipley's),— An early prolific variety, with medium-sized, 
round, moderately rich, and juicy fruit' Skin deep yellow. Flesh 
yellow and full flavoured. Stone roundish, kernel bitter. Suitable for 
canning and drying. 




Breda, 



Beauo;6. 



Breda. — A hardy, me Jium early variety, said to have originated in 
Africa, with rather small, roundish fruit, compressed at the sides. Skin 
deep orange, dotted with brown spots next the sun. Flesh deep orange, 
highly flavoured, and separating freely from the stone. Stone small, 
round, kernel sweet, and used as a sweetmeat in some parts of Europe. 
Tree vigorous and prolific. 

Brussels. — A vigorous, hardy, mid-season variety, with medium-sized 
oval fruit, flattened on the sides. Skin pale yellow, with white dots on 
the shady side, and red ones towards the sun. Flesh yellow, firm, free, 
and moderately well flavoured. Stone small, and kernel bitter. Tree a 
good bearer, and will thrive in poorer soils than some varieties. 

Canino Grosso — An Italian 
variety, which produces large 
oval fruit, and ripens early. Skin 
orange, deeply marked with red 
next the sun. Flesh reddish- 
yellow, high flavoured, melting, 
and free. Stone large, and kernel 
bitter. Tree hardy and prolific. 

Camphellfield Seedling. — An 
excellent variety, with medium- 
sized, roundish-oval fruit, and 
ripening early in the season. Skin 
deep orange-yellow. Flesh yellow, 
melting, juicy, well flavoured, and 
free. Stone small, and kerne 
bitter. Canino Grosso. 




198 

Early Moorpark. — A variety very similar in appearance and quality to 
the ordinary Jfoot^park, but ripening two or three weeks sooner. Fruit 
roundish, inclining to oval, with deep yellow skin, mottled and dotted 
with red on the sunny side. Flesh in all respects the same as the 
Moorpark. IStone oblong, large, and kernel bitter. 

Golden Drop. — An excellent variety, said to be a seedling from Xfusch 
MuscK bearing medium-sized roundish-oval fruit, which ripens early in 
the season. Skin deep orange, suffused with crimson next the sun. 
Flesh deep-yellow, firm, with a rich tine flavour, and free. Stone small, 
with a bitter kernel. 

Hdtive d'Anvergne. — A medium early variety, with roundish-oval fruit 
of moderate size. Skin deep yeLow, with a darker tinge next the sun. 
Flesh yellow, juicy, with a pleasant brisk flavour, and separating freely, 
Stone medium sized, and kernel bitter. Tree vigorous, and bears freely. 

Hemskirk. — An old English variety, belonging to the Moorpark class, 
having large roundish fruit, flattened at the sides, and ripening medium 
early. Skin orange, tinged with red on the sunny side. Flesh deep 
orange, very juicy, with a rich luscious flavour, and separating freely 
from the stone. Stone small, and kernel bitter. Tree hardy, vigorous, 
and an excellent bearer, 

Kaisha. — A well-known variety, 
supposed to have originated in Syria, 
and belonging to the Moorpark 
type. Fruit medium-sized, roundish, 
and ripening at mid-season. Skin 
pale yellow, mottled and tinged with 
red next the sun. Flesh pale yellow, 
tender, very juicy, sugary, highly 
flavoured, and separating freely from 
the stone. Stone small, roundish, 
with a sweet kernel. 

Large Earhj {Gros Precoce). — A 
variety of French origin, with large 
rather oblong fruit, much flattened Kaisha. 

at the sides, which ripens very early 

in the season. Skin pale orange, with a deeper tinge and red dots next 
the sun. Flesh deep orange, juicy, with a rich luscious flavour, separating 
freely from the stone. Stone large, rather flat, and kernel bitter. Tree 
vigorous, But sometimes a rather shy bearer. 

Lorge lied {Gros Bouge). — A late-fruiting variety of the Peach- Apricot 
class, and supposed to be of French origin. Fruit large, roundish, and 
of a deep orange-red colour. Flesh yellow, juicy, well flavoured, and 
separates freely from the stone. Stone large, and kernel bitter. Tree 
hardy and vigorous. 

Mansfield ^Seedling. — An excellent variety, with large roundish fruit, 
which ripens late. Skin pale yellow, tinged with red on the sunny side. 
Flesh deep yellow, juicy, luscious, and separates freely from the stone. 
Stone large, kernel bitter. Tree hardy and prolific. 




199 




Large Early 



Moorpark 



Afoorparh — This is an old and well-known variety, the type of its 
class, which has been cultivated in England for more than 1 60 years. 
The fruit is large roundish-oval, and compressed on the sides. Skin pale 
yellow, with a deeper tint and red specks on the sunny side. Flesh 
bright orange, very juicy, flavour rich and luscious, separating from the 
stone freely. Stone rough, large, and kernel bitter. Tree vigorous and 
a free bearer. This varietj^ takes its name from Moorpark, an estate in 
England, where it was first cultivated. It is one of the finest Apricots 
for the dessert, and is, as also others of its class, well suited for canning 
and drying. 

Montgamet. — A French variety, with small oval fruit, rather com- 
pressed on the sides, ripening medium early. Skin pale yellow, slightly 
tinged with red next the sun. Flesh yellow, firm, juicy, sub acid, and 
adhering to the stone. Stone round, small, and kernel bitter. Tree 
hardy and thrifty, and fruit useful for culinary purposes and jam. 

Musch Musch. — This variety takes its name from Musch on the 
frontiers of Turkey in Asia, and is common to many parts of Syria and 
Egypt. The fruit is small, round, and ripens rather late. Skin deep 
yellow, and orange-red next the sun. Flesh yellow, tender, very sweet, 
and separates freely. Stone small, kernel sweet. Tree moderately 
hardy, and free bearer. This is the sweetest of all Apricots, and in 
Turkey the fruit is dried in large quantities. 

Orange (Boi/al George, JRoj/al Persian, Royal Orange). — A variety 
with large roundish fruit, which ripens at mid-season. Skin pale orange,, 
with a deeper shade tinged with red next the sun. Flesh deep orange, 
firm, moderately juicy, and ndhering to the stone. Stone small, smooth, 
kernel sweet. Tree vigorous and prolific, 

OitlHn's Early Peach. — A variety of the Peach Apricot, from which it 
does not difi'er materially except in the period of ripening, which is about 
three weeks earlier. Fruit large, somewhat flattened. Skin bright 



200 

yellow, tinged with red towards the sun. Flesh deep yellow, juicy, 
sugary, with a rich luscious flavour, and separating freely from the stone. 
Stone large, kernel bitter. Tree hardy and very prolific. This variety 
is well adapted for canning or drying, and should find a place in every 
orchard. 

Peach Apricot {Royal Peach). — This variety originated in Italy, and 
has always been held in high repute. Fruit large, somewhat flattened, 
and ripening late in the season. Skin pale yellow, tinged with red on 
the sunny side. Flesh deep yellow, juicy, with a rich delicate flavour, 
and separating freely. Stone large, flat, rugged ; kernel bitter. This 
variety and others closely allied are somewhat similar to the Moorpark 
class, and are supposed to have originated from the same source. It is 
an excellent kind for canning and drying. 

Pennant HilVs Oval. — This is an excellent variety raised in New South 
Wales, with large, showy, oval fruit, which ripens rather late. Skin deep 
yellow, with a red tinge on the sunny side. Flesh bright yellow, high 
flavoured, firm, but less juicy than the Moorparh, and separates freely 
from the stone. Stone large, kernel bitter. Tree robust and a good 
bearer. An excellent kind for canning and drying. 

Pine Apple (Ajianas). — A rather late variety, with large, roundish, 
somewhat flattened fruit. Skin deep yellow, with a red cheek on the 
sunny side. Flesh deep yellow, tender, with a rich sugary flavour, 
somewhat resembling that of the Pine Apple, and adherent to the stone. 
Stone large roundish-oval, and kernel bitter. 

Pc'l Masculine. — A very hardy and productive variety, bearing small 
roundish fruit, which ripens early in the season. Skin bright yellow, 
with a deeper tinge and red spote next the sun. Flesh yellow, juicy, 
and rather musky. Stone small, thick, and kernel bitter. 

Poman {Trampart^nt). - A. vigorous, hardy, and prolific variety, with 
large oval fruit, slightly compressed, and lipening at mid-season. Skin 
pale yellow, with a red tinge on the sunny side. Flesh deep yellow, 
rather dry, not very high flavoured, and separating freely from the stone. 
Stone large, oblong, and kernel bitter. 




Pennant Hil's Oval. Turkey 



201 

Royal. — A French variety of the Moorparh class, with large ova^ 
slightly compressed fruit, which ripens about mid-season. Skin yellow, 
with an orange tinge on the sunny side and slightly shaded with red. 
Flesh bright yellow, juicy, rich, vinous, and separates freely from the 
stone. Stone large, oval, and kernel bitter. An excellent Apricot, 
suitable for dessert, canning, or drying. 

Sardinian — A very hardy and prolific early variety, with small roundish 
fruit that ripens at the beginning of the season. Skin pale, tinged and 
spotted with crimson on the sunny side. Flesh pale, juicy, with a sweet, 
sprightly flavour. Stone small, and kernel bitter. 

aS'^. Amhroise. — This is a large, medium early Apricot of the Moorparh 
type, with oval, compressed fruit. Skin deep yellow, with a reddish 
tinge on the sunny side. Flesh firm, rich, juicy, sugary, and somewhat 
adherent to the stone. Stone large, with a bitter kernel. Tree hardy, 
vigorous and a good bearer. 

Stewart's — This is a variety with medium-sized oblong fruit, especially 
valuable as it ripens very late. Skin deep orange, with a red tinge next 
the sun. Flesh deep yellow, juicy, and well flavoured. 

Turkey. — This is a hardy, vigor ous, free-bearing variety, with medium- 
sized round fruit, not compressed, ripening at mid- season. Skin deep 
yellow, mottled with orange next the sun. Flesh pale yellow, firm, 
juicy, sweet, pleasantly sub-acid, and separating freely from the stone. 
Stone large, rugged, with a very sweet kernel. 

Viard. — An excellent variety belonging to the Peach-Apricot class, with 
medium-sized roundish-oval fruit, which ripens at mid-season. Skin 
bright pale yellow, with a reddish tinge towards the sun. Flesh pale 
yellow, juicy, rich, melting, and separates freely. Stone medium-sized, 
and kernel bitter. Tree vigorous and prolific, 

ARGAN. 

History and Uses. 

This is a widely spreading but somewhat low evergreen, tree with 
small leaves, indigenous to Barbary and other parts of North Western 
Africa. Botanically it is known as Argania sideroxylon, f Sideroxylon 
spi7iosi/m, Eleodend7-on argania)., and it belongs to the natural order 
Sapotaceae, the Sappodilla or Star Apple Family. Several plants be- 
longing to this family yield edible fruits, and one, Isonandra gtitta, 
is the principal source from which gutta percha is obtained. The Argan 
flourishes in the driest districts in its native country, and has the 
reputation of being a very long lived and hardy tree. It is an abundant 
bearer, the fruit being fleshy and about the size and shape of a small plum. 
In its native country the fruit is utilized to a large extent for feeding 
cattle, who are very fond of it. But in chewing the cud the kernels are 
ejected, when they are collected and crushed for oil. The kernels yield 
a large proportion of excellent oil, Tiie wood is close grained and hard, 
and well suited for turnery and other purposes. 



202 
Cultivation and Propagation. 

The Argaii is a hardy tree and will adopt itself to a somewhat wide 
range of climate or soil, and may be grown with more or less success in 
any district where there is little or no trouble from frosts. It is a tree 
specially well adapted for the warm interior districts of Queensland and 
Western Australia, and would prove very serviceable to the owners 
of stock. Probably if this tree were acclimatised in congenial regions it 
would increase nntunilly and spread over large areas. As an ornamental 
tree the Argan is worthy of cultivation, and in dry districts it might 
advantageously be grown for shade. The trees should be planted in well 
prepared ground, at such distances apart as will allow ample room for 
free development. Propagation may be effected by seed, suckers, layers, 
and cuttings. Seed should be sown soon after it is ripe, covering it an 
inch and a half deep. When the young seedlings are large enough to 
handle, transplant into small beds, leaving them about six inches apart. 
The following season they may be planted out. Suckers from the roots 
make very good plants if taken off carefully in early spring or autumn. 
Plants are readily raised from layers, which should be put down either in 
the spring or autumn. Cuttings of the current seasons's wood, when 
fairly ripened, will strike in sand or light soil. 



AUSTRALIAN APPLE. 

Australia is not rich in native fruits, and the great majority of such as 
are edible are so inferior as compared with exotic kinds that have been 
introduced, that they are not worth cultivating, except as ornamental 
plants. There are two or three exceptions, and it is possible that some 
kinds now worthless for their fruit, may in time be improved by cultiva- 
tion. But though of but little commercial value, the writer is of opinion 
that his work would be incomplete without referring to indigenous 
fruits. The fruits of many species are known under vernacular names, 
which have been given from some real or fancied resemblance to well- 
known exotic kinds, though they may belong to very different families. 
These are dealt with by the writer in this portion of his work. Another 
class are merelj' indigenous species of fruits that are cultivated, and these 
are placed with the families they belong to. 

The fruit known in some of its native localities as the Australian 
Apple is yielded by a tall evergreen tree known botanically as Achras 
australis (Sideroxylon australe of some botanists). It belongs to the 
natural order Sapotaceae and is indigenous to Eastern Queensland and the 
northern coast rivers of New South Wales. The fruit is similar in 
appearance to a moderate-sized plum, and the flesh is succulent, though 
somewhat harsh. In many localities the fruit is better known as the 
Native Plum. The tree when growing under favourable conditions 
will attain a height of forty or fifty feet, but in poor soils it becomes 
stunted. It is an ornamental tree, and is worthy of a place in the 



203 

shrubbery. Any ordinary good soil will suit this tree, but it thrives best 
in rich deep land and sheltered situation. It may be grown successfully 
in localities where the climate is not colder than in Sydney. Prc>pagation 
is easily effected by seeds, layers, and cuttings of the current season's 
shoots, when fairly ripened. 



AUSTRALIAN CHERRY. 

The Australian Cherry, or Native Cherry as it is more generally 
called, is a tree with foliage and habit of growth similar to a Cypress 
belonging to the natural order Thymelacese or the Daphne fanjily. It is 
indigenous to a considerable part of Eastern Australia, and is also found 
in other colonies. Botanically it is known as Exocarpus rupressiformisy 
the specific name being derived from ex'^ outside and karpus a fruit, in 
allusion to the curious position of the latter which protrudes from the 
points of the fleshy receptacles. The berries have a harsh astringent 
flavor, but they are often eaten by children where the trees grow 
naturally. For its fruit this tree may be considered absolutely worthless, 
but its Cypress like foliage and compact habit of growth entitles it to 
rank as a good ornamental plant. It is very hardy, may be grown in 
almost any soil or situation, and will thrive in any locality where the 
frosts are not severe. Propagation is readily effected by seed, and plants 
may be obtained by either cuttings or layers. 



AUSTRALIAN CRANBERRY. 

The fruit most generally known as the Native Cranberry, is 
produced by a plant known botanically as Lissanfhe sapida belonging to 
the natural order Epacridese or the Epacris family. It is indigenous to 
the Blue Mountains of New South Wales and other parts of Eastern 
Australia, and is an erect shrub growing to a height of two or three feet. 
The flowers are white, produced in loose racemes, and the fruit is red, 
about the size of Currants. The fruit has a somewhat mealy pulp 
and an acid flavour. The term Native Cranberry is also applied 
to the fruit of several species of Styphdia, and more particularly to 
S. humisi/usa and aS^. pinifolia, which are also known as Groundberries. 
They are dwarf shrubs indigenous to New South Wales, Victoria, and 
Tasmania. 



AUSTRALIAN DAMSON. 

What is known as the " Native Damson " is the fruit of Nageia 
spinulosus, {Podocarpus spinulosus) an evergreen tree belonging to the 
natural order Taxaceae or the Yew family. It is indigenous to the 
northern coast districts of New South Wales and Queensland, The tree 



204 

attains a height of from thirty to forty feet, is of compact habit of growth, 
and well adapted for ornamental planting. The fruit which in some 
localities is also known as the Native Plum, is a small black drupe, 
having a somewhat austere flavour. The tree is not worth cultivating 
for its fruit, but is worthy of attention as an ornamental plant. It will 
succeed in any locality that is not subject to frost. Propagation is most 
generally effected by seeds, but if necessary plants may be obtained from 
either layers or cuttings. 

AUSTRALIAN DESERT LEMON. 

The plant known under this name is Atalantia glauca a medium-sized 
tree belonging to the Aurantaceae or Citrus family. It is indigenous to 
various parts of Queensland and New South Wales, and is found more 
especially in hot arid districts. The fruit which is also known as the 
Native Kumquat is bright yellow, about half an inch in diameter, and 
has a sharp acid flavour. Probal^ly it might be improved in size by 
cultivation. Though the fruit in point of utility is far inferior to the 
ordinary Lemon yet as the plant is very hardy and capable of with- 
standing long and severe droughts it might prove worthy of being 
cultivated in some of the dry interior parts of Australia. Propagation is 
readily efi^ected by seeds. Plants can also be increased by layers and 
cuttings of the previous season's wood which will strike freely in sand or 
light soil. 

AUSTRALIAN MULBERRY. 

The fruit most widely known under this name is yielded by Pipturus 
argenteiis a tree belonging tj the order Urticaceae or the Nettle family. 
It is indigenous to Queensland and New South Wales. The fruit is 
whitish, insipid, and of no value commer( ially though it is eaten by the 
aboriginals. Another fruit known in some localities as Native 
Mulberry, is Hedycarya Cunninghami (augusiifolia) a tall shrub or 
small tree belonging to the natural order Monominiaceae. The fruit is a 
small, nearly globular succulent berry, somewhat unpalatable, but eaten 
by the aboriginals. It is indigenous to Queensland, New South Wales 
and Victoria. The term Native Mulberry is also applied to the fruit of 
Litsea dealbata a tall robust tree belonging to the Laurineae or Laurel 
family. It bears small gobular fruit which are also known as Pigeon 
Berries. 

AUSTRALIAN CURRANT 

History and Uses. 

This is one of the best of our Australian fruits, and is well deserving of 
attention for cultivation. It is the plant known in New South Wales 



206 

as the Native Currant, and botanically as Leptomeria acida^ a genus 
belonging to the natural order Santalacece or the San tal wood family. 
The plant is a perennial shrub with slender foliage, somewhat like that of 
the Broom (Spartmm), and is an ornamental species. It is found 
growing plentifully in the sandy soil around Sydney and Botany Bay, 
but also in other localities in New South Wales where the land is different 
in character. The plant is also indigenous to several of the other colonies. 
The fruit is about the size of, and similar in appearance to, the unripe 
berries of the Red Currant, but does not grow in bunches. It is intensely- 
acid, and so much so that it cannot be eaten in its natural state. This 
acid flavour is peculiar and unique, as no amount of sugar will obliterate 
it entirely. The fruit makes an excellent jam, which the writer can 
recommend as possessing a very palatable flavour, quite distinct from 
any other kind of fruit. In making the jam, sugar should be used very 
freely, and must at the least be weight for weight with the fruit. When 
carefully made the jam may be kept in good condition for several years. 
The plants yield fruit very regularly, and in fairly large quantities. 

Cultivation. 

Though as yet, as far as the writer is aware, the Native Currant has 
not been cultivated as a fruit plant, it is certainly worthy of attention. 
There ought to be no great difficulty in growing it, as may be assumed 
from the fact that it has been cultivated in Europe for many years as an 
ornamental pot plant. It is a plant that would be specially well adapted 
for peaty or sandy soils containing a fair amount of vegetable matter. 
This plant resists drought well, and may be grown in any climate where 
the frosts are but light. The fruit would necessarily become popular 
when generally known, and doubtless will alwaj^s find a ready sale. The 
natural sources of supply in New South Wales are getting exhausted 
through the careless destruction of the plants, and if the fruit is to be 
preserved it must be systematically cultivated. 

Propagation. 

Propagation may be eff'ected by seed.s or cuttings, ^eed should be 
sown in rich sandy soil, in pots or boxes, covering it to the depth of 
half an inch. When the young plants are fit to handle they should be 
potted off singly into small pots. They are likely to do best in pots, as, 
like many of our native plants, they are somewhat difficult to shift if 
their roots get broken, as must necessarily be the case when they are 
lifted from the ground. Plant in lines four or five feet apart, leaving tbe 
same distance between in the rows. The most favourable time for 
planting is early in the autumn, though it may be done successfully in 
the winter or spring. Cuttings of the ripened wood will root readily in 
sand if placed under a bell glass, but, as a rule, better plants will be 
obtained from seed. After they are established the plants require but 
little care, and they will be able to stand heat and drought with impunity. 
A plantation will last several years without requiring renewal. 



206 

Fruits passing under the name of Native Currants are also yielded by- 
two other plants, but they are far inferior to those obtained from 
Leptomeria acida. One of these plants is Coprosma liillardeira, an 
evergreen shrub belonging to the order Rubiacese. It has round 
fruit about the size of small peas, and is indigenous to Victoria, New 
South Wales, and Tasmania. The other is Myoporum serratum, a shrub 
belonging to the order Myoporinese. Commonly it is known as the 
Native Myrtle, Native Juniper, and Cockatoo Bush. The fruit is a small 
globular blue berry. This plant is indigenous to Victoria New South 
Wales, South Australia, West Australia, and Tasmanin. 



AUSTRALIAN NUT. 




Brancli showing Foliage and Fruit. 



207 





Nut, natural size. Kernel, natural size. 

History and Uses. 

This is a handsome evergreen tree indigenous to the coastal districts of 
Southern Queensland and the northern rivers of New South Wales. It is 
commonly known as the Queensland Nut, but the one used in the heading 
is more appropriate. Botanical ly it is known as Macadamia ternifolia, 
and it belongs to the natural order Proteaceae. The tree attains a height 
of from forty to fifty feet, and has deep green leaves from five to eight 
inches long, generally serrated, but sometimes not. The flowers are white, 
produced in long racemes, and in great abundance. The fruit is nearly 
round, and from three quarters of an inch to an inch in diameter. These 
nuts, which have very hard shells, enclose a kernel similar in appearance 
to a Hazel Nut. but richer in flavour. As the trees are very prolific, they 
are worth cultivating for the sake of their nuts, in congenial localities. 
They are also well worthy of attention as ornamental trees, and their 
handsome evergreen foliage will be seen to advantage in the shrubbery. 
Tlie tree is also of some value for its timber, which is of a red colour, 
beautifully marked aud close grained, being well adapted for the use of 
cabinet makers and turners. 

Cultivation. 

The Australian Nut may be grown successfully in localities where 
frosts do not occur, bet it is useless to plant it in the cooler districts. It 
may do well in all but very stiff soils, but thrives best in a deep sandy 
loam where the drainage is perfect. Shelter is also required, as the trees 
are apt to suffer when exposed to the full effects of strong winds. The 
best time for planting is in the autumn, though it may be done at any 
time between then and September. If planted as orchard trees the 
distance apart should not be less than thirty feet, as that space will be 
eventually required by the branches, though not for many years. While 
the trees are young they should be pruned so as to get them into the 
desired form. When they get larger they vAW require but little attention 
in the way of pruning, all that is necessary being to regulate the growth 
of over-vigorous shoots, and to thin out the branches when the heads are 
too much crowded. 



208 

Propagation. 

Propagation is most readily effected by seeds, but plants may be obtained 
from layers and cuttings. Seeds may be put in at any time, planting 
them an inch deep in light soil. As the nuts are very hard, they will, in 
the ordinary way of planting, take a long titne to germinate, and this 
process may be facilitated, if desired, by placing them previously in a 
heap of some material in a sta^e of fermentation from heat. When three 
or four inches high the young plants should be lifted from the seed bed 
and transplanted into another, or placed in pots. Layering should be 
done early in the autumn or late in the spring. Cuttings of the ripened 
wood of the current season's growth will strike in sand or light soil under 
a hard glass or in a frame. 

AUSTRALIAN PEACH. 

The plant most generally known as the Native Peach is a small tree 
called Santalum Preissianum {acuminatum) belonging to the order 
Santalacese, or the Santalwood family. This plant, however, most 
commonly passes under its aboriginal name of " Quandong." It is an 
evergreen with pale green foliage. The succulent fleshy part of the fruit, 
as also the kernels are edible and used as food by the aborigii als, but the 
flavour is not very inviting. The hard nuts are extensively used by 
jewellers for necklaces, pins, and brooches, and are often carved with 
pretty designs. The Quandong is indigenous to the dry interior districts 
of Australia, and covers large areas. It is a handsome ornamental tree of 
compact habit, and the peculiar pale green foliage contrasts well with the 
darker hues of other shrubs. This plant, however is somewhat capricious 
under cultivation, and will not bear transi)lanting The name. Native 
Peach, is in some localities applied to Owenia acidula, which is described 
under the heading of Australian Plums. 

AUSTRALIAN PLUMS. 

Fruits of various kinds are known under the name of Native Plum in 
different parts of Australia. What is known as the Illawarra Black Plum 
is the fruit of Cargdlea australis [Diospyrus Cargillea, Maba Cargillea)^ 
a small evergreen tree belonging to the order Ebenacese or the Ebony 
family. The fruit is harsh in flavour, and about half-an-inch in diameter. 
It is indigenous to Eastern Australia from Queensland as far south as 
Illawarra. Another species. Cargillea pentamera, which is indigenous to 
the same regions, yields a fruit called the Grey Plum, which is similar in 
size and flavour tu the other kind. Oivenia acidula, an evergreen tree 
attaining a height of from thirty to forty feet, is the Sour Plum of Queens- 
land, and also passes under the name of the Native Peach. It belongs to the 
natural order Meiiacese. Two other species of Owenia vis ceranfera and 
venosa also yield fruits similar to the preceding, and these pass under, the 



209 

one name of Plums. These species are indigenous to Queensland and the 
north east portion of New South Wales. All the species yield strong and 
finely grained wood What is known as Davidson's Plum in Northern 
Queensland is Davidsonia pruriens, an evergreen tree belonging to the 
natural order Saxif rageae. This fruit is somewhat remarkable as one of the 
few edible kinds included in the Saxifrage family. The fruit is dark b ue, 
similar in appearance to a plum, varying somewhat in size, but often as 
large as a hen's egg, the seeds being comparatively small It has an~ 
acid and somewhat sharp flavour, but is pleasant and wholesome. 
According to Baron von Mueller it is indigenous to the forest ranges of 
the coastal districts extending from Northern Queensland to the northern 
part of New South Wales. Chri/snphj/Uum pjmniferurn , a small evergreen 
tree indigenous to North Queensland, yields a fruit called a Plum in some 
of its native localities. The fruit is about the size of an Orleans Plum, 
and is somewhat austere in flavour. This tree belongs to the order 
Sapotaceae, and is the only species of the genus found in Australia. 
Spondias glabra, an evergreen small tree belonging to the order Ana^ar- 
diaceae, indigenous to the tropical coast regions of Queensland, is known 
in some places as a Native Plum. The fruit is from an inch to an inch 
and a-half in diameter, shaped like a plum, flesh reddish-yellow, with a 
sharp acid flavour. Spondias Solandri, a closely allied species also yields 
and edible plum-like fruit. This is a more hardy species, and extends to 
the south of the tropical zone. All the trees mentioned may with 
advantage be cultivated for ornament, and it is pos'sible that the fruits of 
some of them may be improved by cultivation. 

AUSTRALIAN POMEGRANITE. 

This is the vernacular name of a small evergreen tree, growing from 
fourteen to twenty feet high, known botanically as Capparis Mitchdli, and 
belonging to the order Capparidacese, or the Caper family. It bears orange 
coloured fruit from one to two inches in diameter, with a fairly agreeable 
pulp. Another species, Capparis arborea, a somewhat larger tree, also 
yields an edible fruit similar in size and quality. The last named species is 
known in some localities as the Orey Plum and Caper Tree The first is 
rather widely distributed through Victoria, New South Wales, and Queens- 
land, and thft second is indigenous to the two last named colonies Both 
are ornamental trees, and are worth cultivating as such in congenial 
localities. 

AVOCADO PEAR. 

History and Uses. 

This fruit, which is also known as the Alligator Pear and Subalterns 
Butter, is indigenous to the West Indies, Mexico, Brazil, and other 
■warm regions in South America. It is a handsome spreading evergreen 




Avocado Pear. 



210 

tree growing to the height of about 

20 feet, and is known botanically 

as Persea gratt'.mma (Laurus 

Persea), natural order Lauraceae 

or the Laurel family. The leaves 

are oblong, with thick prominent 

veins, and the jQowers are a 

greenish-yellow. The fruit is in 

shape similar to a large pear, and 

often attains a weight of two 

pounds. In flavour the flesh is 

rich and luscious, and is by many 

thought to be the most delicious 

fruit known. It. is eaten fresh, 

and used to some extent when 

sliced for salads. Very often it 

is boiled as a vegetable, and eaten 

with salt and pepper. Through 

being used in this way it is slso known as the Vegetable Mnrrow 

Fruit. Owing to the lusciousness of the pulp, it is usual to use lime 

juice, vinegar, or spice with the cooked fruit to reduce its richness. The 

pulp yields about eight per cent, of oil, and the seeds have some 

medicinal value. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

This fmit, being a native of warm regions, can only be grown success- 
fully in those parts of Australia where the climatic conditions are congenial 
It will, however, adapt itself to a wider range of climate than many other 
tropical fruits, and is successfully cultivated on the Azore and Canary 
Islands, as also at Madeira, where the conditions diff'er considerably from 
those of its native habitat. The Avocado Pear may be grown successfully 
through the greater part of Queensland, and more especially in regions 
bordering the sea-coast, and it would thrive in the Northern River districts 
of New South Wales. It is also a fruit well suited to the Northern 
Territory and other tropical and sub-tropical regions. Independent of its 
value as a fruit tree, the Avocado Pear is worthy of cultivation for 
ornament in congenial localities. Propagation is readily eff'ected by 
layers or cuttings of the ripened wood taken off at a joint, and inserted 
about two inches deep in sand or light soil. Plants may also be readily 
obtained from seed. 



BANANA. 



HiSTOEY. 

Strictly this name belongs to Musa sapitntum, though it is also 
generally applied to the fruit of Musa paradisiaca more correctly 
known as the Plantain. Some botanists maintain that the Banana 



211 




Banana. 



is merely a variety of the 
Plantain, and it is a diffi- 
cult matter to define the 
boundary line >)etvveen the 
two. The Banana has a 
shorter and thicker fruit 
than the Plantain, but there 
is not much dilBFerence in 
flavour. The stems of the 
Banana are also more spot- 
ted, but they do not differ 
much in other respects. 
Though the fruit used in 
these colonies is commonly 
known as Bananas, they are 
in reality Plantains. Musa 
is the type of the natural 
order Musacese, and the 
species rank among our 
largest herbaceous plants. 
The stems are soft, varying from four 
to fifteen feet in height, with leaves 
measuring from six to ten feet in 
length with a proportionate breadth. 
The species are indigenous to the 
wanner parts of Asia, and the useful 
kinds have been widely distributed 
by mankind through the tropical 
regions of the world. 

Uses. 



The Banana is one of the chief 
food plants in most tropical countries, 
and is extensively cultivated. It 
is a fruit that is produced within a 
year of the time of planting, and will 
yield a larger amount of food from 
a given area than any other plant. 
According to a calculation made by 
Humbolt the celebrated German Plantain, 

traveller and scientist, an area that 

will yield thirty-three pounds of wheat and ninety-nine of potatoes will 
'produca four thousand pounds of Bananas. Consequently the produce of 
Bananas in proportion to wheat is 133 to 1, and potatoes 44 to 1. 
Another great recommendation for the Banana is that the fruit is pro- 
produced in succession, and is in season throughout the year. The 
bunches are pn)duced at the top of the stems, th^ young fruit surrounding 
tlie flower stalk. Bunches will carry from sixty to two hundred and 




212 

fifty fruit, and will often weigh over one hundred pounds. The largest 
number of fruits upon the bunches is obtained from the Chinese Banana, 
{M'lsa Cavendishii), a distinct species. This species is also known 
variously as If. Chinensis, M. Nana, and M. Begia. The fruit of the 
Banana is highly nutritive, and is a staple food in most tropical countries. 
Bananas are also highly appreciated as a dessert fruit in countries where 
there is no occasion to depend upon them as food. In India, and other 
countries, the fruit is largely used when cooked, in various forms as well 
as in a fresh state. The pulp is also used in the same way as butter 
when spread upon bread. Bananas are to some extent utilised in India 
and China when dried, and if properly prepared they can be kept in 
good condition for several years. The ordinary mode of drying is to 
remove the skins and expose the fruit on boards or mats to the full power 
of the sun, taking care to turn it every day till the process is complete. 
As in drying other fruit, care roust be taken that the Bananas are not 
exposed to rain or dew during the process. When the fruit is thoroughly 
dry it should be packed firmly in regular layers in small boxes or jars till 
required for use. If large quantities of fruit have to be dried it may be 
an advantage to employ artificial heat with an evaporator, as by this 
means the work can be done more expeditiously. Fruit of the Banana 
can be turned to account in the form of meal or flour which is very 
palatable, easy of digestion, and an excellent food for invalids or infants. It 
also makes palatable puddings and custards, and is considered to be very 
nourishing. Meal is prepared by slicing and drying, and afterwards 
grinding the fruit. This meal if carefully prepared can be kept for a 
long period in close jars or boxes. The fruit by fermentation and 
pressure will yield a palatable wine, and by distillation a strong and 
excellent spirit can be obtained. 

Cultivation. 

The Banana flourishes to perfection in tropical and sub-tropical regions, 
and will be a profitable fruit to grow in those portions of Australia 
embraced by those terms. But it is more hardy than many other 
tropical plants, and may be grown successfully in the warmer 
portions of the temperate zone. The Banana delights in a rich deep 
soil, and is specially well adapted for alluvial land, bordering rivers 
or creeks. If the land is not naturally rich it should be made so, by 
the free use of manure. In preparing the ground it should be stirred 
to the depth of at least eighteen inches, so that the plants will have 
plenty of root room. If necessary, provision must also be made for 
drainage, as though the banana requires a fairly moist soil, yet it will 
not thrive when water is stagnating at its roots. Shelter is an 
important matter in the cultivation of Bananas, as the plants suffer 
severely when exposed to strong winds. If no natural shelter exists 
it must be provided by planting dense break-winds of suitable trees. 
Plantations of Bananas may be made at any time, but the most 
favourable periods are September and March or April. In order to 
give the plants ample room for development, and allow^ space for 



213 

working, they should be aiTanged so as to stand about fifteen feet apart. 
Planted this distance apart 193 plants will go to an acre. The 
plantation must be kept as free from weeds as possible, and more 
especially while the plants are young. When older, with a good 
spread of leaves, weeds will prove less troublesome. Bananas will 
commence to yield fruit in from nine to eighteen months after they 
are planted, according to the size and vigor of the plants. A stem 
bears only one bunch, and as soon as the fruit is removed this shouldr- 
be cut away, being of no further use. As the plants gain in strength 
the number of stems will increase. These stems are formed by 
suckers which spring from the roots, and a strong plant will have 
them in all stages of development, from the one with its full grown 
bunch of fruit to another a few inches above the ground. When 
used in the locality where grown, or for a near market, the bunches 
should be cut as the fruit shows signs of ripeness. If required for 
sending long distances, or export, it will be necessary to cut the 
bunches at an earlier stage. The bunches ripen readily in dark 
rooms or cellars, or when covered with sand or soil. In addition to 
cutting away the old fruiting stems, it will be advisable to thin out 
8ome of the suckers when too numerous, removing the more weakly 
ones. As the Banana is a very exhausting crop, frequent dressings of 
manure are necessary to keep the land in good heart. With good 
management a plantation will give good returns for seven or eight 
years. The Chinese or Cavendish Banana is somewhat more hardy 
than the other kinds, and may be grown successfully with less heat. 
It has also the recommendation of being more dwarf in habit, as it 
rarely exceeds six feet in height, and is consequently less liable t.o 
injury from high winds. 

Propagation akd Planting. 

Bananas are propagated by the removal of suckers or young shoots 
that spring from the roots of the old plants. In taking them off as 
many roots as possible should be removed with them. Care should 
be taken in planting, that the holes are sufficiently large to allow the 
roots to be regularly spread in a horizontal position. Deep planting 
must also be avoided and it will be sufficient to place the roots two 
or three inches below the surface. When the roots are arranged in 
their places they should be covered with finely pulverized earth, and 
this must be firmed by pressure with the foot of the planter. 

BAOBAB. 

History and Uses. 

Baobab is the native name of the fruit of Adansonia digitata, an 
evergreen tree belonging to the natural order Sterculiaceae. It is indigenous 
to a large portion of Western Africa, and is said to be the largest fruit 
tree in the world, though its height is not proportionate to the size of the 



214 

trunk and the spread of the branches. Only under exceptional circum- 
stances does this tree attain a greater height than twenty-five feet, but 
specimens are common whose trunks are from twenty to thirty feet in 
circumference. The branches will extend from the main stem forty or 
fifty feet, and are sometimes as thick as the trunks of fairly-sized trees. 
The flowers are white, 
and the fruit, which is 
from eight to twelve 
inches in length, is 
covered with a green 
velvety down, changing 
to brown when dry. The 
pulp, in which numerous 
seeds are imbedded, has 
a slightly acid and very 
agreeable flavour. The 
juice mixed with sugar 
is considered to be a 
pleasant drink, and also 
a specific for pestilential 
fevers. The leaves dried 
and reduced to powder 
are extensively used by 
the Africans to mix with their food, as they are considered to be eff'ective 
in diminishing excessive perspiration. By Europeans the leaves and bark, 
as also the fruit are used medicinally in cases of diarrhcea, feveis and 
other maladies. The bark of the tree is turned to good account by the 
Africans for making ropes and cloth. The Baobab is known under the 
English names of Monkey's Bread and Sour Gourd. An allied species. 
Adansonia Go'egorii, commonly known as the Gouty Tree and Cream of 
Tartar Tree, is indigenous to Northern Australia, and has qualities that 
should command attention in tropical regions. In habit of growth it is 
somewhat similar to the African Baobab, though not so large, and from 
its apparently swollen trunk the name Gouty Tree has originated. The 
fruit is about six inches in length and three or four in diameter, the pulp 
having an acid taste somewhat like cream of tartar, hence the other 
vernacular name. The wood of the Australian species is very soft and 
spongy, retaining a considerable amount of water which it will yield by 
pressure. This peculiarity alone \^ould make the tree serviceable in 
some regions. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 




The Baobab. 



The African Baobab, as also the Australian species, being natives of 
tropical regions, can only be cultivated in those parts of Australia where 
the climatic conditions are similar. In suitable localities both should 
prove useful acquisitions for their fruit, and also as ornamental trees. 
They would be at home in the coast districts of Queensland and the 
Northern Territory, or any other region where the Banana and Pine Apple 



215 

will thrive. The trees will thrive in any ordinary good land, but the 
most congenial 8oil is a deep, rich, sandy loam. Baobab trees in their 
native regions attain a great age, and there are specimens living supposed 
to be over one thousand years oid. Propagation is affected by seeds 
which may be sown at any time, layers which root freely if put down in 
the autumn or spring, and cuttings of the previous season's wood, inserted 
in sand in a frame, or under a glass. 



BARBERRY. 

History and Uses. 

Edible fruits are obtained from several species of Berberis, a genus 
which is the type of the natural order Berheridacoe. The name is derived 
from the Arabic Berbri/s. They are mostly deciduous shrubs, found 
growing in mountain regions in various parts of the world- In the United 
Kingdom the fruit of Berberis vulgaris, a species indigenous to most 
parts of Europe, is used to some extent under the name of Berberries or 
Barberries. The berries are red, grow in bunches, are intensely acid, 
and cannot be eaten in a raw state. 'I hey, however, make a piquant 
acid jelly when preserved with sugar, which is considered to be of some 
medicinal value, and also a pleasant pickle. This species was formerly 
very common in England, but it has been banished to a large extent of 
late years, from the general belief that the plants afforded breeding 
grounds for the rust fungus that is so troublesome to wheat crops. It 
embraces a number of varieties that vary considerably in habit, foliage, 
and colour of the fruit, which includes various shades of red, purple, 
violet, black, yellow, and white. Berberis Canadensis, which yields the 
American Barberry, is somewhat similar to the European species, and by 
some botanists is considered to be identical. Berberis Fremo7iti, a 
handsome American evergreen species, grows eight or ten feet high, and 
and bears ovate dark blue berries about the size of small Currants. 
Berberis Siberica is a Siberian dwarf species with oval red fruit. Berberis 
huxifolia, a South American species, yields comparatively large black 
fruit, which is less acid than the common Barberry, but more astringent. 
This fruit is used to some extent in Chili and Peru. Two species from 
the Himalayas known as Berberris Asiatica and Berberis Nepalensis^ the 
latter being an evergreen shrub, also yield edible berries that are utilized 
in their native localities. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

In this part of the world the BerbeHs family are well known as 
ornamental shrubs, and many species are cultivated as such, but they are 
not utilised as fruit-bearing plants. It is somewhat doubtful whether 
they will ever become popular as such, as they are grtatly inferior 



216 



Bahbebry. 



to other fruits that can be 
as readily grown. As orna- 
mental plants, however, 
they are well worthy of 
cultivation, and possibly 
some people might like to 
grow them for the double 
purpose. They are very 
hardy, will thrive in many 
parts of Australasia, and 
more especially in the cooler 
regions. Any of the species 
will readily adapt themselves 
to various kinds of soil, 
though, as a matter of 
cours*», they will flourish 
more in good than in poor 
land. They may be intro- 
duced with advantage to 
any garden, and are very 
effective ornamental plants 
when growing in the front 
of shrubberies. Plants are 
readily obtained from layers 
or cuttings. The former will 
root freely if the branches 
are layered in the spring. 
Cuttings btrike readily in 
light soil, in the open gronud 
if put in before the spring 
growth commences. Pro- 
pagation may be readily 
effected by suckers which 
are generally produced freely from old plants and also by seeds. 
Seeds should be sown as soon as possible after the berries are fully ripe, 
covering them half an inch deep. 




Plant showing Flower and EYuit. 



BARBADOES GOOSEBERRY. 



This name is applied to Peiresha aculeata {Cactus Feireskia), a 
plant belonging to the Cactacea or Cactus family. It is a native of 
the West Indies, and differs from other genera belonging to the same 
order, in having woody branches and proper leaves. In habit of 
^ro'wth the branches have a tendency to trail, or they may become 
climbers under favourable conditions, and, again, the plants may 
be shrubby. The branches are round, and furnished with thick flat 
leaves, more or less covered with stiff spines. The fruit attains the 
size of a large Gooseberry, and has a juicy pleasant flavour. It is 



217 

used to some extent in the West Indies, both, fresh and preserved. 
The young leaves are also turned to account in making salads. The 
Barbadoes Gooseberry is scarcely worth cultivating for its fruit, as 
superior kinds are obtainable from other plants. As, however, it is a 
drought-resisting plant, it may prove useful in the arid desert regions 
of Australia. Being a native of a warm climate, this plant will only 
flourish in tropical or sub-tropical regions. Propagation is affected 
readily by cuttings and seeds. The name Barbadoes Gooseberry is 
sometimes applied to Physalis pubescens, a plant closely allied to the _ 
Cape Gooseberry, and described under that heading. 

BHEL FRUIT 

History and Uses. 

Bhel, or Bael, is the Hindustani name for the fruit of ^Egle 
marmelos, a large evergreen shrub belonging to the natural order 
Aurantacese or the Orange family. It is indigenous to India and 
other tropical regions in Asia. The flowers are red and white, very 
fragrant, and will yield a choice perfume. The fruit is similar in 
size and shape to an orange, but has a hard rind. It contains from 
ten to fifteen cells, which are filled with a transparent glutinous pnlp 
that has a fragrant and delicious flavour. So tenacious is this 
substance that it may be drawn out into fine threads. Medicinally 
the fruit is considered to be a valuable aperient, and when dried is 
used as an astringent. From the rind a useful perfume is extracted. 
The English name for the fruit is Bengal Quince. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

As this fruit is a native of tropical regions, it will only thrive in 
those parts of Australia where the conditions are similar. It may be 
grown successfully in many parts of Queensland, Port Darwin, and 
other regions within or near the tropics. In congenial localities this 
excellent fruit may be cultivated with advantage, as it is generally 
appreciated by those that are acquainted with it. This plant will 
thrive in any fairly good soil, and in cultivation requires similar 
treatment to an Orange tree. Propagation is effected by seeds, 
layers, and cuttings of the ripened wood of the past season's growth. 

BILBERRY. 

History and Uses. 

The British Bilberry, BleabeiTy, or Whortleberry (as it is as often 
called) is known botanically as Vaccinium mi/rtilhis, and belongs to 
the natural order Vaccinaceae. It is closely allied to the Cranberry, 
and is indigenous to the greater part of Europe, Northern Asia, and 
North America. The plant is a deciduous erect shrub, which attains 
the height of from three to five feet, and its fruit is similar in size to 
black Currants, but have a bluish tint, and are covered with a grey 



218 

bloom. The fruit has a pleasant acid flavour, somewhat like the 
Cranberry, and is largely used in the northern countries of Europe 
and America, either raw with sugar and cream, in tarts, or preserved 
in the form of jam and jelly. When eaten in either form the fruit is 
considered to be wholesome, and to have useful medicinal properties. 
The juice of the berries is also said to be used as a hair dye in some 
parts of Northern Europe when mixed with the bark of the Alder tree. 

Cultivation & Propagation. 

This plant is found growing natui^ally in peaty soils, and yields its 
fruit in great abundance. Though this fruit has, as yet, received no 
attention in Australasia, it might prove to be worth cultivating in some 
of the colonies. Possibly this plant might be naturalized in the 
alpine regions with advantage. It requires a peaty or sandy soil 
containing a good proportion of vegetable matter. 

In preparing land for this crop, stir deeply without bringing up the 
under soil, and make provision for taking away any surplus water 
that is likely to hang in the ground. Though this fruit likes a fair 
amount of moisture it will not thrive in boggy land, though some 
other species of the same family will do so. Plant in rows like vines, 
leaving a space of from eight to ten feet between. The time for 
planting is between the fall of the leaf in the autumn and the starting 
of growth in the spring. A plantation will last for a number of years, 
and when fairly started requires only a moderate amount of attention 
in keeping clean. But little pruning is required, all that is necessary 
being to keep the plants shapely, and to thin out the branches when 
overcrowded. 

Propagation may be effected b}- seeds, cuttings, layers, and root 
suckers. Seeds should be sown in a frame or pots as soon as possible 
after they are obtained. When the young plants are large enough to 
handle they should be pricked out into beds, lea^dng them three or 
four inches apart, or shifted into small pots. Shift them again when 
the plants require more room, and the following season plant out 
where required. Cuttings of the previous season's wood, if put in 
before growth commences, will strike in sand or light soil. Layers 
should be put down before the spring, and will furnish good plants 
the following season. 

Other Species. 

Various other species of Vaccinium yield edible berries, and might 
prove worthy of attention from fruit cultivators. Prominent among 
them are the Bog Bilberry or Grreat Whortleberry (Vacdm'um 
uliginosum), which is indigenous to Europe, Northern Asia, and 
America, and in habit is similar to the common Bilberry, but the 
fruit, though nearly alike in colour, is more astringent and inferior. 
This species flourishes in boggy land, and might prove serviceable in 
some localities. Two North American species, Vaccinium Canadense 
and Vaccinium JPennst/lvanicum, which are very closely allied, yield 
what in the United States are known as Blueberries or Huckleberries, 
which are highly valued in that part of the world. These and other 
useful species will be dealt with under a separate heading. 



219 

BARBADOES CHERRY 

This is the vernacular name for the fruit of Malpighia glabra, an 
evergreen tree, and Malpighia punifolia an evergreen shrub belonging to 
the natural order Malpighiacese. Both are indi.genous to the West 
Indies and tropical America, the former being cultivated to some extent 
in those regions for the sake of its fruit, which in shape and size is 
similar to the common Cherry, The fruit is juicy and refreshing, 
and much appreciated in the' West Indies. As both species are- 
indigenous to tropical regions they can only be cultivated successfully in 
those parts of Australia where the climatic conditions are similar. They 
would probably prove serviceable fruits in many parts of Queensland and 
North Australia, and are also worthy of cultivation for ornamental 
purposes, as their bright evergreen foliage is very attractive. Their 
pretty rose coloured flowers are also a recommendation. Both species 
thrive best in a light rich soil. Propagation may be readily effected by 
seeds, layers, and ripened cuttings of the current seasons growth under a 
glass. 

BEARBERRY 

HiSTOEY AND USES. 

The plant know^n under this name is A rctostci'phylos Uva-nrsi, which 
belongs to the natural order Ericaceae, or Heath family. Formerly it 
was called A rbutus Uva ursi. It is an evergreen trailing plant having 
white flowers, and it is indigenous to the alpine and northern regions 
of Europe, Asia, and America. It is to be found growing in various 
parts of Scotland, as also in Wales. The plant has leaves somewhat 
similar to those of the Cranberry, and the same trailing habit of 
growth. The fruit is red, and also somewhat similar but smaller and 
more dry and mealy. In some localities the fruit is used in the same 
wa}^ as Cranberi'ies, but it is greatly inferior to them. The plant in 
some parts of America is known as the Hog Cranberry, in others 
Upland Cranberry, and also under the name of Grouseberry. As 
the whole plant has astringent properties it is used to some extent 
medicinally, and more especially the leaves, which are also some- 
times utilized as a substitute for tea. Another species of this genus, 
Arctostapki/los manzaiiita, is the Mexican Manzanita (Little Apple). 
The fruit is a dull red, mealy, and pleasantly sub-acid. It is used 
to some extent by the Mexicans, and is eaten freely by birds and 
various animals. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

The Bearberry grows naturally in poor dry heathy soils, and might 
prove serviceable in some of the alpine regions of Australia 
Tasmania and New Zealand. Though not nearly so valuable as the 





220 

Cranberry, yet it has the advantage of being able to flourish in 
poorer and di'ier land. Propagation is easily effected by seeds, or by 
layers from the ti-ailing stems which i-oot freely. 



BLACKBERRY. 

History and Uses 

Under the name of Blackberries or Brambles are included several 
species of the genus Hubus, which belongs to the natural order Rosaceea. 
The genus is widely dispersed, and species are found in Europe, Asia, 
Africa, North and South America, and Australia has also I'epresenta- 
tives. All the species yield edible fruits of more or less value, 
including the Raspberry, and several are worthy of attention by 
cultivators. The common or English Blackberry is Buhus fruticosus, 
a thorny rambling plant, which is found growing naturally throughout 
Europe, Middle and Northern Asia* It adapts itself to a variety of 
soils and other local conditions, and in England and other European 
countries the fruit, which is produced in abundance, is extensively 
used for dessert, in tarts and puddings, or, when preserved, in the 
form if jam. It also makes an excellent wine. The common Black- 
berry has been naturalized in many parts of Australasia, but it does 
not maintain its European reputation as a fruit-producer, as the crops 
are often poor and uncertain. Then, again, from the rapid growth 
and straggling habit of the plant, it is apt to spread and become a 
noxious weed if not kept within bounds by constant attention. This 
has proved to be the case in many localities, and consequently the 
Blackberry has obtained a somewhat bad reputation. A little care, 
however, in trimming will keep the plants in order, and in suitable 
localities it may be cultivated profitably for its fruit, and as a hedge 
plant. Other European Blackberries are obtained from Muhus 
corylifolius and various other species, and some of these are worth 
cultivating for their fruit. North America is rich in having several 
useful species of Bubus, some of which yield excellent fruits that are 
much cultivated in the United States, but are scarcely known in 
Europe or Australia. The more prominent and useful of the American 
species are Buhus cimeifolius, or Sand Blackberry, which attains a 
height of three or four feet, is shrubby in habit, and produces well 
flavoured, black, medium-sized berries that ripen late. This species 
grows naturally in light sandy soils. Buhusvillosus is a robust upright 
species, known in America as the High Blackberry. It attains a 
height of eight or ten feet, and has very strong thorns. Several 
excellent varieties have been raised from this species, including the 
Lawton. Bubns vitifolius is the Californian Blackberry. It is a 
strong free-growing species, with large, oblong, well flavoured fruit. 
Some of these have been crossed with the Raspberry, and the results 
have been some very desirable varieties. The British Dewberry is 
the product of Bubus ccesms, a species indigenous to Europe, Northern 



221 

and Western Asia, which is extremely hardy and will stand extremes . 
of heat, drought, and frost. This fruit is popular in the countries of 
Northern Europe, being eaten fresh and preserved in various ways. 
The fruit also has the advantage of lasting for a considerable time, 
and till late in the season. This species might possibly prove worthy 
of cultivation in the cooler portions of Australasia. The American 
Dewbury is the product of Ruhus Canadensis, which is extensively 
distributed over the North American continent. It is a trailing 
prickly plant with large black fruit of excellent quality, which is^ 
largely used in Canada and the United States. This species and its 
varieties may also be introduced with advantage to some localities. 
The Cloudberry of Northern Europe is JR^ibus Chamcemoras,. a, her- 
baceous perennial species whjch flourishes in cold regions. The 
berries which are as large as small Strawbei-ries, are in colour from i-ed 
to amber, very wholesome, and are largely used fresh or preserved, in 
Scotland, Sweden, Norway, and some parts of Russia. This plant 
might possibly succeed in most alpine regions, and prove worth}- of 
cultivation. Several Indian, Japanese, and other species of Rubus 
may also possibly be utilized with advantage. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

All the species and varieties of the Bramble family are easily 
cultivated, as most of them will readily adapt themselves to soils of 
different character, though they thrive to tha greatest perfection in a 
rich sandy loam. They are better adapted for the cooler than other 
districts, and more particulaily for alpine regions, where the fruit 
of all kinds is richer in flavour than .when produced in warmer 
localities. Propagation is readily effected by suckers fi'om the roots, 
or cuttings, which strike freely in sand or light soil if put in early in 
the spring. Plants may also be readily obtained from layers, as 
branches quickly produce roots if covered with a little soil. The 
trailing kinds require the support of a fence to keep them up, and 
may be successfully cultivated as hedges round orchards or paddocks. 
As a matter of course, the plants must be well cut back every winter 
to keep them within bounds, and care should be taken not to let 
growth get too dense. The following list includes most of the best 
kinds either species or varieties, some of the latter being hybrids of 
uncertain origin, and others having as much of the chai*acter of 
the Raspberry as the Blackberry, though classed as such : — 

Species and Varieties. 

Common Blackberry {English Blackbeny). — Fruit medium size, 
roundish-conical, deep shining black, sweet, jnicy, and pleasantly 
flavoured. Strong in habit, trailing, and a prolific bearer in cool 
mountain districts. 

Clovdberri/. — Fruit medium-sized, colour from red to amber, juicy 
and slightly sub-acid, habit herbaceous, and will thrive only in moist 
alpine regions. 



222 

CnwdelVs Enrlij. — A popular Amei'ican variety, wMeli begins to 
ripen very eai-ly in the season. It continues to yield fi-uit for a long 
period in the season. The fruit is large and Avell flaA'oured, and the 
plant hardy, robust, and very jjrolifie. 

Dewberry. — Fruit niediuni-sized, bluish black, juicy and well- 
flavoured. Habit trailing, sti-ong, and suitable for cool districts. 

Dorchester. — An American hybrid variety. Fruit lai'ge oblong- 
conical, colour deep shining black, sweet and highly flaAX)ured, large 
grain, ripens and carries well. Habit strong, upi-ight, and prolific. 
Ma}' be grown Avhere the Raspberry thiiA^es. 




English Blackberry. 



Hima layan. — A useful and popular kind. Fruit very large, roundish- 
conical, juicy, with a pleasant flaA^our, and is produced in succession. 
Habit trailing and strong, and a good bearer. Will adapt itself to a 
wider range of climate than the English Blackberry, but thrives to 
the greatest perfection in cool regions. 

Kittatwriy. — A popular American A^ariety Avhich is extensively 
cultivated in th United States. Fi-uit lai'ge to A^ery large, roundish- 
conical, fine glossy black, juic}^ firm, Avitli a lich sAveet fiavour. 
Habit upright, very hardy, a free bearer, and lasts for a long period. 
Requii'es similar conditions to the Raspberry. 



223 




Kittatinnj'. 



Lawton (Neiv Rochelle). — A fine American variety. Fruit very 
large, oval, intensely black, jnicy, sweet, with a ricli flavoni'. Habit 
strong, rambling, with large spines, very hardy and pi-odnctive. 
Ripens rather late and lasts a long period Will adapt itself to 
various soils, and will thrive in any of the cooler districts^ 



224 

Low lU<(ckherry (American Dewberry, Trailing Blackberry). — An 
American species with A^ery large, I'onnclish-oblong, black fruit, juicy, 
sweet, and highly flavoured. Habit strong, and is a low trailing 
prickly shrub. Suitable only for alpine regions. 





Dorchester. 



Wilson's Early. 



Wilson's Early. — ^An excellent Ameiican variety with very large, 
oblong-oval, slightly pointed, deep black beiTies, and one of the 
earliest Blackberries. The fruit has a rich sweet flavour, with a firm 
flesh, and bears packing and carriage better than most other kinds. 
In America it is considered to be one of the best BlackberHes for 
market. 

Wilson Junior. — This is a seedling from Wilson's Early and said 
to be superior to its parent in size and productiveness. It is also 
a Yery early kind, and in other respects similar to the parent. 



BLOOD PLUM. 

History and Uses. 

This fruit is obtained from a small evergi-een tree belonging to the 
Anacardiacese or Cashew Nut family, known botanically as lloematos- 
tajphis IlaHeri. It is indigenous to West Africa, and more especially to 
the River Niger districts. The leaves are winged, and the small white 
flowers aie produced in i:)anicles. The fruit is about the size of small 
Damsons, and is borne in bunches somewhat similar to Grapes. It 
is bright crimson, like blood, hence the vernacular name, and the 
scientific one has the same origin. The fruit has an acid flavour, 
and is much relished by the natives of countries where it is indigenous. 



225 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

Though the Blood Plum is an edible fruit, it is not of sufficient 
value to make it worth cultivating for economical purposes. As an 
ornamental tree it may be worthy of attention in tropical or sub- 
tropical regions, Being a native of warm regions, as a matter of 
course, it cannot be cultivated in any but the warmest parts of 
Austi'alia. Propaga ion may be effected by seeds, layei's, or cuttings 
of the previous season's wood. 

BRAZIL ALMOND. 

History and Uses. 

This is an evergreen tree known as Geoffroya superha, and belonging 
to the order Leguminoseae. It attains a height of thirty of forty feet, 
and has winged glossy leaves and yellow flowers. The fruit is about 
the size of a Walnut, and has a greenish yellow skin covered with 
thick down. The pulp is fleshy, and encloses a very hard mit-like 
seed. By the South American Indians the pulpy portion of the 
fruit is used for food, and they turn the kernels of the seeds to 
account in the same way. The fruit is commonly known in South 
America under the name of Almender. The wood is very hard, fine 
grained, takes an excellent polish, and is used to some extent 
for fine cabinet work. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

This tree is not likely to be cultivated to any extent in Australia, as 
its fruit is insipid, and greatly inferior to many other kinds, though 
the seeds or nuts have a fairly good flavour. As it is indigenous to 
warm regions it is suitable only for tropical or semi-tropical localities. 
Being a drought resisting tree, it might prove useful in some of the 
hot, diy, interior districts. It is also worth cultivating in shrubberies 
as an ornamental plant. The best mode of propagation is by seeds, 
but plants may also be readily obtained from cuttings of the ripened 
wood. 

BRAZIL NUT. 

History and Uses. 

The Brazil Nut is the fruit of Bertholletia excelsa a large handsome 
tree belonging to the Lecythideae section of the natural order 
Myrtaceae. It is an evergreen with large smooth broad leaves nearly 
two feet in length, and attains a height of from 100 to 150 feet. The 
fruit grows upon the upper branches, and when mature, forms a 
perfect ball about six inches in diameter. It consists of an outer 



226 

wood}^ sliell which is closely packed [with rough shelled thiee-sided 
nuts, about an inch and a half in length. Each of the larger shells 
contains from five to eight nuts. When fully ripe the fruit falls from 
the trees, and the nuts are eagerly collected, forming an important 
article of food for both men and some of the lower animals in their 
native localities, where they are known under the name of Juvia. 
Considerable quantities of the nuts are expoi'ted to Europe, where 
there is a large demand for them. This tree forms perfect forests 
in its native localities, and it is dangerous to enter them at the period 
when the fruit ripens, as being so large and heavy, it falls A\dth gTeat 
force. In addition to its value as an edible nut, the kernels by 
pressure yield a fine bland oil which is used to some extent by 
watchmakers. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

The Brazil Nut can only be successfully cultivated in the tropical 
portions of Australia. Being a valuable tree it is worthy of attention 
in congenial localities. It grows naturally in deep rich soils bordering 
the rivers Amazon and Oronoca, and will doubtless thrive well in the 
coast districts of Queensland and North Australia. Propagation is 
most commonly effected by seeds, but cuttins:s of the ripened wood 
will strike in sand or light soil. 



BREAD FRUIT. 

History and Uses. 

The Bread Fruit is a handsome evergreen tree known as Artocarpus 
incisa (communis) belonging to the Artocarpese section of the UrticacesB 
or Nettle family. It is indigenous to Tahite, and other of the South 
Sea Islands, as also the Molucca and Sunda Islands. The botanic 
name is derived from artos bread, and cm'pus a fruit, in allusion to the 
purpose for which it is. used. The tree attains a height of from 
twenty to thirty feet, and has large bright-green deeply lobed leaves 
which measure from eighteen inches to two feet in length. There 
are both male and female flowers, and the fruit is globular or oblong, 
from nine to twelve inches long, and somewhat similar to a melon. 
The fruit is marked wdth a number of diamond shaped scars or facets, 
and the so called Bread is a white spongy substance. The true fruit 
consists of seeds or nuts, that are embedded in this spongy mass. 
These seeds are however, seldom produced by trees under cultivation. 
Bread Fruit, like the Banana, is a staple article of food with the 
natives of many of the South Sea Islands. They prepare the fruit 
by roasting it till the outside covering, or shell, is charred sufficiently 
for it to be rubbed off. The pnlp is then eaten, and has a flavour 
which may be compared to that of ordinar}^ bread and Chestnuts 
combined. It should be eaten fresh, as when allowed to get stale, 
the material becomes harsh and woolly. Many Europeans are partial 



227 

to the Bread Fruit, and use it when baked, boiled, and in various 
other ways. It is considered to be wholesome and palatable. The 
fruits are produced in succession for eight or nine months in the year. 
Besides its value as a food plant the Bread Fruit is serviceable to the 
South Sea Islanders in various other ways. The inner bark is 
converted into a coarse kind of cloth, and the light yellow wood is 
utilised for various purposes. A tenacious gum or caoutchouc is 
obtained from the milky juice of the tree. 

The earliest account of the Bread Fruit was given by Captain- 
Dampier, who voyaged through the South Sea Islands over three 
hundred years ago. His description of the tree was a very glowing 
one. The scientiiic men who accompanied Captain Cook in his 
voyages had a very high opinion as to its value, and in his official 
report, Di*. Solander the botanist, stated it to be " the most useful 
vegetable in the world." These 
representations induced the 
British Government to take 
steps for the introduction of the 
Bread Fruit to the "West Indian 
Colonies. With this object in 
view, a vessel called the Bounty, 
was fitted out expressly and 
placed under the command of 
Captain Bligh. The object 
however was not attained then, 
owing to a mutiny among the 
crew, and seizure of the vessel 

by the malcontents, which are Bread Fruit 

matters of history. A few years 
afterwards, however the object was successfully accomplished by a 
vessel under the command of the same officer. 

A tree called Treculia africana, belonging to the same natural order, 
yields what is known as the African Bread Fruit. It is an evergi^een, 
attaining a height of from twenty to thirty feet. The fruit is about 
twelve inches in diameter, but, unlike the ordinary Bread Fruit, the 
only portion used is the nuts or seeds. These seeds, which are 
numerous, are ground into meal and used as food by the natives of 
tropical West Africa, where the tree is indigenous. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

The Bread Fruit can only be successfully cultivated in the tropical 
or sub-tropical regions of Australia. In congenial localities it is a 
serviceable fruit, and is also worthy of attention as an ornamental 
tree. Theie are several varieties that are known, and their fruit 
varies somewhat in size, and also in the period of ripeuing. By 
carefully selecting the kinds, a supply of fruit may be obtained 
throughout the year. A rich, deep, and moderately moist soil is re- 
quired by the Bread Fruit. Shelter is also essential to the well- 
being of the trees. Propagation is easily effected by suckers, which 




228 

are generally produced freely from the roots. Cuttings of matured 
wood may be struck in sand under a glass, but they are very uncertain. 



BREAD NUT. 

This name is applied to the fruit of a large evergreen tree known 
as Brosimum A licastrum belonging to the Artocarpeae section of the order 
[Jrticaceee. It is indigenous to the West Indies, and is allied to the 
Bread Fruit. The fruit is the size of large Plums, and is used by the 
negi'oes, when baked with salt, fish, or meat, and as a pickle. When 
roasted the fruit has a similar taste to a Chestnut, and is both whole- 
some and palatable. The leaves and young shoots are used to some 
extent in Jamaica for feeding cattle, and are said to make excellent 
fodder. An excellent timber is also obtained from this tree. This tree 
will only thrive within the sub-tropics, but in regions that are suitable, 
it is worthy of attention for its fruit, and also as a fodder plant. It is 
also desirable as an ornamental tree. The Bread Nut will thrive in 
any ordinary good soil, but prefers a rich deep sandy loam. Prop- 
agation may be effected by the same means as recommended for the 
Bread Fruit. 

BUFFALO BERRY 

History vnd Uses. 

This is a deciduous shrub, or small tree, known botanically as 
Shepherdia argentea belonging to the natural order of Eleagnaceae. It 
is indigenous to a considerable portion of North America, where its 
fruit formerly, was greatly valued by the aboriginal Indians. In 
some parts of America the fruit is more generally known as " Rabbit 
Berry." The leaves are oblong, silvery white on both sides, and the 
small yellow flowers are borne in the axils of the branches. There 
are both male and female flowers borne on separate plants, the former, 
or sterile ones, having a four-parted calyx and eight stamens. The 
female, or fertile flower, has an ui^n shaped calyx enclosing an ovary 
which develops into a round berry like fruit about the size of a 
Currant. The fruit is in colour a dull red, and has a sprightly acid 
flavour. It is borne in compact clusters, and ripens late in the 
summer or autumn. The fruit is produced abundantly and makes a 
very good preserve. It may also be used with advantage when fresh, 
for pies and puddings. Another species Shepherdia canadensis also 
yields an edible fruit, somewhat similar in appearance, but less acid 
in flavour and rather insipid. 

Cultivation and Propagation 

The Buffalo Berry may be cultivated successfully for its fruit in 
the cooler regions of Australia, and is well adapted for Tasmania and 



229 
Buffalo Berry. 




Branch showing Flowers, Foliage and Fruit 

New Zealand. As it is a free bearer it may prove a very useful fruit 
in many localities. As an ornamental plant it is well worthy of a 
place in the shrubbery or pleasure garden, where its beautiful 
silvery white foliage will be very elfective. The thorn-like character 



280 





Male Flowers. 



Female Flowers. 



of the small branches also make it a very suitable plant for hedges. 
The Buffalo BeiTj may be cultivated successfully in any ordinary 
•good soil, but it is partial to deep moist land that boi-ders rivers and 
creeks. There being both male and female plants it is necessary 
that at least one of the former to six of the latter should be included 
in a plantation. The plants should be arranged so as to stand about 
twelve feet apart. Propagation may be readily effected by seeds, 
cuttings, suckers or layers. Seed should be sown thinly while fresh, 
in shallow drills, covering it an inch deep. The following season the 
young plants should be placed in rows a foot apart, leaving twice that 
space below the lines. They will usually bloom the third year from 
the seed, when the male and female plants can be separated. Layers 
root freely, the proper time for this method being in the spring. 
Suckers from the roots are sometimes produced, and these if taken off, 
make very good plants. Cuttings of the previous seasons wood will 
root freely if planted in the spring. 



CAMBUCA. 



This is the native name for the fruit of Marliera glomerata, a tall 
evergreen shrub, or small tree, indigenous to Brazil, and belonging to the 
order Myrtaceae. The fruits are about the size of Apricots, pleasantly 
flavoured, and are popular in their native country. Another species, 
Marliera tomentosa, indigenous to the same country, yields sweet berries 
about the size of Cherries, known by the native name of Guaparanga. 
Both kinds may be grown successfully in the tropical and sub-tropical 
regions of Australia, and, being handsome plants, are worthy of cultivation 
for ornament only. They are also deserving of attention as fruit-bearing 



231 

trees in suitable localities. They will thrive in any ordinary good soil. 
Propagation is eifected by seeds, which shoidd be planted two or three 
inches deep, layers, and cuttings of the ripened wood of the current 
season's scrowth. 



&" 



CAPE CHESTNUT. 

History and Uses 

This is a beautiful evergreen tree known to botanists as Calodendron 
Capense, and belonging to the natural order Rutaceae, or the Rue family. 
It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and attains a height of forty or fifty 
feet. The leaves are broad and eliptical, and the flowers are white. 
The fruit is five-celled, and enclosed in a five-angled prickly capsule. In 
flavour it resembles the Chestnut, hence the common name, and it is 
used both raw and when roasted. 

Cultivation and Peopagation. 

The Cape Chestnut may be cultivated successfully in all but the coldest 
districts in Australia and New Zealand. It is a remarkably handsome 
tree, makes rapid growth, and may be used with advantage in ornamental 
plantations. This tree is also well adapted for avenues and parks. As a 
fruit tree it is well worthy of attention, as it yields its palatable nuts 
freely. It may be grown successfully in any ordinary good soil, and 
requires but little attention after it has made a fair start. Propagation 
is easily effected by seeds, which sliould be sown in the spring or autumn, 
covering them about two inches. Young plants may also be obtained 
from cuttings of the ripened shoots of the current season's growth, which 
strike freely in sand or light soil under a glass. 

CAPE GOOSEBERRY 

History and Uses. 

The plant bearing this name is a native of tropical America, 
known to botanists as Phnsalis Feruviana, and belonging to the 
natural order Solanacea?. It is a perennial plant in warm regions, 
but in colder countries it becomes an annual. In some of the colonies 
the plant is cultivated to a limited extent for its fruit, but it has not 
received much attention generally, though it is w^ell Avorthy of a 
place in the gai'den. The fruit is produced in abundance, has a 
pleasant acidulous flavour, and may be eaten fresh or preserved in 
the form of jam. It is yellow, about the size of a small Cherry, and 
is covered with a bladder-like calyx, from which circumstance the 
generic scientific name lias been derived. The common name is by 
no means appropriate, as the plant is not a native of the Cape of 



232 

Good Hope neither has the fruit any resemblance to a Gooseberry. 
Closely allied to the Cape Gooseberry is the Strawberry Tomato, or 
Winter Cherry, which is the f i-uit of Phy sails A Ikekengi, a perennial 
species, said to have originally come from Persia, but now widely 
distributed throughout Southern Eui-ope, North Africa, and Asia, 
extending to Japan. This plant is more hardy than the Cape 
Goosebeny, very pi-olific, and ripens its fruit later in the season. 
The fruit is red, pleasantly flavoured, very wholesome, and may be 
used fresh or preserved. Another closel}^ allied and useful species is 
Physalis pubesce^u, which yields a fruit known as the Barbadoes 
Gooseberry or Gooseberry Tomato. It is an annual plant, and a 
natiA^e of the warmer parts of North and South America. The fruit 
is small, pleasantly acidulous, and much appreciated in the countries 
where it is found. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

The Cape Gooseberry, StrawbeiTy Tomato, and Gooseberry Tomato, 
ma}^ be grown successfully in all but the coldest pai'ts of Australia 
with a little care, and deserve more attention than they now receive. 
They however require a rich soil and a sheltered situation, and thrive 
best in a highly-manured sandy loam. Though the two first named 
are naturally perennial, yet it will be advisable except in the warmer 
regions, to renew them annually, as they are apt to get cut back in the 
winter by frosts. The seed should be sown as with Tomatoes, and it 
will be an advantage to get the plants started as early as possible. 
Plants may be forwarded considerably by sowing the seed in a hot 
bed, and potting off the plants as soon as they are large enough to 
handle. As soon as all danger from frost has passed the plants may 
be put out where they are to remain. Plant singly in rows three or 
four feet apart, 'leaving the same distance between in the lines. 
Weeds should be kept down as far as is practicable, and moi-e 
especially during the early stages of growth, so that the plants will 
be able to make fair headway. Mulching ma}' be used wath advan- 
tage if the gi'ound is covered before the hot Aveather sets in. By 
adopting this plan the surface moisture will be retained much longer 
than otherwise, to the great advantage of the plants. 



CAPE PLUM. 

This is the common name for the fruit of Carissa grandiflora, a thorny 
South African shrub, belonging to the natural order Apocynaceae. The 
fruit is similar in size and shape to a small plum, and makes an excellent 
jam. Another species, Carissa Carandas, indigenous to India and China, 
a large spiny shrub, yields a small plum-like fruit known as the Carandas, 
which is used for pickling and preserving as a jam. The fruit of a 
species indigenous to East Australia, (Carissa Brownii) which is some- 
what similar, can also be utilized for the same purposes. All the species 
named may jje grown successfully in the southern colonies of Australia, 



233 

and New Zealand. They are handsome ornamental shrubs, are well 
adapted for garden hedges, will adapt themselves to any soil or situation, 
and are able to withstand long droughts. Propagation is most readily 
effected by layers, which should be put down early in the autumn or 
spring. Cuttings of the ripened shoots of the current season's growth 
will strike readily in sand under a glass. Plants may also be raised from 
seeds, which should be covered to the depth of half-an-inch. 



CAPSICUM. 

History. 

Capsicum is a genus belonging to the natural order Solanaceae, and 
derives its name from the Greek Kapto, to bite, in allusion to the pungent 
properties of the fruit. There are a number of species, including annuals, 
biennials, and perennials, all possessing similar properties more or less. 
They are very widely dispersed, species being indigenous to both the 
East and West Indies, China, Japan, and Egypt, as also Brazil, Mexico, 
and other tropical parts of South America. Many of the species differ 
considerably from others in the shape, size, colour, and pungency of their 
fruits. Some of the species embrace several varieties, and these often 
differ materially in various ways from the parent plant. The small 
fruited kinds are more familiarly known to many as Chilies, which is 
said to be the Mexican name of the genus. 

Uses. 

Capsicums are used in a variety of ways, and they form an essential 
part of several well-known condiments. They are largely used in 
making mixed or other pickles, either when green or ripe, to give 
pungency. In the preparation of what is known as Chili Vinegar, 
Capsicums are the principal ingredient, and they are largely used for 
seasoning various dishes. Large quantities of Capsicums are used in the 
manufacture of Cayenne pepper, which is the most pungent of all 
condiments. In preparing Cayenne pepper the fruit is gathered when 
perfectly ripe, and dried in the sun, after which it is ground to a powder 
and mixed with a proportion of salt, but only a small quantity. The 
powder is then thoroughly dried and packed away in air-tight bottles or 
jars. When required for pickles the fruit may be used either green or 
ripe. Before using the fruit the seeds should be removed, and the pods 
soaked in salt and water for twenty -four hours. It is advisable to change 
the water after the fruit has been soaking twelve hours. The fruit, after 
the soaking process, should be thoroughly drained, and then it may be 
used either by itself or with other materials, by pouring boiling vinegar 
over it, and filling into bottles or jars. These, after their contents have 
cooled, must be tightly stopped to exclude the air. Chili Vinegar is 
made by putting a handful of fruit into a bottle, filling up with vinegar, 
and corking tightly. 



234 

In the West Indies a preparation called Cayenne Pepper Pot is much 
esteemed and extensively used. It is made from the ripe pods, which 
are first thoroughly dried by the sun, and then placed in earthen pots in 
layers, with flour between each. The vessels are then placed in an oven, 
and slightly heated to remove any moisture that may remain. After this 
process the fruit is taken out of the vessels without the flour, and the 
pods and seeds are ground into a fine jDOwder. Flour is then added in 
the proportion of one pound to an ounce of the powder^ and yeast as in 
making ordinary bread. The whole is then mixed well together, and 
made into small flat cakes which are baked in the ordinary way. These 
cakes may be kept for a considerable time, and are reduced to powder 
when required for use. In India a very popular preparation called 
Mandram is made chiefly from Capsicums. It is made from the ripe pods 
which are cut and mixed with thin slices of Cucumber, garlic, or shallots 
chopped fine, with a small quantity of lime juice and wine added. These 
materials are well mixed, and vinegar poured over them, when they are 
ready for use. This is considered to be an excellent preparation for 
stimulating the appetite. Capsicums or preparations made from them 
are used extensively by the natives of countries where they are indigenous, 
who consider them to have valuable properties. 

Medicinally the Capsicum possesses some valuable qualities, and is 
serviceable in various complaints. The pods and seeds contain a warm 
acrid oil which is considered useful in promoting digestion, for invigora- 
ting the blood, assisting the action of the bowels, and correcting flatulency 
arising from the use of vegetables. For lethargy, coma, and delirium, 
which often accompany tropical fevers, a poultice of the bruised seeds is 
said to have a more speedy remedial effect than anything else. In 
dropsical complaints a small quantity of the powdered seed is said to 
frequently affbi-d relief when other remedies fail. Capsicums are some- 
times used successfully in cases of yellow fever, and are said to have a 
soothing effect upon the stomach, and to often cause a favourable turn in 
that complaint. Sometimes the seeds are used as a remedy for pleurisy 
and paralysis, being bruised, mixed with lard, and rubbed upon the 
aflfected parts. When used for these complaints, this remedy is said to 
frequently afford substantial relief when others fail. Capsicums have 
been used beneficially in cases of scarlatina, and as a throat gargle when 
mixed with barley water for sufferers from influenza. The pepper is 
oiten used effectively as a cure for tooth-ache when placed in the cavities 
of hollow teeth. In cases of opthalmia from relaxation of the membranes 
of the eye, the greatly diluted juice is said to have been employed with 
good effect, and in some parts of South America it is used by the Indians 
to strengthen their sight when they are spearing fish. If the pods of 
Capsicums are thrown upon a fire, a strong pungent vapour is produced 
that is noxious to most persons, as it will cause sneezing and even 
vomiting. Capsicums are generally admitted to be wholesome when 
used in moderation, but when used in excess by themselves or in prepar- 
ations in which they form the basis, they are injurious, and the frequent 
cause of liver complaint. The fruit gathered fresh and eaten in small 
quantities before meals is said to be an aid to digestion, but when used 
too freely the stomach is liable to injury. 



235 

Cultivation. 

The Capsicum is a tender plant, and cannot withstand frosts or cold 
winds consequently, it is no use attempting to cultivate when those 
contingencies are probable. The plants thrive to the greatest perfection 
in the warmer portions of Australia, where the perennial species will 
retain their vigor for several years. But it is quite possible to grow the 
annual species to perfection, and also other kinds with extra care, in the 

cooler districts, as also in Tasmania and New Zealand. In the medium 

warm or cooler regions it is useless either to sow seed or plant in the 
open ground till all danger from frost has passed. But growth may be 
forwarded by growing seed in a hot bed in winter, potting off the young 
plants as soon as they are fit to handle, and keeping them steadily 
growing till the season is sufficiently advanced for planting them out. 
In the warmer regions not subject to frost, planting or sowing should be 
done early in the spring. The biennial and perennial species will make 
uninterrupted growth through the winter in tropical or semi-tropical 
regions, but in cooler localities they must be slightly sheltered to protect 
them from the effects of frosts. In the colder districts it will be necessary 
to take up and house the plants during the winter, in order to preserve 
them. Capsicums may be classed as ornamental plants, and, independent 
of their value for economic purposes, are desirable for flower gardens, 
where their high coloured fruit is very effective. When grown as a crop 
Capsicums should be planted in rows, four or five feet apart, leaving the 
same distance between in the lines, according to the growth of the kind. 
All the species are strong feeders, and require a rich soil to bring them to 
perfection. 

Propagation. 

Capsicums are usually raised from seed, but, if necessary, the biennial 
and perennial species may be readily propagated from cuttings. When 
seed is required the largest and best shaped pods should be selected for 
the purpose, allowing them to get thoroughly ripe. The pods should 
then be allowed to get thoroughly dry, and,' when practicable, the seed 
ought to be left in them till it is required for use. Seed should be sown 
in light rich soil, covering it to the depth of a quarter of an inch. It 
may be sown in the open ground, but the results will be more certain if 
a frame is used. When the young plants are about two inches high, they 
should be replanted into small beds, or potted, to remain till five or six 
inches in height, when they may be planted out permanently. They 
may be planted direct from the seed beds, but there will be less risk by 
transplanting previously as recommended. Cuttings of the young shoots, 
taken off three or four inches long, will strike freely if inserted about 
an-inch deep in sand or light soil. 

Species. 

The following list includes the most desirable species in cultivation, 
an 1 each of these has several varieties that differ more or less from their 
parents. 

p 



236 

Capsicum annua {Guinea Pepper). — This is an animal species, indige- 
nous to India, and was the first of the family known in Europe. It is 
stated to have been introduced to England over 300 years ago. This 
species grows about two feet high, and includes varieties with both red 
and yellow fruit, as also those with long slender pods, and others with 
round thick ones. 





Bullock's Heart. 



Bird Peppar. 





Cherry Capsicum. 



Chili Pepper. 



237 




^[onstrous. 



Lon,' Cayenne. 



238 

Capsicum haccatum {Bird P€2:)per). -Thi% is a shrubby perennial species, 
whose native country appears to be not known with certainty, though 
some authorities are of opinion that it originally came from Brazil. The 
plants grow from eighteen inches to two feet in height, and have slender 
branches and small leaves. There are varieties with both red and yellow 
fruit, which is small and intensely pungent. 

Capsicum cerasiforme {Cherry Capsicum). — This is an annual species from 
the West Indies, which derives its name from the shape of the fruit, 
which, in size and form, resembles a Cherry. The plants grow to the 
height of about two feet, and are more spreading in habit than most 
other kinds. There are several varieties with both red and yellow fruit, 
which is very acrid. 

Capsicum frutescens {Shruhhi/ Capsicum). — This is a perennial shrubby 
species, which, according to some authorities, is indigenous to South 
'America, while others give India as its native country. This is the 
species that is chiefly used for making the Cayenne pepper of commerce, 
owing to the durability of the plant, and its freedom in bearing. It 
includes varieties with both red and yellow fruit, which is smnll and very 
pungent, and produced in great abundance.. Under favourable con- 
ditions this species will continue to bear freely for three or four years, 
after which the plant should be renewed. 

Capsicum grossum ( Bell Pepper, BullocTcs Heart, Bull JS'ose). — This is 
a biennial species from India, which attains a height of two or three feet. 
There are several varieties with both red and yellow fruit, which is very 
large, being often three or four inches in diameter. The fruit is in 
flavour much milder than the other kinds, and is well adapted for pickles 
when great pungency is not required. As the varieties of this species 
have large, showy, and singular-looking fruit, they may be used very 
effectively as ornamental plants. 

Capsicum longum. — This is an annual South American species, which 
is utilized to some extent in making Cayenne pepper. It grows about 
two feet high, and bears long pungent fruit. 

Capsicum sinense {Chinese Capsicum). — This is an ornamental shrubby 
perennial species, which grows about two feet high. The fruit is bright 
yellow, ovate in shape, and moderately pungent. 



CARAMBOLA. 

History and Uses. 

This name is applied to the fruit of Averrhoa Caramh(>la, an evergreen 
tree belonging to the natural order Oxalidaceae, or the Wood Sorrel family. 
It is a native of Ceylon and India, and attains a height of twenty or 
thirty feet. The flowers are a greenish-red, produced in racemes, and the 
fruit is oval, about the size of a hen's egg, with three ridges or angles. 
The pulp is soft, juicy, and refreshing, one kind being sweet and used as 
a table fruit, while the other is sharply acid and utilized for cooking and 



preserving. The green fruit is also turned to account as a pickle. Very 
closely allied to the Carambola is the Blimbing, the Indian name for the 
fruit of Averrhoa Bilimbi, a beautiful evergreen tree. It is indigenous to 
India, grows to the height of twenty or thirty feet, and has winged leaves, 
which are slightly sensitive when touched or shook. The flowers are 
reddish-yellow, and the fruit is oblong and about the size of an Egg 
Plum. The Pulp is juicy and pleasantly acid. It is used in the same 
way as the Carambola. The mode of bearing is somewhat singular ia 
both species, as the flowers and fruit are frequently produced upon the 
trunks below the leaves. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

As the Carambola and Blimbing are so ck»sely allied, and come from 
the same regions, they require precisely similar treatment. Though 
natives of warm countries they are not so tender as many other tropical 
plants, and are said to be able to stand light frosts with impunity. They 
may be cultivated successfully in any portion of Australia within the 
sub-tropical regions, and even further south in warm sheltered spots in 
the coast river districts of Northern New South Wales. Where the 
climatic conditions are favourable both trees are well worth cultivating 
for the sake of their fruit, which is greatly relished in India. The plants 
require a fairly good soil, and should be sheltered from strong winds. 
Propagation is mostly effected by seeds, which should be sown when 
fresh, covering them to the depth of an inch. Cuttings of the ripened 
wood will strike in sand under a glass. 



CAROB. 

History. 

This is a handsome and useful evergreen tree belonging to the natural 
order Leguminos^e, known botanically as Ceratonia siliqua. It is most 
commonly known as the Carob . but also under the names of Locust, 
Algaroba, and St. John's Bread Tree. The latter name has originated 
from the tradition that the fruit of this tree supplied food to St. John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness. Throughout Palestine the most familiar name 
is **The Locust Tree." Carob is derived from keras^ a horn, in allusion 
to the shape of the pods, or "beans," as they are most commonly called. 
Algaroba is a Spanish form of Carob, and is applied to other trees 
belonging to the order Leguminosae that have sweet edible pods, The 
Carob is indigenous to Palestine and other regions along the eastern 
shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and under favourable conditions attains 
a height of forty to fifty feet. It is a compact growing tree, with dark 
green shining foliage- There are both male and female flowers, which 
usually are produced upon separate trees, but not invariably. Sometimes 
both classes of flowers are produced upon the one tree, and occasionally 



240 

the flowers are hermaphrodite, that is, furnished with stamens and pistils. 
The flowers are reddish, small, and produced in racemes. When the 
female flowers are fertilized they are succeeded by curved pods about an 
inch in width, and from five to ten in length. 

Uses. 

The Carob is used extensively in its native regions, as also in tlie South 
of Europe and Northern Africa as food for horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. 
It is also frequently used as food by human beings. In Egypt, Italy, 
Spain, Turkey, and Syria, the ground pods are mixed with maize meal, 
and made into bread. In the first-named country and throughout 
Palestine, a sweet syrup or honey is extracted from the pods, and forms 
and important article of diet. AH kinds of stock are very fond of Carob 
beans, and the flesh of cattle, sheep, and pigs is said to be greatly 
improved by their use. Dairy cows are said to yield more milk when 
supplied with Carob beans, while at the same time it will be richer in 
cream.Large quantities of the pods are imported to Great Britain every 
year from eastern Mediterranean coantries, and they are used as horse 
feed, as also for cattle and sheep. They are very nourishing, as they 
contain about 66 per cent, of sugar and gum. Some or the patent 
mixtures sold as " cattle food " are largely composed of meal made from 
Carob beans. The pods are dried, ground, and used as a substitute for 
chocolate. With the addition of water and fermented, they are converted 
into a palatable beverage, and a good spirit may be obtained from them 
by distillation. A medicinal syrup is also extracted from the pods. 
While green, the pods contain a large percentage of tannic acid, and con- 
siderable quantities are used in the preparation of Morocco and other fine 
leatheis. The fruit-bearing trees are usually very prolific, and in their 
native regions a plantation is considered to be of equal value with a 
vineyard or olive grove. According to Chambers, instances are on record 
of single trees yielding nearly half a ton of pods in a season. Under 
ordinary favourable conditions the Carob will attain a great age. Many 
trees are known to be over a hundred years old, and still in a flourishing 
condition. The Carob should be widely cultivated in Australia as a tree 
supplying food for stock. Being in a large measure able to resist drought, 
it is a tree deserving of special attention in the dry interior districts of 
Australia. Being a handsome tree, the Carob may also with advantage 
be planted for ornament, and large specimens afford a grateful shade in 
warm regions. This tree also makes an excellent breakwind for vineyards 
or orchards in hot dr}^ districts when planted close, though it is some- 
what slow in growth for a few years. The wood of the Carob is hard, 
heavy, fine-grained, and valuable to cabinet makers and turners. 

Cultivation 

The Carob will adapt itself to a wide range of climate and may be 
cultivated successfully throughout a considerable portion of Australasia. 
In fact it will thrive in any locality where the frosts are not severe. It 



Raceme of Male 
Flowers. 




241 

Carob. 




Seeds, Raceme of Female Flowers 



Pods or Beans. 



242 

is equally accommodating as regards soils, and will thrive in light sand, 
gravel, or rich alluvial ground. But it is more especially at home when 
planted in calcareous or limestone soils. As a matter of course, however, 
trees will grow faster and stronger in rich than in poor land. The land 
should be prepared by working it to the depth of at least fifteen inches, 
and, when necessary, drainage must be provided for, as the Carob cannot 
stand its roots being sodden ed. Planting should be done early in tho 
autumn or spring, taking care not to expose the roots. If grown for 
their fruit alone, the trees should be planted at least twenty-four feet 
apart, in order to allow room for development. When planted as a 
breakwind, from ten to twelve feet apart will be a proper distance. As a 
matter of course, it is only the female and hermaphrodite trees that will 
bear fruit, and there must be to the former a proportion of male plants, 
say about one in ten. This will be a diflficulty with cultivators when 
seedling trees are used, as their sex cannot be ascertained till they flower. 
It will not arise, however, when trees have been propagated by layers, 
cuttings, or grafting, as the plants will then be the same as their parents. 
In the early stages of growth it will be necessary to prune the trees so as 
to get compact, well-formed heads and clear stems for three or four feet 
above the ground at the lea,st. The Carob is slow in growth for the first 
few years, and also in coming into bearing. Seedlings are nine or ten 
years old before they begin to bear, but trees from layers, cuttings, or 
grafts will generally begin to yield fruit in six or seven years. When 
from twelve to fifteen years old, the trees are usually in, full bearing 
condition, and, as a rule, they yield regular and heavy crops. As soon 
as the pods are fully ripe they will begin to fall from the trees, and the 
common way of using them for live stock, in the countries where they are 
grown for the purpose, is to let the animals pick them up. If required 
for storing, however, the pods may be shaken from the trees, or beaten 
off with light poles, taking care to spread them out till they are thoroughly 
dry. If packed in heaps when taken direct from the trees, they are apt 
to ferment, turn colour, and deteriorate in quality. 

Pkopagation. 

The Carob may be propagated by seeds, layers, cuttings, grafting, and 
budding. Plants are easily obtained from seed, but the great drawback 
to this method of propagation is that the grower is always uncertain as to 
the sex of the trees. Seed may be sown at any period of the year, but 
themost favourable time is early in the spring. As the outer covering of 
theseeds is very hajd, they should be prepared by pouring boiling water 
upon them, and must then be allowed to soak for about a week or ten 
days. They should then be sown in light free 3oil, covering them to the 
depth of half-an-inch, and pressing the earth firmly upon them. The 
young plants will be ready for putting out in the following season. 
Layers may be put down early in the autumn or spring, preparing them 
with a tongue or heel. Cuttings will strike readily in sand or light soil 
if put in towards the end of the summer or in autumn. They should be 
made from the ripened wood of the current season's growth, leaving them 



243 

about six inches lopg, shortening back the leaves, and inserting them 
about two inches deep. Grafting may be done jnst as growth is beginning 
to get active. Budding should be done after mid-summer, when the 
current season's growth has matured to some extent, and while the bark 
will rise freely from the wood. Both budding and grafting may be 
practised with advantage in the case of seedling trees, so as to insure the 
right proportion of male and female plants. 



CASHEV\^ NUT, 
History and Uses. 



The Cashew Nut is known botanically as Anacardium occidentale, and 
it is the type of the natural order Anacardiaceae. It is a handsome 
evergreen tree, growing to the height of from fifteen to twenty feet, and a 
native of the West Indies. The leaves are somewhat like those of the 
Walnut, and have a similar smell. The sweet-scented reddish-green 
flowers are produced in corymbs, and the so-called fruit is formed by the 
enlargement of the foot stalks, or peduncles. This fleshy substance is as 
large as a moderately-sized orange, and possesses an agreeable sub-acid 
flavour, but is somewhat astringent. It is largely used in the East and 
West Indies, as also in tropical America. The true fruit is a heart-shaped 
nut that is formed at the end of the fleshy peduncle. This nut is an 
inch or more in length, and contains two shells, the outer one being 
smooth and ash-coloured. There is a space between the two shells that is 
filled with a thick, black, 
caustic juice, which is 
utilized in dying and for 
marking linen. Within the 
inner shell is the kernel, 
which contains a sweet 
milky juice, and is very 
palatable when eaten fresh. 
The kernels are eaten like 
Chestnuts, either raw or 
when roasted. They are 
said to be used to some 
extent to improve the flavour 
of chocolate. By pressure 
an oil equal to olive may 
be obtained, and the trunk 
and branches of the tree 
when wounded yield a 
material similar to gum 
arable. Cashew Nut. 




244 

Cultivation and Peopauation, 

As the Cashew Nut is a native of tropical regions, it can only be grown 
in those parts of Australia where the climate is congenial. Being a 
handsome evergreen tree of moderate growth, it is worthy of cultivation 
for ornamental purposes, independent of the value of its fruit. It will 
thrive in any ordinary good soil, but prefers a rich sandy loam of moderate 
depth. The trees for a year or two after planting will require some little 
attention in pruning to make them shapely, but afterwards the only care 
required is to keep the weeds down. Propagation is most usually effected 
by seeds, which should be sown in spring or autumn, covering them about 
two inches. Plants may also be readily obtained from cuttings of fairly 
ripened wood of the current season's growth, with the leaves left on, 
which will strike freely in sand under a glass. 



CHERRY. 

HlSTOlIV. 

Botanically the Cherry is now known as Cerasus, but a few years 
ago it was classed with the Prunus, or Plum family, from which, 
however, it differs materially. It belongs to the extensive natural 
order Rosaceee, or Rose family, which embraces many o^f our 
cultivated fruits. The generic name is supposed to have originated 
from Cerasus, a town in Armenia, from whence the Cherry was 
introduced into Eui^ope. The common or English name Cherry Avas 
originally Cherise, taken from the French term Cerise, which had its 
source in Cerasus. 

This favourite and useful summer fruit is supposed to have 
originated in Asia Minor, and according to historical records, was 
introduced into Europe by the Roman general Lucullus about seventy 
years previous to the Christian era. Soon after its introduction to 
Italy it became a very popular fruit with the Romans, and was 
rapidly distributed through the European continent. Pliny mentions 
eight kinds of Cherries as being known to the Romans in his time, 
and he specially notices one vaiiety that never appeared to be ripe, 
having a hue between green, red, and black. The same writer 
informs us that Cherries were carried to Britain before the Christian 
era. He also tells us that "if Cherries are eaten (swallowing the 
stones) from the tree while the dew is upon them in the morning it 
is a good cure for gout in the feet." 

Though the Cherry is said to have been introduced to Britain by 
the Romans at a very early date, yet, if so, it must have been lost 
during the Saxon era, as it is not mentioned in the records of that 
period. Some old writers inform us that Cherries were commonly 
sold in the streets of London very early in the fifteenth century, 
while others assert this fruit was re-introduced lin the beginning of 
Henry VIII. 's reign. According to the latter assertion, Cherry trees 



245 

were introduced from Flanders, and first planted at Sittingboume in 
Kent, a county ever since famous for this fruit. Historical records 
inform us that in the year 1540, one season's fruit in a Kentish 
Cheny orchard, thirty-two acres in extent, sold for £1000 — a very 
large sum at that period. Old records also inform us that early in 
the sixteenth century Cherries were commonly sold in the streets of 
London, and that it was usual to announce the commencement of the 
season by carrying boughs loaded with fruit through the principal 
thoroughfares. 

Cherries vary considerably in their characteristics, and there are 
doubts as to the sources from which some of the classes have been 
derived. Attempts have been made by prominent writers upon the 
science of pomolog}' to classify the different types of CheiTies, but 
efforts have not been so successful as could be desired, and a more 
perfect system is required. The well-known English pomologist, Dr. 
Hogg, classes Cherries in two main divisions, one of which he calls 
Geans, and this includes the Heart and Bigarreau sections ; the other 
division termed Griottes embraces the Duke and Morello sections. 
These divisions are subdivided again, the distinctions being based 
upon the shape of the fruit and the colour of the flesh and juice. 
Mr. Downing, the celebrated American pomologist, simply divides 
Cherries into two classes — one comprising the Heart and Bigarreau, 
and the other the Duke and Morello sections. Most of the names 
used to identify the divisions and sections are of French origin, some 
retaining their purity, while others have been coiTupted. Gean is a 
corruption of the French word Guigne, which means a Heart Cherry. 
The pui'e name is, however, used by many in preferance to the word 
gean. The name Bigarreau is applied to a section having firm, 
fleshy fi-uit, though literally it means a white " Heart Cherry." 
Griotte means literally a " Black Cherry." but the name is now 
applied generally to the tender-fleshed Cherries. Duke is an ab- 
breviation of " Mayduke," a prominent variety in its class, that name 
being a coiTuption of Medoc, a province in Fi-ance, in which this 
kind is supposed to have originated. Morello comes from the French 
Morelle, the name of the Morel, on account of the original type being 
supposed to have a flavour somewhat similar to that esculent fungus. 

Most of the Guigne or heart Cherries, have originated from Cerasus 
avium, the wild, black Cherry, which is common to the woods of the 
United Kingdom and many other parts of Europe. This is a very 
hardy and robust species, which attains a large size when growing 
under naturally favourable conditions. The other portion of the 
Guigne family comes from Cerasus Juliana, another robust species, 
which grows wild in many parts of Southern Europe. The Bigarreau 
family have originated from Cerasus duracina and Cerasus caproviana 
both species being common in the southern parts of Europe. The 
Duke and Morello sections have come from Cerasus vulgaris, the wild, 
red, sour cherry which is found growing naturally in the United 
Kingdom and in many other parts of Europe. Cerasus Padu^, a small- 
gi-owing species common to many parts of Great Britain, but more 
plentiful in Scotland than in England, is the Bird Cherry. This 



246 

name lias been obtained through the fruit being largely consumed by 
birds. The fruit of this species is black, small, and austere, but 
though unpleasant to the taste it is used to some extent for flavouring 
whisky and other spirits. Cerasus Malmleh is the Perfumed Cherry, 
a species indigenous to Austria and Hungary, and largely used as a 
dwarfing stock for the common varieties. The wood is highly 
perfumed, hence the common name, and much valued for cabinet 
work. The fruit is small, black, asd shining, and so hard before it is 
fully ripe that it is often pierced and used as a substitute for beads. 
Cerasus emargt'nata is a very robust American species, that attains a 
height of twenty to twenty-five feet. It bears abundantly small 
I'oundish fruit that has a very bitter and astringent flavour. Possibly 
this species if fairly tried, would be found to be a useful stock for 
ordinary Cherries. Cerasus ilicifolia is the Evergreen or Holly-leaved 
Cherry of California. It is a handsome small tree, with bright 
shining dark-green foliage, and is worthy of attention for ornamental 
purposes. The fruit is black or red, about half-an-inch in diameter, 
having a pleasant sub- acid flavour, but somewhat astiingent, and the 
kernel has a rich almond flavour. Cerasus serotina the Black Cherry 
of North East America is a hardy species found mostly oil poor land 
near the sea coast. It has pleasant vinous flavoured, but slightly 
bitter fruit. Cerasus tomentosa a Chinese species yields an edible fruit 
of fair quality. Both the English and the Portugal Laurels, though 
differing materially in appearance and in other ways from our edible 
Cherries, belong to the same family, the former being known as 
Cerasus Icturo-cerasus and the latter as Cerasus lusitamc((. Several 
species and varieties of the Cherry family in addition to those already 
mentioned are used solely for ornamental purposes. The more 
prominent of these are the Large Double-flowering Cheriy, a strong- 
growing variety of Cerasus avium, which blooms profusely early in 
the spring and produces large pure-white flowers an inch and a-half 
in diameter. The Dwarf Double-flow^ering Cherry is a variety of 
Cerasus vulgaris, very dwarf and compact in habit, with flowers 
somewhat similar to the last mentioned kind but not quite so large. 
The Weeping Cherry is a fruit-bearing variety of Cerasus vulgaris, 
with slender weeping branches and myrtle-like foliage. The 
Chinese Double-flowering Cherry is Cerasus sennilata This species 
is rather dwarf in habit, and produces in abundance white flowers 
slightly tinged with pink. 

Uses. 

The Cherry is a popular and excellent early summer dessert fruit, 
and is also largely used for culinary and other purposes. As table 
fruit the Heart and the Bigarreau sections possess the best qualities, 
and are most generally cultivated. The Duke and Morello sections 
are the best for culinary purposes and some other requirements. 
Large quantities of Cherries are now preserved by canning, the 
varieties best adapted for this purpose being those that are somewhat 
tough in fibre and rather tart in flavour. The fleshy sorts make an 



247 

excellent preserve when halved, stoned, and dried, either by sun 
power or by artificial heat. An excellent wine can be made from 
Cherries, the Duke and Morello sections being most suitable for 
the purpose. In Europe the fresh fruit, and more especially that of 
the wild species, is used extensively for flavouring brandy. The 
fa^'ourite liqueurs, Noyau, Ratafia, Kirschwasser, and Maraschino, are 
either wholly or partially obtained from Cherries. Kirschwasser is 
made by distilling the juice of the common Black Heart Cherry after 
it has fermented, the stones being ground up and mixed wdth it. 
Maraschino, which is chiefly made in Italy, is distilled from the juice 
of Heart Cherries after it has slightly fermented, a portion of the 
leaves and kernels, dried and powdered, being added with honey. 
Ratafia and Noyaii are flavoured to a considerable extent by the 
kernels of CherHes. Trees of all classes of edible Cherries yield 
gum in large quantities, which is highly nutritious and almost 
identical with gum arable. Medicinally the bark is used as a tonic 
and astringent by the Scandinavian races, and liquoi* distilled from 
the fruit of the wild Cherry Cerosus imum is said to be used with 
advantage in cases of convulsions. Cerasiu Padus, the Bird Cherry, 
yields a lage proportion of prussic acid from the leaves by distillation, 
and a decoction of the fruit has proved useful in cases of dysentery. 
The wood of the common Cherries is hard, tough, tine grained, and 
takes a good polish, which makes it valuable to cabinetmakers and 
turners. The wood of the Bird Cherry is beautifully veined, and 
though not attaining a large growth it is highly prized for fancy 
work by European cabinetmakers. 

Cultivation 

The Cherry thrives to the greatest perfection in a moderately cool 
climate, but it may be grown successfully in all but very warm 
regions. In the warmer districts, however, the trees are not likely to 
prove so durable and profitable as when grown in a more congenial 
climate. Any ordinary good soil is suitable to the Cherry, which will 
readily adapt itself to various classes. The most favourable soil, 
however, is a rich, deep, sandy or gravelly loam, with an open sub- 
soil. In preparing the land for planting let it be thoroughly worked 
and stirred to the depth of at least fifteen inches, and more especially 
if the soil is heavy and retentive. In the case of light, open land, 
with a free sub-soil, a deep ploughing may be a sufficient working, as 
the roots will be able to find their way down without much assistance. 
Perfect drainage is essential, as the trees will never do any good if 
their roots stand in soddened ground for lengthened periods. If the 
natural drainage is insufficient it should invariably be provided for 
when the land is prepared for planting. Trees may be planted at 
any time between the fall of the leaf and the starting of growth in 
the spHng, but the most favourable time is from the beginning of 
July to the middle of August, according to the locality. Strong, 
straight-stemmed, young trees, with well-balanced heads, should be 
selected, and these ought to be taken up with as little injury to their 



248 

roots as possible. Do not exjjose the roots foi* any length of time to a 
drying atmosphere, and remove any that are broken or bruised. Care 
must also be taken not to plant too deeply ; if tire upper roots are 
just below the surface it will be sufficient. Trees when they attain 
their full growth, require to stand not less than eighteen feet apart ; 
but many growers pi'efer them worked on dwai-fing stocks, and plant 
closer. The Cherry is not a long-lived tree like tlie Apple, Pear, or 
Orange, and will seldom last in this part of the world more than 
twenty yeai-s, even under the most favourable conditions. 

The ground should be kept as clean as possible, as an undergrowth 
of gTass and weeds is injurious, and more especially in the spring or 
early summer, as it helps to exhaust the moisture in the soil. Clean 
the gi'ound with the scarifier or hoe in pi-eferance to plouglftng or 
digging deeply, as the less the roots are disturbed the better. Before 
the hot weather sets in, it will be advisable to mulch the trees as far 
as their roots extend. Keep the trees in good heart if necessaiy by 
the use of manure, and do not let them become stunted or sickly 
through lack of proper nourishment. 

Pruning and Training. 

The Cherry must be pruned with judgement, as it is somewhat 
impatient of the knife. Young trees must have their bi'anches 
reduced in number and shortened back when necessary, to promote a 
strong woody growth and get the plants into the proper shape. 
Matui-e trees require but little pruning as a rule — merely the removal 
of rank and misplaced shoots and shortening the branches when 
necessar}' — to preserve the compactness and symmetry of the trees. 
The Cheiry produces its fruit on small spurs of two, three, or more 
years' gTowth. The necessity for Avinter pruning may be obviated to 
a large extent by nibbing olf superfluous shoots early in the summer. 
Root pruning may be practised with advantage when trees are 
making an over-luxuiiant gi-owth of wood and pi'oducing but little 
fruit. Cherry ti-ees should invariably be trained with low heads, 
as when grown in this way they suffer less fi-om strong winds, 
afford a better shade for the stems, the fruit can be gathered with 
the least trouble, and the work of pi-uning moi-e easily done. 

GrATHERlNG AND PACKING. 

Cherries must be gathered as soon as they are sufficiently ripe, 
taking care to pick with the stalks attached, and not to injui-e the 
buds,. The fruit should be picked when perfectly drj-, and "vvhen 
not heated by the sun. Boxes holding about ten pomids are the 
most suitable packages as regards size, and these when sent long- 
distances to market, snould be arranged in crates that Avill hold 
twelve. The fruit should be closely, evenly, and neatly packed in 
the boxes, so that when opened it will show to the best advantage. 
Too fi-equently Cheriies are merely thrown into the cases, to the 



249 

injury of the fruit, and causing it have a less attractive appearance 
than would be the case with careful packing. 

Propagation. 

Propagation is eifected chiefly by budding, though grafting is 
sometimes practised ; and trees may be raised fi'om layers, suckers, 
and seeds. Seedlings, as a matter of course, are uncertain in 
character, and are seldom raised except for stocks. Budding may 
be done at any time when the bark of the current season's growth 
will separate freely from the wood, but as a rule the most favourable 
period is soon after mid-summer. Grafting can be done just before 
growth starts in the spring, but it does not olfer such advantages 
as budding. Stocks are often obtained from layers or suckers, but 
these never make good trees, and therefore only seedlings should be 
used. Seedlings of any strong variety may be used as stocks, but 
those that have a tendency to throw up suckers freely should l)e 
avoided. The stock most generally used in this pai't of the world 
is the common Mazzard, which has given fair satisfaction. Cerasus 
Padus, the Bird Cherry, is sometimes used as a stock, especially 
for varieties belonging to the Duke class, for which it has proved 
suitable. Morello and Mahaleb stocks are frequently used for 
dwarfing trees, the last-mentioned kind being specially Avell adapted 
for shallow or poor soils. 

Varieties. 

There are a great many varieties in cultivation, but a limited 
selection will be sufficient for cultivators as a rule. The following 
list embraces a large number of reputable varieties : — 

Archduke. — A variety belonging to the Duke class, with large, 
roundish, heart-shaped fruit, which ripens late in the season. Skin 
thin, dark red to black. Flesh deep red, tender, juicy, sweet, and 
briskly flavoured. Tree vigoi-ous and prolific. 

Autumn Bigarreau {Belle Agcithe).- — This is a useful variety, raised 
in Belgium, belonging to the Bigarreau section, Avith small, heart- 
shaped fruit produced in clusters, especiall}-^ valuable as it comes to 
matui'ity very late in the season and will hang on the trees for a long 
time after it is ripe. Skin dark crimson, lightly mottled with 
yellow. Flesh yellowish, firm, sweet, and well flavoured. 

Belle de Choisy. — A French variety, belonging to the Duke class, 
with large, round fruit, which ripens at mid-season. Skin pale 
amber, mottled lightly with i-ed, very thin and transparent, showing 
the flesh beneath. Flesh amber coloured, melting juicy, rich, sugary 
with a slight sub-acid flavour. Tree hardy, vigorous, and a fairly 
good bearer. 

Belle d'Orleavs. — This is a very early variety, belonging to the 
Guigne class with medium-sized, roundish fruit. Skin pale yellow, 
tinged with red on the sunny side. Flesh yellowish white, very 
juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Tree vigorous in habit, and 
generally bears well. 



250 





Archduke. 



Belle d' Orleans, 





Autamn Bigarreau. 



Belle de Choisy. 



251 




BiKarreau. 



Belle Magnifique. 





Bigarreau de Hildesheim 



Biganeau de Holland. 



252 

Belle Magnijique. — A French variety belonging to the Morello 
class, with large, roundish fruit, inclining to lieart-shape, which 
ripens late in the season. Skin a uniform bright red when fully ripe. 
Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, with a sprightly sub-acid flavour. 
Tree hardy, vigorous, and very productive. Fruit excellent for 
culinary purposes, and for dessert when fully ripe. 

Bigarrean. — This fine old variety is the type of the Bigarreau 
section. The fruit is very large, obtuse heart-shaped, and ripens at 
mid-season. Skin pale yellow, waxy, spotted and marbled w itli red. 
Flesh pale yellow, firm, rich, and highly flavoured. Tree vigorous, 
spreading in habit, and a free bearer. 

' Bigarreau <h Ilildeshei'm^ — A German variety, Avith medium-sized 
heart-shaped fruit, which ripens late in the season. Skin pale 
yellow, mottled with red next the sun. Flesh pale yellow, firm, 
sweet, and luscious. An excellent late Cherry. 

Bigarreau de Hollaiid {Spotted Bigarreau). — An excellent and 
popular variety, with large, regular, heart-shaped fi'uit, inclining to 
oblong, which ripens about mid-season. Skin pale amber yellow, 
with a light red cheek, dotted and marbled with crimson. Flesh 
yellowish white, firm, juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Largely 
used in America for canning. Tree robust and productive. 

Bigarreau (le .\fezel {Motist7'<ms Heart). — -A variety with very large, 
obtuse heart-shaped fruit, which ripens at mid-season. Skin deep 
shining red, approaching to black at maturity. Flesh high coloured, 
firm, juicy, and well flavoured. Tree vigorous, wide- spreading and 
a fi-ee beai^er. An excellent and profitable Cherry. 

Bigarreau Napoleon. — Though marked in nurserymen's catalogues 
as a distinct vaiiet}^, this is similar in every respect to Bigarrean de 
Holland, and they appear to be identical. 

Black Eagle. — An excellent old English variety, said to be a cross 
between a Bigarreau and the Mayduke. The fruit is medium-sized, 
heart-shaped, and ripens immediately after the Black Tartarian. Skin 
deep purple to nearly black. Flesh deep purple, tender, very juicy, 
and highly flavoured. Tree vigorous, with large foliage, and a good 
bearer. 

Black Hawk.- — An American variety of repute, belonging to the 
Guigne class, with large, obtuse heart-shaped fruit, which ripens 
medium early. Skin purplish black. Flesh dark purple, moderately 
firm, juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Tree robust, spreading, and 
fairly prolific. 

Black Heart. — An old English variet}-, belonging to the Guigne 
section, with heart-shaped fruit, rather above the medium size, and 
ripens medium early. Skin dark purple to black. Flesh purple, 
tender, juicy, and sweet. Tree very robust, grows to a large size, and 
bears freely. 

Black Tartarian {Black Circassian, Black Russian). — This excellent 
and well-known variety belongs to the Guigne class, is supposed to 
have originated in Russia or some part of Western Asia, and was 
introduced to England about a hundred years ago. Fruit large, 
obtuse heart-shaped, and ripening medium early. Skin bright 



258 





Black Eagle. 



Bigarreaii de Mezel. 





Black Heart. 



Black Hawk. 



254 




Cleveland Bigarreau. 



Black Tartarian. 





Downton. 



Bohemian Black Bigarreau. 



255 

ptu'plisli black. Flesh purplish red, juicy, firm, and rich, with a 
ismall stone. Tree reniai-kably hardy and i-obust. eiect in habit, with 
large foliage, and beai/s freely. 

Bohemian Black Bigarreau. — -A German variety with very large, 
roundish heart-shaped fruit, which ripens early. Skin black and 
shining. Flesh very dai-k, firm, juicy, and richly flavohired. Tree 
vigorous, hardy, and moderately productive. This is an excellent 

Cherry, and one of the earliest of the Bigarreau section. _ 

^Cleveland Bigarreau. — An excellent American variety, with large 
obtuse heart-sliaped fruit, which ripens at mid-season. Skin pale 
yellow, with a deep red cheek. Flesh yellowish white, moderately 
firm, very juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Tree very thrifty and 
productive. 

Downton. — An old and reputable English variety, belonging to the 
Bigarreau class, with large, roundish heart-shaped fruit, which 
ripens a little after mid-season. Skin semi-transparent, pale yellow, 
stained with red dots and marbled with red on the sunny side. Flesh 
yellowish, tender, richly flavoured, and slightly adhering to the stone. 
Tree robust with a spreading head, and moderately productive. 

Early Black Bigarreau. — A fine early variety, with large, distinctly 
heart-shaped fi-uit. Skin deep black. Flesh dark purple, firm, sweet 
and richly flavoured. Ti-ee strong,* and bears modei*ately well. 

Early P^irple Guigne {Early Purple Griotte, German Maydiike). — An 
excellent vai'iety, of doubtful origin, and the earliest dark Cherry in 
cultivation. Fruit medium size, roundish heart-shape. Skin very 
dark purple black. Flesh purple, tender, juicy, with a rich, SAveet 
flavour. Ti'ee hai-dy, sti'ong*, spreading, and a good bearer. One of 
the best earl}' black Cherries. 

Early Lyon.s. — This is an excellent early black Cherry of the Guigne 
class, which idpens immediately after the Early Purple Guigne. 
Fruit large, obtuse heart-shaped. Skin very deep purple. Flesh 
stained with red, tender, juicy, sweet, and rich. Tree thrifty and 
pi'olific. 

Early lied Bi arreau.— An excellent early Bigarreau, which ripens 
some days before others of its class. Fruit large, and decidedly heart 
shaped. Skin bright red, and transparent. Flesh yellowish white, 
very firm, sweet, and richly flavoured. Tree robust, spreading, and 
bears freely. 

Early Rivers. — A variety belonging to the Guigne class, which 
ripens very early, and bears medium-sized, heart shaped fruit. Skin 
pirrple black. Flesh purple, tender, juicy, and sweet. Tree hardy 
and prolific. 

Elton.— An old and popular English variety, belonging to the 
Bigarreau section. Fruit large, heart-shaped, rather pointed, and 
ripens at ]nid-season. Skin thin, pale yellow, tinged and mottled wdth 
red on the sunny side. Flesh yellowish white, moderately firm, juicy, 
sweet, wdth a very luscious flavour. Tree vigorous, and bears freely. 

Empress Eugenia. — ^A variety belonging to the Duke class, with 
large roundish fruit, which ripens about mid-season. Skin deep bright 



256 




Early Black Bigarreau. 



Early Purple Guigne. 




Early Lyons. 



Early Bed Bigarreaii. 



257 




Empress EageniM. 



Florence. 



258 

red to pnrple. Flesh reddish, very firm, juicy, sweet, and richly 
flavoured. Tree compact, rather dwarf in habit, and prolific, 

Florence {Knevett's Late Bigarreau). — An excellent and popular 
late Cherry, belonging to the Bigarreau class, and said to have been 
originally taken fi-oni Florence, in Italy, to England, hence its name. 
Fruit large, roundish heart-shape, and ripens late in the season. Skin 
pale amber, flushed and mottled with bright red. Flesh pale amber, 
firm, very juicy, and highly flavoured, the stones being rather small. 
Tree robust, and a free bearer after a few years' growth. This is 
one of the best late varieties, as it is popular, carries well to market, 
and has the additional good quality of hanging some time after it is 
ripe. 

Frogmore Early Bigarreau. — A very early English Cherry, with 
large, obtuse heart-shaped fruit. Skin pale waxen yellow, suffused 
with deep red. Flesh pale amber, very tender, melting, juicy, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Tree an abundant bearer, and strong in habit. 

Gascoignes Heart (^Bleeding Heart, Herefordshire Hearty Red Heart). 
— ^A very old English variety of the Guigne class, with medium-sized, 
heart-shaped fruit, which ripens at mid-season JSkin deep bright red. 
Flesh yellowish-white, tender, juicy, and moderately well flavoured. 
Tree strong in habit, but often a shy bearer. 

Governor Wood. — An excellent American variety, belonging to the 
Bigarreau class, with large, roundish heart-shaped fruit, which ripens at 
mid-season. Skin pale yellow, marked and mottled with bright red. 
Flesh shghtly firm, juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Tree vigorous and 
very productive. 

Heart oj Midlothian. — A- variety belonging to the Guigne class, with 
large, heart-shaped fruit, which ripens early. Skin nearly black. Flesh 
purple, juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. , Tree prolific and hardy, 

Jeffrey's Duke {Cherry Dulce^ Jeffrey s Royal). — A variety belonging to 
the Duke class, with medium-sized fruit, produced in thick clusters, and 
ripening at mid-season. Skin deep red to black. Flesh rather firm, very 
sweet, juicy, and well flavoured. Tree compact in habit, and bears freely, 

Kentish (Common Red, Pie Cherry). — This is one of the oldest of 
English Cherries, and one of the best for preserving. It belongs to the 
JVJorello class, and bears medium-sized roundish fruit, which ripens about 
mid-season, and will hang on the trees for some time. Skin at first pale 
red, becoming darker as the fruit matures. Flesh tender and juicy with 
a brisk, acid flavour, which is lessened as the fruit ripens. The fruit 
increases materially in size after it begins to colour. This kind is also 
remarkable for the tenacity with which the stone adheres to the stalk, 
and advantage is taken of this pecuUarity to draw them out when the 
fruit is preserved. Tree vigorous, spreading in habit, matures early, and 
is very productive. 

Late Bigarreau. — A fine variety, with large, obtuse heart-shaped fruit, 
which ripens about the same time as Florence. Skin deep yellow, 
suffused with bright red. Flesh yellowish, very firm, sweet, and highly 
flavoured. Tree strong, and very productive. 

Lake Duke. — This is one of the best varieties of the Duke class. Fruit 



259 





Frogmore Early Bigarreau. 



Gascoigne'8 Heart. 




Governor Wood 



He-irt of Midlothian. 



260 




Kentish, 



Jeffrey's Duke. 




Late Bigarreau. 



Lake Duke 



261 

large, obtuse lieart-shaped, ripens late and gradually, and hangs well 
after it lias matured. Skin dark red when fully ripe. Flesh tender, 
juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Tree vigorous for its class, and 
bears fairly well. An excellent Cherrj' for culinary purposes. 

Mail Bul-e {Earhi Duke). — A very old and popular English Cherry, 
and the type of the class known as Dukes. Fruit large, roundish 
flattened at both ends, produced in thick clusters, and ripening early in 
the season. Skin bright red, changing to a darker tint as it matures. 
Flesh reddish, tender, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured when thoroughly 
ripe. Tree robust, upright, and bears freely. An excellent Cherry for 
preserving and culinary purposes. 

Morello {Milan). — This is an old and well-known Cheny, and the type 
of the section known as Morellos. Fruit large, roundish, and ripening 
late in the season. Skin dark red to nearly black when fully ripe. 
Flesh reddish purple, tender, juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 
1 ree hardy and prolific. One of the best Cherries for culinary purposes, 
and it will hang on the trees a long while after it is ripe. 

Ohio Beaut fi. — An American variety of repute, belonging to the Guigne 
section, with large, obtuse heart-shaped fruit, ripening early. Skin pale 
yellow, suffused with red. Flesh yellowish white, tender, juicy, and 
brisk flavoured. Tree vigorous, sj)reading in habit, and productive. 

0.>- Heart {}hdlock\s Heart, Lions Heart). — A variety belonging to the 
Guigne class, with large, obtuse heart-shaped fruit, which ripens at mid 
season. Skin dark purplish red. Flesh reddish, somewhat firm, with a 
brisk flavour. Tree robust, and a fairly good bearer 

liival. — An English variety, belonging to the Bigarreau class, with 
small, obtuse heart-shaped fruit, which ripens verj' late in the season. 
Skin pur[)lish black. Flesh firm, sweet, and well flavoured. Tree 
vigorous, and very productive- Valuable for its latenness and the length 
of time the fruit will hang after it is ripe. 

Rocl'port Bigarreau. — A fine American variety, with large, roundish 
heart-shaped fruit, which ripens early in the season. Skin pale amber, 
heavily suft'used with bright red and mottled with carmine. Flesh 
yellowisli-w])ite, firm, juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Much used for 
canning in America. Tree strong, upright in habit, and a good bearer, f 

St. Margare/s [EWiorn, Large Black Bigarreau, Tradescant' s Heart). 
— This is a popular and valuable late Cherry belonging to the Bigarreau 
class, with very large, obtuse heart-shaped fruit, which ripens towards 
the end of the season. Skin deep purple to black. Flesh dark purple, 
firm, adhering to the stone, sweet, and pleasantly sub-acid. Tree of 
vigorous habit, and a good bearer. 

Ihvuford Jiigarreau. — A Victorian variety of great merit, raised by the 
late Mr. T. C. Cole, and very popular with many growers. Fruit large, 
obtuse heart-shaped and ripens medium early. Skin deep bright red. 
Flesh firm, juicy, and highly flavoured. Tree rt)bust and prolific. 

Waterloo. — An English variety, belonging t;) the Guigne class, with 
large, ol)tuse heart-shaped fruit, which ripens medium early. Skin daak 
purple to black. Flesh reddish purple, tendei', juicy, and highly flavoured. 
Tiee fairly vigorous, and a moderate bearer. 



262 




May Duke, 




Ohio Beauty. 



Morello, 



263 





Rival, 



Rcckport Bigarrer 




Wcrder's Early Black. 




Waterloo. 



Werder's Early Black. — A German variety, belonging to tlie Guigne 
class, with large, obtuse heart -shaped fruit, which ripens imniediateJy 
after Earhj Purple Guigne. Skin tough, shining, deep purple to black. 
Flesh purplish red, tender, juicy, sweet, and luscious. Tree vigorous., 
spreading in liabit, and a good bearer. 



2(34 

CHESTNUT. 

History. 

The Chestnut is a handsome deciduous, tree l3elonging to the natural 
order Amentaceae (CorylacetJe of some botanists). Botanically it is known 
as Gastanea vesca, the gene^c name being taken from a town in Thessaly, 
where at one time the trees were very numerous. Formerly this tree was 
generally known as Fag us castanea, a name still used by some writers 
The ("Chestnut is supposed to be a native of Asia Minor, where it is to be 
generally met with. It is said to have been first taken to Europe by the 
Greeks at a very early period, and soon after its culture was taken up by 
the Romans. According to history, the Chestnut was very popular among 
the nations of antiquity, and the nuts were extensively used. Pliny 
informs us that in his time eight varieties were cultivated, and that the 
nuts, when ground into meal, furnished bread in large quantities for the 
poorest class of the Roman population. The nuts were not only considered 
to be very nutritious, this writer further informs us, but their use was also 
recommended to persons who were in the habit of spitting blood. 

The chestnut is supposed to have been introduced to England at the 
time of the Roman invasion, but this is somewhat uncertain. That it has 
been long established in that country is, however, beyond doubt, as there 
are many trees recorded as having attained a great size and age. Ireland 
has also produced some notable specimens, and in Sc^otland some very 
large trees have existed. Formerly in the United Kingdom the Chestnut 
appears to have been more generally used and popular than it is now. 
As a material for bread the fruit was at one time used in considerable 
quantities. It was also generally used for thickening soups, as a stuffing 
for turkeys, and when stewed in cream it was a fiivourite dish. In the 
south of Europe, and more especially in Spain, the Chestnut is very 
widely cultivated, and generally used. In France and Italy the fruit is 
extensively used as food by the poorer classes. A very curious custom is 
said to have been formerly followed in some parts of Spain on All Souls' 
Day, when people would go from house to house t<i eat Chestnuts with 
their neighbours. Their reason for this practise was that they believed 
that every Chestnut eaten in this way would deliver a soul from purgatory. 

The origin of the common name Chestnut is not known for a certainty. 
According to some authorities it originated through the nut being 
enclosed in a covering or chest. Others, however, consider that the 
name was given through the nut at one time having been regarded as a 
specific for chest diseases. The latter supposition is probably the most 
correct one, seeing that ancient nations attributed virtues to the nuts for 
pulmonary complaints. By many writers it is spelt Chesnut instead of 
Chestnut, and very good authorities favour this mode. The tree is often 
called the Sweet Chestnut to distinguish it from the Horse Chestnut, 
which belongs to quite a different family. It is also commonly known as 
the Spanish Chestnut, because it is extensively cultivated in Spain. 

Under favourable conditions in Europe the Chestnut attains a great 
age and size. It is recorded that in Gloucestershire, England, a tree, 
supposed to be 1100 years old, measured fifty-two feet round the trunk. 



265 

A tree at Hitclieii in Hertfordshire, is said to have had a circumferance of 
forty-two feet, five feet from the ground ; and another at Great Crawford 
Park, Dorsetshire, measured thirty-seven feet round, J3ut the most note- 
worthy specimen as regards size and age grew in Italy, and was known 
as the Chestnut of Mount Etna. This remarkable tree is by far the 
largest on record, as, according to report, its trunk was over 200 feet in 
circumference. A common name for this tree was the Chestnut of the 
Hundred Horses, from the tradition that Jean of Arragon, attended by a 
hundred cavaliers, took shelter under its immense branches during a- 
heavy tiiunderstorm. It may be interesting to some to learn tJiat the 
town of Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, England, is supposed to have obtained 
its name through the large number of Chestnut trees that formerly grew 
in the locality. 

' Uses. 

The fruit of the Chestnut is farinaceous to a very large extent and less 
oily than any other uut. In its raw state it is very indigestible, and when 
used it is generally roasted and eaten with salt. The demand for the 
nuts in this part of the world will probably always be limited, as, though 
they are largely used in France, Spain, and in other parts of Europe as a 
bread material when mixed with flour or meal, the people of Australasia 
are not likely to adopt the same practise. As a timber or shade tree the 
Chestnut is worthy of being generally cultivated. The wood is light, 
cross-grained, durable, and will stand well in ^vater or under ground. It 
contains but comparatively little sap w^ood, and consequently yields a 
greater proportion of hard timber than the oak and many other trees. 
Many well authenticated instances are recorded in Europe of the durability 
of Chestnut timber. In one instance a post, upon which a gate had 
swung for fifty-two years, was taken up and found to be nearly as sound 
as when placed in the ground. In another case a barn constructed of 
■Chestnut wood was thirty nine years afterwards found to be sound in 
every part. Formerly in England Chestnut wood mixed with oak was 
extensively used in the construction of buildings and in making furniture. 
It was also utilized to a large extent in making wine and beer casks. 
The bark of the Chestnut is astringent and is sometimes used by 
tanners and dyers. The Chestnut makes an excellent shade tree, and is 
well adaptf^d for street planting in some districts. It has been used very 
successfully for this purpose in the town of Heathcote, Victoria, whose 
main street is adorned with some noble specimens. 

Cultivation. 

The Chestnut may be grown successfully is many parts of Australasia, 
and seems to be perfectly at home in either the cool or medium warm 
districts. It will grow in any ordinary good soil, but thrives to 
perfection in a deep sandy loam, with a moderately dry subsoil. 
Calcarous soils are those that are the least suitable for the purpose. 
The land should be worked deeply, if it is heavy more especially, as 
the trees require freedom for their roots. In light, open soils the 
necessity for deep culture is not so great, but it is better to work the 
ground well. Drainage must be provided for when necessary, as the 



266 

trees will not stand tlieir roots being in saturated ground for any length 
of time. In selecting young trees choose those with clean, straight 
stems and a fair proportion of roots. Under favourable conditif)ns the 
trees will attain a large size in time, and they consequently require 
plenty of room for their developement. From thirty to thirty-five feet 
apart will not be too great a distance for Chestnut trees. As a matter 
of course, many years will pass before the trees will require all the space, 
and in the meantime it may be utilized for Peaches and other com- 
paratively short-lived trees or cultivated for vegetable crops. But little 
attention in the way of pruning is required by the Chestnut, except in 
the case of young trees, which must have their growth regulated so as 
to get large and symmetrical specimens in as short a time as possible. 
In the case of mature trees all that is necessary is the removal of rank or 
misplaced shoots, slightly thinning the branches when too numerous, and 
shortening back growth that is straggling. Sometimes trees will have a 
tendency to over luxuriance and yield but little fruit, when root pruning 
may prove beneficial. This operation should be performed in the winter, 
before active growth commences. The fruit is borne upon the wood of 
the previous season, and is generally allowed to fall from the tree when 
fully ripe. If the nuts are required to be kept for any length of time 
they will retain their freshness for a considerable period if packed in dry 
sand or soil. 

Clean cultivation is quite as necessary for the Chestnut as for any 
other fruit tree. An undergrowth of herbage is particularly injurious 
during the early summer months. Light and frequent stirrings with 
the scarifier or hoe are better for keeping down weeds than deep 
ploughing or digging. The less the roots are disturbed by the cultivating 
implements the better. Before the hot weather sets in the trees should 
be mulched to the depth of four or five inches as far as their roots extend. 
Old trees must be kept in good condition, by the use of manure 
occasionally if necessary. As to when manure is required, the cultivator 
must necessarily judge for himself from the appearance of his trees. 

Pkopagation, 

Propagation is eflected by seeds, cuttings, layering, grafting and 
budding. Plants are easily raised from seeds, which should be sown late 
in the winter or early in the spring and covered to the depth of about 
three inches. The following season the young trees should be planted 
out in rows about thirty inches apart, leaving a foot of space between in 
the lines. In another year the young trees will be ready for planting 
out permanently. Cuttings strike freely, and may be put in at any 
time between the fall of the leaf and early spring. Plants are readily 
obtained from layers, which should be put down at the same period as 
recommended for cuttings. Grafting is generally practised, as it brings 
trees into bearing earlier than those raised from seed. The operation 
should be performed just before the sap commences to rise, and the scions 
must be taken from well ripened wood. Budding is sometimes practised 
for the same reason as grafting. It should be performed in the summer, 
when the bark will rise freely upon the wood ; and mature, plmnp, and 
well-formed buds should invariably be used. 



267 

Varikties. 

Tlie Cliestiiut is limited to a few cultivated varieties, of which the 
most popular are as follows : — 

Banlcs' Prolific. — A verj^ free-bearing variety, and nuts of good size. 

Devonshire {N'eiv Prolific). — This variety is generally a free bearer, has 
fair sized nuts, and ripens a little earlier than other sorts. Tree vigorous. 

Downton (Knir/hfs Prolific). — An old and reputable variety, which is 
distinguished by shorter spines on the husks than the Devonshire. Tree 
strong in growth, and a fairly good bearer. 

Mammoth. — A newly introduced variety, with very large nuts, and 
said to be strong in growth and prolific. 

CHILIAN HAZEL. 

This is a beautiful evergreen tree known botanically as Guevina 
avellana, belonging to the natural order Proteacese. It is a native of 
Chili and other parts of South America, and attains a height of thirty or 
forty feet The foliage is bright green, and the snowy-white flowers 
which grow in spikes, are produced simultaneously with the ripening of 
the fruit of the previous season. When grown for ornamental purposes, 
the contrast between the flowers, foliage, and coral red fruit is very 
eff'ective. The nuts are known in Chili under the name of Avellano. 
They are about the size of large Hazel Nuts and have a very pleasant 
flavour. The wood is tough and elastic, and is said to be useful for 
many purposes, and more particularly boat building. The Chilian Hazel 
may be grown with success in the Southern Colonies of Australia, as also 
in Tasmania and New Zealand. It is a very desirable ornamental tree, 
independent of the value of its fruit which is produced freely. Any 
fairly good soil is suitable, but a well drained sandy loam is most 
favourable. Propagation is effected by seeds, layers, and ripened cuttings 
of the current season's growth, which strike readily in sand or light soil. 

CHINESE OLIVE. 

This name is applied to the fruit of Canarium commune, a shrub 
belonging to the natural order Burseraceae. It is indigenous to Java and 
the islands of the Indian Archipelago. The fruit is a three-sided drupe the 
size of a small Plum, which contains a large proportion of oil that is of 
commercial value. From the stem a gum is obtained which 
contains a considerable quantity of a stimulant volatile oil utilised for 
various purposes. The Chinese Olive can only be grown successfully in 
moist tropical regions, but as an oil yielding plant is not so valuable as 
many others. Propagation may be readily effected by seeds, layers, and 
cuttings of the ripened shoots of the current season's growth. 

CHINESE RAISIN. 

The plant known under this name is Hovenia dulcis. a small tree from 
Japan, belonging to the order Rhamnaceae or the Buckthorn family. It 

R 



268 

grows to the height of from fifteen to twenty feet, and though classed as 
an evergreen is not absolutely one. The fruit is of no value, but the 
fleshy flower stalks are edible, and have, when fresh, a sweet and some- 
what luscious flavoar. When dried, these stalks taste somewhat like 
raisins, hence the common name. The Chinese Raisin may be grown 
with success in the semi-tropical parts of Australia, and in other regions 
where the winters are mild and frosts not troublesome. It will adapt 
itself to any ordinary good soil, and requires but little care after it has 
become fairly established, In congenial climates, this tree makes a good 
ornamental plant, and may be used with advantage for that purpose. 
Plants may be obtained from layers which should be put down in the 
spring, or cuttings of the ripened wood, which strike readily in sand 
under a glass. 

CHOCO. 

History and Uses. 

This is the native name for a perennial trailing plant belonging to the 
order Cucurbitacese, or the Cucumber family, which is indigenous to 
Central America. It is also known as Chayota, and Portuguese Squash. 
Botanically it is known as Sechium edule. In growth it is similar to the 
Vegetable Marrow, bears a yellow flower, and fruit in appearance some- 
what like a Quince, but much larger. The plant is very prolific, and one 
will yield over one hundred fruits in a season. The fruit has but a 
single seed, which often germinates before the former has fully matured. 
The fruit is turned to account for both man and beast, but the plant is 
cultivated chiefly for its large fleshy roots which often weigh over twenty 
pounds. They contain a large proportion of starch, and have a flavour 
somewhat similar to the Chestnut, These roots are used extensively by 
the negroes in the West Indies, also as food for stock, and more especially 
to fatten hogs. 

CULTIVATON AND PROPAGATION. 

The Choco can only be cultivated successfully in the warmer parts of 
Australia, but it is well worthy of attention in congenial localities, as a 
valuable economical plant for stock. Like other plants of the Cucumber 
family it requires a rich soil, as strong and rapid growth is essential. As 
regards planting, and after cultivation, the treatment in every respect is 
required as for the Vegetable Marrow. In localities where there are slight 
frosts the stems will die back, but they will shoot from the roots again. 
Propagation is most usually efl"ected by seeds or young plants that have 
stai ted in the fruits, but cuttings of the current season's growth will 
strike in sand under a glass or in a frame. 



CHUPA. 

Chupa is the native name of the fruit of Matisia cordatay an evergreen 



269 

tree indigenous to Peru aud other parts of South America, belonging to 
the order Sterculiacese. It is a handsome tree, attaining a height of fifty 
or sixty feet, with broad cordate leaves and Mallow-like flowers borne 
upon the trunks and branches. The fruit is oval in shape, four or five 
inches in length, and from two and a half to three in diameter. It 
contains five cells, each one enclosing an angular seed about an inch in 
length. The fruit is highly appreciated in its native countries, where_ 
it is generally used. Its flesh has a flavour somewhat similar to an 
Apricot, but has a rather stringy fibre. The Chupa may be cultivated 
successfully in either of the Australian Colonies, as also in New Zealand. 
As it is a handsome evergreen tree it may be used with advantage for 
ornamental purposes, independant of any value possessed by its fruit. It 
may be grown successfully in any average good soil, and should be treated 
as an ordinary evergreen tree. Propagation may be effected by seeds, 
which should be planted three inclies deep, or ripened cuttings of the 
current season's growth, which will strike in sand or light soil. 



COCOA NUT. 

History and Uses 

This is a well-known fruit that is extensively cultivated in the coast 
regions of tropical countries, and it is generally admitted to be one of the 
most useful plants grown for the service of mankind. There is a saying 
that it has as many uses as there are days in the year. This plant 
supplies food and drink with its fruit, the shells are converted into 
domestic utensils, the stems and leaves afford materials for building and 
thatching houses, the fibres are used for cordage and other purposes, 
while the juice from the stems yield sugar, wine, and spirits. The Cocoa 
Nut is a Palm known botanically as Cocos nucifera. It is supposed to 
be a native of the South East coast of Asia, but is now found growing 
naturally in regions not far from the sea in India, tropical Africa, and 
numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Cocoa Nut 
Palm attains a height of from fifty to a hundred feet, and when growing 
under favourable conditions will live from eighty to a hundred years or 
more. There are no branches and the flowers are produced at the top of 
the trunk. The nuts are produced in bunches of from ten to twenty or 
more. They are about a foot in length, triangular in shape, and covered 
with a thick coating of fibre which encloses the familiar hard shelled nut. 
While the nut is green it is filled with a sweetish refreshing liquor, 
but as it ripens, a formation of albumen takes place upon the inner side 
of the shell, producing that white, firm, pleasant flavoured, but very 
indigestible substance, which is known as the kernel. The Cocoa Nut 
is very nutritious owing to the large proportion of fixed oil that it 
contains. This large per centage of oil however is the cause of the nuts 
being so indigestible. The dried kernels are exported from many of the 
South Sea Islands, under the name of Copra, for the sake of the oil, 



270 

which is extracted by pressure. The oil when purified, is largely used in 
cookery, and for other purposes. The coarser or thicker part of the oil 
is utilised in the manufacture of stearine candles. In the process of 
purifying, glycerine is obtained in quantity. The fibrous covering of 
the nut, known as Coir, is extensively used for making mats and various 
other purposes. From the sap of the Cocoa Nut Palm a liquor is 
obtained which yields by evaporation a large proportion of sugar, which 
n India is called Jagery. When fermented this liquor passes under the 
name of Toddy^ and by distillation the spirit known as Arrack is obtained. 
The juice is obtained by boring holes in the stems and collecting the 
material in jars. When plants are used for this purpose, they are not 
allowed as a rule, to bear fruit. The stems of the Cocoa Nut Palm are 
tough and durable, and yield what is known as Porcupine Wood. 

Cl'ltivation ani> Pjfui'A (.nation. 

The Cocoa Nut Palm can only be grown with success in the tropical 
coast regions of Australia and the South Sea Islands* It delights in a 
rich open sandy loamy soil near to t)ie sea shore. The plants should 
stand about twenty feet apart, taking care not to place them too deep 
in the ground. In rich soil the plants Avill come into bearing in five or 
six years from the time they are planted, but in poorer land develop- 
ment will be slower, and eight or ten years may pass before fruit is 
produced. i^fter the plants commence to bear the}^ yield crops with 
great regularity, and seldom fail. They are also very prolific, and 
mature trees yield a large number of nuts. Propagation is invariably 
effected by seeds, and the nuts should be i»lanted about six inches deep. 
They are commonly planted where the nuts are to remain, but a surer 
method is to raise them in a nursery, and transplant when they are 
large enough. A good way of raising plants is, get some large bamboo 
stems, cut them in pieces about nine inches in length, place the nuts in 
them and plant. By adopting this plan the pieces of Bamboo will 
serve as pots, and the young Palms can be lifted and planted out 
without their roots being materially disturbed. 



DOUBLE COCOA NUT. 

This is quite distinct from the ordinary Cocoa Nut, being produced 
by Lodoicea sechellarum, a handsome Palm indigenous to the small group 
of islands known as the Sechelles. This is considered to be the largest 
and most remarkable of all Palms as it often attains a heiglit of more 
than a hundred feet, the stem being from eighteen inches to two feet in 
diameter, and the summit crowned with very large fan shaped leaves. 
The fruit is very large, oblong, and covered with a thin skin or rind. 
This covering encloses two vary large oblong nuts firmly united together, 
the pair generally weighing from thirty to forty pounds. The fruit is 
produced in bunches of from eight to ten. As the nuts hang for a long 



271 

while and take several years to ripen, they are not much used as food, 
though edible. The large shells are however used by the Sechelle islanders 
for making various useful domestic articles, and the wood and leaves are 
turned to account in the erection of dwellings, and for other purposes. 
The Double Cocoa Nut may be grown under the same conditions as 
Cocos nucifera, and requires similar treatment as regards cultivation and 
propagation. 

COCOA PLUM. 

This name is applied to the fruit of Chrf/sohalatius Icaco^ an evergreen 
shrub or small tree indigenous to the West Indies. The genus is the 
type of the order Chrysobalanaccfe, which formerly was classed as a sub- 
order of RosacefB. The flowers are white, and the small pulpy Plum-like 
fruit is palatable and largely used in its native regions. Being a native 
of tropical countries, the Cocoa Plum can only be cultivated successfully 
in the warmer regions of Australia, where it may be utilised as an 
ornamental plant, as also for its fruit which makes an excellent preserve. 
Any ordinary good soil is favourable, but the plant thrives in a sandy 
loam. Propagation is easily effected by seeds, which should be planted 
about three inches deep, layers, or cuttings of the ripened shoots. 



CORNEL. 

History and Uses. 

The Cornel i« a deciduous small tree indigenous to the North of 
Europe and Asia, known to botanists as Conius mascula, and the type 
of the order Cornaceae or the Dogwood family. The fruit is also known 
as the Cornelian Cherry and Cornel Plum. The generic name comes 
from Comic a horn, from the hardness and durability of the wood. The 
specific name mascula, or mas as it is is often called, owes its origin to 
the singular circumstance that trees from seed invariably bear only 
staminate or male flowers for years. Afterwards they bear flowers of 
both- sexes, and fruit. The common family name Dogwood is said to 
have originated through the wild tree being formerly in England called 
Dogberry Tree and Hounds Tree. The flowers are small, yellow, 
arranged in clusters, and make their appearance before the leaves. The 
fruit is oval, about an inch in length, and in colour a reddish scarlet. 
There is also a variety with yellow fruit. In flavour the fruit is acid 
and austere, but it makes a very good preserve. Formerly, when better 
fruits were less plentiful than they are now, the Cornel was more generally 
used in Europe. Jt was formerly commonly mixed with Apples and 
Pears in making cider or periy. The wood of the Cornel is very hard 
and durable and was formerly in great rei^ute for making arrows and 
javelins. Cornel trees when growing under favourable conditions will 



'11') 



attain a great age, and instances are on record of specimens o^e two 
hniidied years old. 




Cornel 



C C LTIVATIO X A^ D Pi J 1 ' AG ATIOX . 



The Cornel may be cultivated successfully in the cooler regions of 
Australia, as also in Tasmania and New Zealand. It is however, 
scarcely worth cultivating for its fruit which is vastly inferior to many 
other kinds. As an ornamental j^lant it is worthy of a place in a 
garden or shrubbery, as its bright coloured fruit which hangs on the trees 
for a long jDeriod, has a pleasing effect. The tree is very hardy, will 
adapt itself to any soil or situation, and requites but little care. Propa- 
gation may be effected by seeds, layers, cuttings, budding and grafting. 
Seeds produce the most vigorous trees, but for the reason already named 
they take a long time to fruit. As stocks for grafting or budding, 
seedlings are very serviceable. The seed should be planted two inches 
deep in the autumn. Layering is the most general means of propagation, 
and branches put down in the spring will yield strong plants the 
following season. Cuttings as a rule strike slowly and should be taken 



273 

from the last season's shoots. Grafting should be done in the spring 
when the sap is beginning to move and budding after mid-summer, as 
soon as the wood has matured sufficiently for the bark to rise freely. 



CRANBERRY. 

History axd Uses. 

Cranberries are Alpine fruits indigenous to the northern regions of 
Europe, Asia, and America, where they are found growing in peat bogs or 
other situations where there is permanent moisture. There are several 
kinds, which are obtained from various species of Vaccinium, a family 
that is the type of the natural order Vaccinacea?. The botanic name 
comes from the Latin language, but to what plant it was originally 
applied is doubtful. Formerly the family was known under the name of 
Oxycoccus, which is at the present more generally used than Vaccinium. 
This word comes from '^ Ox its'" (sharp) and '^kokkos'' (a berry), in 
allusion to the sharp acid flavour of the fruit, and is a very suitable name. 
The English name is supposed to have oiiginated from the appearance 
of the flower bud just before it expands, which has a fancied resemblance 
to the head of a crane, hence the term " Craneberry " or " Oanberry." 
The British Cranberry is obtained from Vaecinimn OxyroccuH' {Oxi/coccus 
2)alustns), a trailing, evergreen shrub, growing naturally in many parts of 
Europe, Middle and Northern Asia, and also found in North America. 
It bears in abundance scarlet berries like Currants, which are used to 
some extent in tarts, or preserved, and are considered to be wholesome 
and cooling to the blood. The American Cranberry is the product of 
Vaccinium macrocarpon {Oxi/coccns macrocarpus) , a trailing, evergreen 
bush growing about three feet high, and bearing in large quantities 
bright scarlet berries. The fruit is much larger than the British 
Cranberry, and movQ valuable for cultivation. Enormous quantities are 
obtained from natural and artificial jilantations in the eastern United 
States and Canada where the fruit is highly prized and generally used. 
Besides the demand for home consumption there is also an extensive 
trade in Cranberries between America and Europe. Vaccinium Vitis 
liloea (a dwarf, evergreen, shrubby species) also yields a Cranberry, 
bearing purplish-red fruit, which is utilized to a large extent. This 
species is widely distributed, being found in l^^urope, Northern aiid 
Middle Asia and North America. Possibly other species of Vaccinium 
might be worth cultivating as Cranberries, and investigations in this 
direction are desirable. Some Species yield useful fruits known by other 
names— such as the ]3ilberry, or Whortleberry of the United Kingdom, 
and the Blueberry, or Huckleberry, of America. 

Cranberries are utilized in a variety of waj s. In the first place they 
ai-e largely used in a fresh state for tarts and puddings, and are considered 
to be very wholesome when eaten in this way. They are also largely 
used to accompany pork and other luscious meats, as their acidity 
counteracts the richness of these materials. Cranberries make a palatable 



274 







BeU 



275 

sauce that is generally relished. It is made by dissolving one pound of 
loaf sugar in a pint of watei*, bring to a Vioil, and pour the liquid over a 
quart of fruit. Boil foj* a quarter of an hour and cool slowly. Cranberries 
are a serviceable fruit when canned or bottled. The fruit should be stewed 
for about a quarter of an hour, place while hot in the cans or bottles, and 
make air-tight. Cranberry jelly is made by adding water to the berries 
in the proportion of half-a-pint of the former to a quart of fruit, and stew 
slowly till they are soft. Then mash the berries, strain the juice through^ 
a jelly bag, and to each pint add one pound of pulverised white sugar, 
sugar. Boil slowly till the jelly forms, taking care to skim the surface 
from time to time to remove impurities. 

OuJiTIVATION 

Though the Cranberry has received but little or no attention in the 
Australasian Colonies, there is no reason why it should not be profitably 
cultivated in some localities. It would thrive in the cool moist mountain 
regions of New South Wales and Victoria, and is suitable for many 
localities in Tasmania and New Zealand. In its native regions the 
Cranberry is found growing in wet peaty swamps, but it may be grown 
in open sandy loam that can be kept moderately moist. This plant 
however, is somewhat peculiar in its requirements and will only thrive in 
a loose soil that will not pack. The Cranberry flourishes to the greatest 
perfection in equal proportions of well decayed vegetable matter and 
coarse sand. But though the Cranberry requires a soil that will be 
always moist, yet it does not like stagnant water, and consequently in 
preparing the ground due provision must be made for drainage. The 
command of a running stream of water will be a great advantage in 
cultivating this fruit. In preparing for a plantation the first thing to be 
done is to cut drains sufficiently large, deep, and numerous to carry off 
quickly any excess of water. The ground, as a rule, should be worked 
deeply. It is customary with American growers in preparing swamp 
land, to cover the surface with a layer of sand which serves a twofold 
purpose, as it improves the soil and gives a clean surface for the plants. 
These layers of sand vary in thickness from three to six inches, according 
to the nature of the under soih Planting may be done at any time 
between the autumn and early spring, the most usual method being to 
plant in rows three or four feet apart. The plants should stand about 
eighteen inches apart in the lines, and ought to be put in with a 
horizontal inclination, each row sloping the same way, so as to facilitate 
the rooting of the stems. A plantation of Cranberries when growing 
under favourable conditions, will last for many years. If the plants 
show signs of failing vigour, a winter top dressing of vegetable mould, 
wood ashes, or thoroughly decayed manure will be serviceable. A 
Cranberry plantation will begin to yield a full return in three years, by 
which time the plants will have covered the surface of the ground. The 
plants are very prolific and yield large and profitable crops. In America 
a hundred bushels per acre is considered to be only a fair ordinary yield. 
Returns of three and four hundred bushels per acre are not uncommon, 



276 




Showing the proper wny to Plant. 



^^ ^^ ""^^ j>^ ^^^ 



Usual way of arranging the rows. 

Yarikties. 




Cherrv. 



and according to J. J. Wliite an American writer upon Cranberry culture, 
in one instance a return of nine hundred aud seventy bushels per acre 
was obtained. Formerly it was customary in America to gather the 
crops with implements called Cranberry rakes, but it has since been 



277 

found more profitable to revert to picking. The work of picking is, in 
America, done principally by women and children, at a cost of about two 
shillings per bushel. 

Propagation. 

Propagation may be effected by seeds, cuttings, or the rooted plants 
from the trailing stems. Seeds germinate freely if sown in beds as soon 
as they are ripe, but this mode of increase is slow, and therefore not to 
be commended. Cuttings root freely, and even small pieces of the stems 
that have passed through a chaffcutter, set wide, will grow. This method 
is commonly practised by American growers. If, however, rooted plants 
can be obtained readily ; as will always be the case where there are 
established plantations, they will be better than cuttings. 

Varieties 

There are several varieties cultivated by American growers which 
differ in the size, shape and colour of the fruit, but not in other respects. 
In fact the varieties can only be determined when the plants are 
fruiting. Size and colour are the principal consideration with growers. 
Large dark red berries are always more saleable than others- The 
varieties chiefly cultivated in America are as follows. 

Bell. — So named from the fruit resembling a bell in shape. 

Bugle. — This is a long-fruited variety, and derives its name from a 
fancied resemblance to the beads known as bugles. 

Cherry. — A round-berried variety having the shape and colour of a 
red Cherry ; hence the name. 



CREAM FRUIT. 



This name is applied to the fruit of Roupellia grata an evergreen 
shrub indigenous to Western Africa, belonging to the order Apocynacese. 
Occasionally the plant will assume a climbing habit, but it more 
commonly retains its shrubby form. The flowers are white with a pink 
tint, and are freely produced. The fruit when wounded yields a whitish 
thick palatable juice, like cream in appearance, hence the common name. 
The negroes are very partial to this juice, which is generally used by 
them when it can be obtained. It is considered to be wholesome and 
excellent for allaying thirst. Being a native of a hot region, the Cream 
Fruit can only be cultivated with success in the tropical parts of 
Australia, where it would probably be worth cultivating for its fruit, and 
also as an ornamental shrub. It requires a moderately rich sandy loamy 
soil, and must be sheltered from strong winds. Propagation may be 
readily effected by layers, and ripened cuttings of the current season's 
growth will strike in sand. 



278 
CUCUMBER. 

History. 

The Cucumber is a well-known annual trailing plant known to 
botanists as Cuciimis sativm and belonging to the natural order 
Cucurbitace<e. The generic name is derived from curvus crooked, in 
allusion to the form the fruit generally assumes. It is generally supposed 
to be a native of the East Indies, but, as with many other economic 
plants, there is no certainty as to where it came from originally. 
Cucumbers appear to have been well kncnvn to the nations of antiquity, 
and according to their writers they were generally cultivated. Records 
are in existence that show this plant was cultivated in Egypt, Persia, and 
Syria over three thousand years ago. The Hebrews also appear to have 
been well acquainted with this plant from a very early period, and 
tradition says that one of the complaints made by the Israelites to Moses 
in the wilderness was the want of Cucumbers, to which they had become 
accustomed to during their stay in Egypt. The Cucumber was probably 
introduced to Europe by the Romans, as it is certain that that nation 
cultivated this plant as early as the first century, if not sooner.. Cucum- 
bers were greatly prized by the Roman patricians, and the Emperor 
Tiberius is said to have been so partial to them that his table was 
supplied throughout the year, and for the greater portion they were 
grown by artificial means. 

The mode of artificial cultivation as practised by the ancient R.omans, 
appears to have been essentially the same as that which is adopted by 
modern gardeners. They were well aware that a rich soil, warmth and 
moisture, were essentials to the successful culture of Cucumbers and that 
growth could be stimulated by the application of artificial heat. It was 
a common practice with the Romans to grow them in large baskets filled 
with horse dung and rich soil. Thin plates of Laj^is specidaris or talc 
were placed over the baskets, and this mateiial admitted light nearly as 
freely as our modern glass. At night these baskets were placed under 
shelter. Pliny informs us that Cucumbers were also commonly grown 
in large boxes arranged on wheels which were moved about at pleasure. 
Several other ancient writers speak of Cucumbers and the practices 
adapted in their culture. Palladius writing in the year 151, directs the 
seed to be macerated in water before it is sown, and the fruit to be grown 
in tubes to increase their length. Quintillius and Columella give similar 
directions, and add, that as the fruit increases in length when near water, 
therefore dishes filled with water sljould be placed within a few inches of 
the points of the Cucumbers. Some of the early Greek writers 
recommended that previous to sowing the seed should be steeped in milk 
and honey in order to prevent bitterness in the fruit. Though to us this 
may appear to be an absurd practice, yet strange to say it was believed 
in, and followed by the celebrated English johilosopher Lord Bacon. 

From' historical records Cucumbers appear to have been grown in 
England from about the middle of the fourteenth century. Owing 



279 

however, to the unsettled state of affairs that afterwards occurred the 
plant appears to have been lost, but was re-introduced in the time of 
Henry VIII. In a book called The Gardeners Lahi/rinth published in 
1577, it is recommended that Cucumbers should be trained upon trellises, 
as the fruit is liable to injury when left lying upon the ground. Instruct 
tions are also given in this book for keeping the plants supplied with 
moisture by means of pieces of worsted, an end of each being buried in 
the soil close to the plants, while the other extremeties are placed in 
water which was supposed to filter through them. Gerard wnting~in~ 
1597, mentions two sorts as being known in his time, one of these he 
calls Ciicumis vulgari,% which is supposed to be identical with what is 
now^ called the Short Prickly. The other sort Gerard terms Cucumis ex 
Hispanica or the Spanish Cucumber, Avhich appears to have been an 
improved kind, as the fruit is described as being a foot long. Some 
curious ideas appear to have formerly existed regarding Cucumbers, and 
the effects produced by eating them. Gerard in his book quaintly says 
that " If they are eaten as a potage with mutton and oatmeal for break- 
fast, dinner and supper, without intermission for three weeks, it doth 
perfectly cure all mariner of sauce phleghm or copper faces, red and 
shining fiery noses, (as red as red roses) with pimples, pumples, and such 
like precious faces." 

The forcing of Cucumbers was commonly practised in England in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century and Gerard gives full directions for 
making hot-beds with stable manure. The system was very similar to 
that practised by modern gardeners, uith the exception that the beds had 
hoops or poles fixed over them upon which were spread mats, straw, 
painted cloth or other contrivances to afford protection from the weather 
glass being then unknown. Parkinson writing in 1627, describes six 
varieties (Cowcumbers he calls them ) and makes the first mention of glass 
being used in growing them artificially. In 1717 the first treatise written 
upon the Cucumber, by Samuel Collins, appeared in a work called 
Faradise Retrieved. Switzer an English horticulturist of repute in his 
day, writing in 1727, boasts of the great advance made in the cultivation 
of Cucumbers in the few preceding years. " Foruierly " he says " they 
could not be obtained for the table previous to the latter end of May, but 
now they are to be had early in March or sooner." It is recorded 
that in 1721 a brace of fine Cucumbers were presented to George I. on 
New Years Day, they being the first ever raised in midwinter. They 
were grown by Sir Nathaniel Head's gardener at Stoke Newington, near 
London. As a matter of course readers must bear in mind that in 
Europe the season's are the opposite of those in Australasia. 

Uses. 

Cucumbers are agreeable and refreshing wiien used as salads or other- 
wise, and more especially in warm weather, but they contain but little 
nourishment, as the percentage of water in the fruit is about ninety-seven 
per cent. Owing to their cool and watery nature they are somewhat 
difficult to digest, and should be used with great caution by delicate 



280 

people or those that are subject to dyspepsia. Robust persons however, 
may eat them without ill effects, if taken in moderation with the addition 
of salt, pepper, vinegar or oil. During warm weather they are not only 
refreshing but they are also supposed to stimulate the appetite for food. 
Cucumbers are extensively used for pickling and they ai^e often grown 
specially for the purpose. They are also preserved for winter use by 
steeping them in brine and packing in casks. When preserved in this 
way they are very tasty and serviceable for winter or ship use, as they 
are available when they cannot be obtained in the ordinary way. 

Cultivation. 

Cucumbers are strong feeding plants and require a rich soil and an 
ample and regular supply of moisture to bring them to perfection, 
therefore water must be used freely in dry weather. When grown in the 
open ground the most generally adopted plan is to make holes three or 
four feet in diameter, and place in each a barrow-full of well rotted 
manure, then filling up with soil. But the better plan is to thoroughly 
work the whole of the ground so as to allow the roots a wider range, 
and avoid the risk of an excess of water, which is very likely to occur if 
the hole system is adopted, as when the ground is retentive each one 
becomes after heavy rains, simply a tank for a time. When seeds are 
sown, the usual plan is to put in seven or eight Avhere each set of plants 
are required, placing them two or three inches apart, and about an inch 
deep. The distance between each set of plants should be from nine to 
ten feet. Some growers prefer the plants to stand singly instead of in 
sets of three, and if this plan is adopted they should be arranged about 
three feet apart in the lines. The seeds will quickly germinate, and as 
soon as the young plants have made their first pair of leaves, they should 
be thinned out to the three strongest, leaving a space of from six to nine 
inches between. The spare plants may be taken up and transplanted if 
wanted, as they bear the operation well if they are removed carefully. 
Some people prefer to raise the plants in a frame and transfer them 
to the open ground when large enough. This plan offers some 
advantages, as primary growth will be more under the control of the 
cultivator, and the plants will be earlier. As the Cucumber is a very 
tender plant it is useless to sow or plant in the open ground till all 
danger from frosts is passed. The time for a first sowing or j^lanting will 
necessarily vary considerably in different parts of Australasia, and 
cultivators will- have to use their judgment. In sowing or planting early 
there will always be some risk from frosts or bleak winds, and as a 
safeguard it will be advisable to place casks, boxes, sugar baskets with the 
bottoms removed, or even a few bushes round each plant or set. Hand 
glasses however, will be a still better safeguard, but they are too expensive 
for general use. In order to keep up a regular supply of fruit throughout 
the summer, it will be necessary to put in succession, crops at intei^als of 
a month or six weeks up to February. 

When the vines begin to run it will be advisable to stop them after 
they have made five or six joints, by pinching off the points of the shoots. 



281 

The object of this is to induce the formation of lateral shoots and get the 
ground covered regularly. As a rule not more than two or three main 
branches are required for each plant. The lateral branches should be 
pinched back at one joint above a fruit, and they will form other shoots 
which in their turn must be treated the same. As the plants progress in 
growth the surface soil should be loosened and covered with a layer of 
stable manure or some other suitable material as a mulching. This will 
not only check excessive evaporation, but also afford the plants an extra 
supply of nourishment. If the branches are trained regularly over the 
mulched ground, and pegged down, they will throw out roots at the 
joints and by this means enable the parent plants to obtain extra 
nourishment. When the branches become too crowded they should be 
thinned out or otherwise they will become too weakly to produce fine 
fruit. As soon as the fruit is fit for use it should be removed, whether it 
is required or not, as if allowed to ripen the productiveness of the plant 
will be checked. Cucumber plants are often attacked by a mildew, and 
more especially towards the end of the summer or in damp weather. 
Whenever there are any signs of this mildew the affected plants should 
be dusted with powdered sulphur and a Jittle caustic lime sprinkled over 
the ground around them. They should also be watered about once a 
week with a solution of common salt, in the proportion of two ounces to 
a. gallon of water. 

In order to obtain Cucumbers out of the regular season it is usual to 
grow them with the aid of artificial heat, either in glass houses or frames 
fitted with hot water pipes, or by the aid of stable manure, tan, and 
other fermenting materials, in hot beds. As a matter of course a regularly 
heated house or frame is the least troublesome means, but a hot bed is 
more suitable for the greater number of cultivators, for economical 
reasons. In preparing a hot-bed the dimensions of the frame that is to 
stand upon it should be first taken, and the ground marked in accordance. 
Four stout stakes should then be driven into the ground at the corners, 
but a foot further out than the space that has been marked. When 
stable manure is used it should be previously prepared by turning and 
mixing two or three times, using water if it is too dry. If tan is used it 
should be fresh. The prepared niaterial should be built up within the 
stakes as solidly as possible, to the height of three or four feet. In three 
or four days it will have sunk considerably and another twelve or eighteen 
inches of the material may be added* The frame should then be lifted 
on, keeping it level and square so that about a foot of the bed will 
project all round. The frame should be left uncovered for four or five 
days to allow the rank vapours to escape, and then a layer of rich soil 
about six inches deep should be spread over the manure. In the centre, 
or where the plants are to be fixed, raised mounds several inches above 
the surface should be made. Seeds or plants may then be put in, and 
should receive the same treatment as recommended for outdoor culture. 
As growth progresses fresh soil should be placed round the mounds till 
the bed becomes level or nearly so. When the heat of the beds begins to 
decline the projecting sides should be removed and replaced with fresh 
material in an active state of fermentation. This operation must be 



282 




Gberkin. 



Yellow Dutch. 



288 




Small Bussian. 



repeated as often as it is necessary, Jia a steady heat is essential to success. 
Though Cucumbers when grown by artificial heat can be obtained at any 
time of the year, yet, as a rule, they are only cultivated in this way in 
order to have them a few weeks earlier than from the open ground. 
Very few people care for Cucumbers till the warm weather sets in, and 
July or August will be sufficiently early to start the plants in heat. Early 
plants for the open ground may be obtained by starting the seeds in a 
hot-bed, putting the young plants into small pots and keeping them 
growing steadily till they can be safely placed in the open ground. 

Propagation. 



Cucumbers are generally raised from seed and this is the most easy 
method. Propagation, however, may be readily effected by cuttings of 
the young shoots taken off just below a joint and inserted an inch deep 
in light rich soil. Plants raised by this means are, as a rule more 
prolific than seedlings, but the fruit is usually smaller, and the practice i» 
not worth following, except in the case of new and choice varieties that 
are wanted to increase quickly. Seed should invariably be saved from 
the finest and best shaped fruit, and these as a rule are those that are 
first produced by the plants. The fruit should be allowed to ripen before 
it is removed from the vines, and care must be taken that no other species 
of the ftimily are growing near. No plants are more easily crossed than 



284 

those belonging to the Cucumber family, and it is impossible to obtain 
seed that will come true if two or more kinds are growing near to each 
other. Seeds will retain their vitality for eight or ten years, and if 
there are any doubts as to their soundness, they may be readily tested by 
placing them in water, when all that float should be discarded as 
worthless. 

Varieties 

There are a great many varieties of the Cucumber in cultivation, but 
as regards many of them the differences are but slight, and it is somewhat 
difficult to distinguish one from another. This confusion is intensified by 
by the fact that local circumstances, such as climate, the nature of the 
soil, and slow growth will often materially affect the size, shape and 
quality of the fruit. The Cucumbers that are most esteemed are those 
that are long and straight, though there are really no sound reasons 
for this preference. Long Cucumbers are no better in flavour 
than short or medium ones, and the plants that yield them are generally 
not so prolific as others. Rapid growth is essential to a first-class 
Cucumber, as when development is slow the fruit is apt to have a bitter 
and somewhat disagreeable flavour. 



CURRANT. 

History. 

The Currant belongs to the natural order Grossulacetie, and is closely 
related to the Gooseberry. It was formerly supposed to be identical 
with the Corinthian Grape, and from this idea the common English 
name has originated. At one time in England this fruit was known as 
Corans, this name being afterwards changed to Currans and again within 
a, comparatively recent period to Currant. Botanically the Currant is 
known under the name of Rihes, from two species of which the ordinary 
cultivated edible varieties have originated. The l^hick Currant comes 
from Rihes nigrum, a species indigenous to many parts of Northern 
Europe and more especially Russia. The source of the Red Currant is 
Rihes rnhrum, which is also indigenous to many parts of Northern Europe. 
The White Currant is merely a form of the red, Rihes rnhntm Both 
species are to be found growing wild in some parts of England and 
Scotland, mostly in moist, deep soils on the outskirts of woods. 

Several other species of Ribes yield edible Currants which are utilized 
more or less in their native regions. The more noteworthy are Rihes 
uureum, a species widely dispersed in East America, which embraces 
several varieties, with fruits varying- in colour from yellow to brown and 
black. The berries are somewhat larger than those of the common Black 
Currant which they resemble in colour and taste. Rihes hracteatum a 
Oalifornian species yields a fruit which in appearance and flavour is 



285 

somewhat like the Black Currant. Rihes ceremn an American species 
yields red sweetish berries. Rihes floridum is the Black Currant of 
North East America. In colour and flavour the fruit is similar t<3 the 
common Black Currant- Rihes tenniflornm, a species found chiefly in 
the mountain regions of America, yields palatable yellow fruit. Rihes 
Grifitld a species indigenous to the Himalayas, and found growing at an 
altitude of from ten to three thousand feet, has fruit similar in colour to 
the Red Currant, but larger and having an austere flavour. Other 
Indian Mountain species may also prove useful for their fruits. 

The Currant does not appear to have been known to the nations of 
anti([uity, as no mention has been made of it by their writers. There is 
no account of its being cultivated in Great Britain previous to the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. Gerard, who wrote towards the close of this period, 
describes this fruit as a sort of Gooseberry, Soon after this, however, 
the (hirrant appears to have become a popular British fruit, and ever 
since finds a place in every garden of the Unitad Kingdom. Black 
Currants were formerly known in some parts of England as Squinancy 
Berries, from thair supposed efficacy when taken as a remedy for quinsy. 
The inner bark of the wood was formerly very popular as a remedy for 
jaundice and dropsy. 

Uses. 

The Currant is an excellent dessert fruit, and is also valuable for 
culinary purposes. Both red and white Currants contain a large propor- 
tion of malic acid, and medicinally they are cooling and grateful to the 
stomach. The fruit is mildly aperient, lessens the secretion of bile, and 
is benefical in scorbutic complaints. With some temperaments the too 
free use of the fruit causes a tendency to flatulence and indigestion. As 
regards the Black Currant, the fruit, leaves and wood each contain tonic 
and stimulating properties. The jelly and juice are medicinally valuable 
for various complaints, more especially for catarrh. The leaves have a 
strong and peculiar flavour, particularly when young, and were formerly 
much used in adulterating tea. When carefully dried they make a very 
fair substitute for genuine tea. In Russia a drink made from dried 
Black Currant leaves is a common beverage with the poorer classes of the 
people. The roots of both species contain a peculiar astringent property, 
and are sometimes utilized in medicine. Currants, both red and black, 
are very largely used for jams and jellies, for which there is an extensive 
and increasing demand The fruit may be preserved fresh for a long 
time in bottles of water or canned in the ordinaiy way. To preserve in 
this way, the bottles or cans should be filled nearly to the top with fruit 
and water, and then placed two or three minutes in boiling water, after 
which they must be tightly corked or sealed to prevent the admission of 
air. An excellent wine can be made from either black or red Currants, 
fermenting it either with sugar or without according to requirements. 
After fennentation, the wine should stand in the casks five or six 
months before it is used. If carefully made, Currant wi)ie will keep for 
years, and it is a very pleasant beverage. 



286 
Cultivation. 

Currants, both black and red, will only thrive well in the cooler and 
more elevated districts, and cannot be grown successfully in the warmer 
portions of Australasia. These fruits are specially suitable for culture in 
the vicinity of mountain ranges, where the rainfall is above the average. 
Any ordinary good land is suitable for Currants, but the most favourable 
soil is a deep, rich, sandy loam, that does not get very dry in the simimer. 
If the soil is of a poor character, the deficiencies should be made good by 
manure when the ground is prepared. As with fruit trees, when the 
ground is deeply worked, it offers the most favourable conditions for 
growth. When the land is of a heavy nature it should invariably be 
loosened to the depth of at least fifteen inches. Deep working is not so 
essential in light soils having free subsoils. Care must be taken when 
the ground is deeply worked not to turn up more than a couple of inches 
of a bad subsoil to the surface. Many people have made this mistake to 
their cost. Drainage must be provided for when necessary, as, though 
Currants like a fairly moist soil, they will not thrive with water 
stagnating at their roots for any length of time. Heavy land generally 
wants assistance in the way of draining, but in lighter soils resting upon 
open gravel or sand there is often sufficient natural outlet for the water. 

The plants should stand in rows, six or eight feet apart each way, so as 
to allow plenty of room for development From the middle of July to 
the first week in August is the most favourable period for planting, 
though it may be done at any time between the fall of the leaves and the 
starting of spring growth. In choosing plants, give a preference to 
young ones that are of strong growth and well shaped. The after 
treatment required will be keeping the ground free from weeds (and 
more especially in the spring and early summer) and stimulating the 
vigour of the plants by the use of manure when necessary. In destroying 
weeds the surface should be lightly stirred frequently in preference to 
deeply ploughing or digging, which often injure the roots materially. 
Before the warm weather sets in it will be advisable to mulch the surface 
soil, to prevent rapid and excessive evaporatioi . Mulching is good for 
all fruits, but more especially for Curnmts and others that are partial to 
cool and moist regions. Currants will often retain their vigour for a 
dozen or more years, but it will be advisable, as a rule, to renew 
plantations in about six or seven j^ears. 

Pruning. 

As regards pruning there is some difference in the repuirements of the 
red and black fruited species. The red and white varieties bear their 
fruit upon one, two, and three year old shoots, as also on spurs from 
older wood. The greater portion of the fruit is, however, usually borne 
upon the wood of the previous season. In pruning, the system generally 
adopted is to cut back the main previous season's shoots to from four to 
six buds, thinning out the branches when too numerous so that growth 
will not be crowded, and shorten close the lateral shoots. As a rule the 



287 

white varieties are less robust than the red ones, and do not require quite 
so much pruning. The Black Currant bears its fruit chiefly upon the 
wood of the preceding season, and, though far less abundantly, upon older 
spurs. Less pruning is required than for the Red Currant ; all that is 
necessary is the removal of superflous shoots, and preventing a crowded 
growth, as also the shortening back occasionally of branches to keep the 
plants shapely. Summer pruning may be practised with advantage in 
the case of either class, as it prevents a waste of energy. Rub off the 
surplus young shoots as soon as they have fairly started, but leave 
sufficient to provide ample foliage for shade, which is very essential to 
Currants. 

Propagation. 

Propagation may be effected by seeds, layers or cuttings, the latter 
being the method most usually practised. Seed is only used when new 
varieties are required, and ordinary cultivators seldom adopt this mode of 
raising plants. Seedling plants will bear the second or third year from 
the time of sowing, and their qualities are therefore soon ascertained. 
As a rule seedling Currants vary but little from their parents, though, as 
a matter of course, they differ occasionally. Plants can be readily 
obtained from layers, but this method of propagation is not practised to 
any large extent. The most general method is by cuttings, which should 
be selected from well ripened wood of the previous season's growth. The 
cuttings should be about twelve inches long, and these ought to be planted 
four eyes below ground, in rows about two feet apart, leaving a space of 
nine or ten inches between in the lines. Keep the ground free from 
weeds, mulch the surface, and if necessary, supply water. The following 
season the plants will be ready for the permanent plantation, or they can 
be allowed to remain f<ir another year if necessary, in which case the 
shoots must be shortened back and thinned out according to requirements. 

Varieties. 

There are many varieties in cultivation, but a limited selection will 
serve all practical purposes. The following list embraces most of the best 
sorts in each class :— 

Black Currants. 

Black Naples. — This is one of the finest and best in its class. Bunches 
short, and berries very large. Flavour good, and superior to most other 
varieties. Plant vigorous, hardy, and very prolific. 

Cartpys Black Champion. — This is a comparatively new English variety, 
which has become popular in Europe. Bunches and berries large, and 
fniit well flavoured. Strong in growth, and bears profusely. 

Kentish Hero. — X hardy and prolific varietj'-. Bunches a good size. 
Berries large and well flavoured. 

Lee's Prolific, — A. robust, very free-bearing variety. Bunches medium- 
sized. Berries large, uniform, and possessing a sweet, rich flavour. 



288 




Long-bunched lied. 





La Versaillaise 




Red Dutch. 



Cherry. 



289 




La Fertile. 



^Ylute Imperial. 

Ogdeiis Black {Black Grape). — This variety is 
somewhat more hardy than the Black Najyles, 
but not quite equal to it in quality. Bunches 
a fail size. Berries large, and of good quality. 
Plant very prolific. 

Red Cukeants. 



Victoria. 



Champagne {Pheasant's Eye). — This variety is remarkable for its large 
bunches of pale pink fruit, which appear to be intermediate between the 
Bed and White Dutch. Berries medium-sized, and very acid. 

Cherri/. — A robust, hardy variety, bearing short, thick bunches, and 
ipening earlier than most other kinds. Berries very large, deep red in 
colour, and rather acid in flavour. An excellent and prolific market 
variety. 

La Fertile. — A French variety, of vigorous, upright habit, and a very 
free bearer. Bunches long. Berries large, dark red, and similar in 
flavour to the Bed Dutch. 

La Hdtive. — This is a vigorous and prolific French variety, which 
matures early in the season. Bunches medium-sized. Berries large, 
dark red, and well flavoured. 



290 

Di VersaiUaise (Fertile d' Angers, Imperial Bed).— An excellent 
variety, of French origin, and one of the best Red Currants. Bunches 
long and heavy. Berries of the largest size, and well flavoured. Plant 
very prolific, vigorous in habit, with large foliage. 

Loiig-hiuiched Red [Wilmofs Red). — This is very hardy, robust, and 
productive variety, bearing bunches that are often six inches in length. 
Berries large, deep red, well flavoured, and mature rather late. 

Red Dutch (31 organ'' s Red, Red Grape). — An old and well-known 
variety, producing medium.sized bunches. Berries deep red, large, with 
a pleasant, subdued acid flavour. Plant hardy, upright in habit, and 
very productive. 

Victoria {Goliath, Houghton Castle, Rabi/ Castle). — This is an excellent 
and useful late variety, with very long bunches. Berries large, bright 
red, and somewhat more acid in flavour than the Red Dutch and most 
other kinds. An abundant bearer, and the fruit will hang longer after it 
is ri])e than most other sorts. Plant hardy, and spreading in habit. 

White Currants. 

Wlute Butch ( White Cyrstal, White Grape. White Leghorn). — This is 
decidedly one of the best of the white varieties. In habit, productivenes, 
and size of bunches it is similar to the Red Dutch, but the fruit is somewhat 
sweeter and ripens a little earlier. The berries are large yellowish white, 
transparent, and pleasantly flavoured. 

White Ivipei'ial. — A new variety, of high character, which has proved 
a useful acquisition. Bunches long and regularly set. Berries large, 
very transparent, and well flavoured, l^lant hardy, upright in habit, and 
very productive. 



CUSTARD APPLE. 

This name is applied to the fruit of various species of Anona, a genus 
that is the type of the order Anonaceae, or the Custard Apple family. 
They are evergreen shrubs or small trees, and most of them are natives 
of the West Indies. The name Custard Apple is most generally applied 
to Anona reticulata which attains a height of twelve to fifteen feet, and 
bears large rough-skinned fruit which has a consistance and flavour some- 
what similar to a custard, hence the name. Anona squamosa yields a 
fruit somewhat similar in appearance to the globe Artichoke, which is 
known as the Sweet Sop. It has a scaly rind and a rich luscious pulp 
that has been compared to clotted cream and sugar, with a flavour of 
cinnamon. Anona muricata, a small tree, is known as the Sour Sop. It 
has a large oval heart-shaped fruit with a greenish yellow skin and a 
whitish pulp, which in flavour is pleasantly compounded of sweetness and 
acidity. The whole plant has a flavour somewhat similar to that of the 
Black Currant. These species are extensively grown in India, the West 
Indies, and other tropical countries, their fruit being considered very whole- 
some and refreshing. Anona palustris, a medium-siz^d shrub, is the 



•J91 



Alligator Api^le of the West Indies. It has shining, smooth, heart-shaped 
fruit, which in flavour is vastly inferior to the other kinds, though it is 
sweetish and not unpleasant, but is strongly narcotic. The wood of this 
species is very soft and compressible, and is largely used as corks in the 
West Iiidies and ISouth America. Anotia cherimolia a Peruvian species 
yields the fruit known as the Cherimoyer. It is the hardiest of all the 
species, grows to the height of twelve to iifteen feet, has cheerful light green 
foliage, and highly fragrant flowers. The fruit when ripe is purple, with 
a rough skin, somewhat heart-shaped and has a sweet pleasant flavour. 
It is necessary that the fruit of any the species should be fully ripe or 
nearly so when gathered as taken off the trees too soon it lacks the proper 
flavours. A large proportion of Custard Apples sent from Queensland 
to the other colonies are gathered before they are sufliciently ripe, and 
they sutter materially in quality from this cause. Riper fruit, as a matter 
of course, will require greater care in packing, but it will obtain better 
prices, and cause many to become partial to Custard Apples who would 
not otherwise care for them. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

The true Custard Apple, as also the Sweet Sop, Sour Sop and Alligator 
Apple can only be cultivated in those parts of Australia where the climate 
is warm and moist. They are specially well adapted for the rich soils 
to be found in the Northern coast river districts. Shelter from strong 
winds is also essential to success. 

The Cherimoyer, being more hardy, Custarp Apple. 

can be cultivated successfully in 
sub-tropical regions, as also in New 
South Wales, South and West 
Australia, in mild localities where the 
frosts are verj^ slight. All the species 
require a rich deeply worked soil 
that can at all times be kept 
moderately moist, as the trees cannot 
withstand drought. In making a 
plantation the trees should be arranged 
in rows, leaving a space of about 
twenty feet between them. Care 
should be taken not to plant too 
deeply and it will be sufficient if the 
upper roots are merely an inch or l.—Sour Sop. 2.— Sweet Sop. 
so below the surface. Young trees 

should have their growth regulated from time to time, to get them into 
shape, but when they reach maturity they require but little pruning. 
It is a good plan to mulch the surface soil before the hot weatlier sets 
in, to conserve the moisture. Propagation is effected by seeds, which 
should be put in when fresh and covered about an inch deep, and layers 
which if put down in the autumn or early spring, soon make strong 
plants. Plants may be obtained from ripened cuttings of the current 
season's wood, which will .strike in sand under a glass 




292 

DATE. 

HiSTOflY. 

The Date is one of the most useful phmts to mankind in the warm arid 
regions of Africa and Asia, as it will thrive in localities where no other 
serviceable tree can grow. It is the only useful tree found upon the 
margins of the great African and other deserts, and it occupies large 
tracts of country exclusively. This plant also occupies the oasis or fertile 
spots in these deserts, and affords the only vegetation that is to be found 
in many of tho^e localities. It also furnishes the only food plant that is 
to be met with in these arid regions. Dates are the fruit of a Palm 
known to botanists as Fhwnix dactylifera which is indigenous to North 
Africa, Arabia, Egypt, Persia^ Palestine and other parts of Asia. It 
attains a height of from sixty to eighty feet, and exceptionally over one 
hundred. There are no branches, and the stems are surmounted with a 
crown of leaves. The Date Palm is dioecious, which means that there 
are both male and female plants, the flowers of the former being 
somewhat ths larger. T]ie flower branches or spikes spring from the 
base of the leaves and are at first enclosed in sheaths or spathes. A full- 
grown tree bears annually from six to ten bunches of fruit, each weighing 
from twelve to twenty pounds. Sometimes a single bunch will consist 
of over two hundred Dates, and yields up to four hundred weight are 
recorded, from a single tree. The Date Palm attains a great age, and it 
is said that plantations two hundred years old have yielded heavy crops. 

Uses. 

The Date Palm is utilised in a variety of ways in those countries 
where its cultivation is general. In Barbery, Egypt, Turkey, Arabia and 
Persia, Dates are the principal article of food for the bulk of the people. 
In fact the Date crops are of as much importance to the inhabitants of 
these countries as the grain harvest in other regions. When the Date 
harvest is secured there is great rejoicing and it is the principal operation 
from an fCgricultural point of view. The fruit is eaten fresh wlien in 
season, and dried for the remainder of the year. It is very nourishing a& 
it contains about »58 per cent of saccharine matter. Drying is effected 
by spreading the fruit upon mats and exposing it to the sun. For full 
details as to the process of drying, see special remarks upon the subject 
page 69. The fruit by pressure yields a rich syrup, which when mixed 
with water and fermented makes an intoxicating liquor, and from this a 
strong spirit is obtained by distillation. But not only does the Date 
Palm prove serviceable by means of its fruit, as its sap can also be 
utilized. This sap when dried yields sugar, by fermentation an 
intoxicating liquor, and when distilled a spirit known as arrack in India. 
The extraction of the sap however, is destructive to the trees, and is 
usually only practised with those that are unfruitful, or to reduce the 
number when they are growing too thickly. In extracting the sap 
the most usual method is to cut off the crowns when the plants are in 



293 

full growth. From a nuiture tree the sap will flow at the rate of about 
a gallon per day for the first fortnight, and at a gradually falling rate 
up to six weeks or two months. Arrangements are made for the reception 
of the sap as it exudes from the trees^ and the receiving vessels should 
be emptied daily. The Date Palm is utilized in various other ways, as 
the fibrous parts of the stems are made into coarse ropes, mats and 
baskets, and the leaves are turned to account for similar purposes. 
From the medullary portion of the stems a farinaceous substance 
resembling sago is obtained, though in small tpiantities. ~ 

Cultivation. 

The Date Palm is speciallj' suitable for cultivjition in the dry interior 
districts of x\ustralia included within the tropical or sub-tropical regions. 
It may also be grown successfully in warm districts outside of those 
regions, provided the winter temperature is not too low, and frosts are 
not troublesome. As an ornamental plant only the Date Palm may be 
cultivated successfully as far south as Victoria, but a higher winter 
temperature is necessary for the production of fruit. It is however well 
worthy of cultivation for ornament, as it is a very handsome plant. As 
an avenue tree in the hot dry districts it is to be commended, as its leaves 
afford a dense and grateful shade. This tree is not particular as to soil, 
and will thrive in poor sandy land where most other plants will refuse 
to grow. As a fruit-bearing tree it thrives best in regions where there 
is great heat and dryness in the atmosphere, but at the same time 
it likes a steady supply of moisture at the roots. It is a tree that is 
specially suitable for planting near to rivers, lakes and dams in the 
interior, and also alongside irrigation channels. The Date Palm will 
also thrive in land that contains a large proportion of salt, and in 
which few other trees can be grown In making a plantation the 
trees should stand not less than tyventy feet apart, and ought to be 
arranged in regular rows. If i^lants from oftsets or suckers are used 
they A\'ill begin to bear in five years, and yield full crops in ten years. 
When the plants are from seedlings it will be seven or eight years 
before they begin to bear. They are many varieties of Dates which 
differ considerably in the size, shape and colour of their fruit, as also 
the times of ripening. As yet, however, we have no reliable d<(ta as to 
the respective merits of the different varieties, as but a limited number 
have as yet been introduced to Australia, and these have not Jiad a 
thorough trial. As there are both male and female plants, there must, 
as a matter of course, be a proportion of the former in each plantation, 
in order to obtain fruit. Opinions vary somewhat upon this subject, 
but the writer would recommend one male tree to twenty. In order 
to ensure fruitfulness it is necessary to artificially fertilize the female 
flowers with the pollen from the male ones. This is done by cutting 
the spathes of the male flowers before they open, and placing pieces in 
the spathes of the fruit-bearing plants. 

PrOPACxATIOX. 

The Date Palm may be easily propagated either by seed or suckers. 



294 

Seedlings are, however, uncertain as to whether the plants will be male 
or female, and it is impossible to tell the ditlerence till they flower. 
Seeds should be planted an inch deep in light sandy soil. They may be 
sown at any time, but the most favourable periods are at the end of 
summer or in the spring. When three or four inches above ground the 
young plants should either be placed singly in small pots or transplanted 
into beds. The following season they will be ready for planting out 
permanently. The more reliable and most generally adopted means of 
propagation is by suckers that are freely produced at the base of the 
stems of old plants. These should be taken up carefully with as large 
a proportion of roots as possible, avoiding exposure to sun and 
wind. These sucker plants will be of the same sex as the trees they 
are taken from, and consequently planters can make sure of having 
them in due proportion. 



DATE PLUM. 

History and Uses. 

This fruit is obtained from a tree known botanically under the 
name of Diospyros kaki, and belonging to the natural ordei* Ebenacese, 
or the Ebony family, most of the species of Avhich are remarkable for 
the hardness and dark colour of their wood. The name is derived 
from dios (divine) and pyrus (a Pear) in allusion to the rich flavour 
of the fruit and the shape of some of the varieties. The common 
name Date Plum has originated from the adaptibility of the fruit for 
drying and packing in the same way as the Date. Very commonly 
the fruit are called Persimmons, but that name more propei-ly 
applies to the American species of the family, Avhich differ widely 
fi'om Diospyros kaki in appearance and uses. The Date Plum is 
peculiar to China and Japan, and is highly esteemed for its fruit in 
both these countries, where several varieties are cultivated exten- 
sively. Large quantities of the fruit are di'ied and preserved in the 
same way as Figs, and in this form the Date Plum is very popular. 
In fact many consider it to be greatly superior to the Fig. Several 
other species of Diospyros jield edible fruits, yet all of them are 
vastly inferior to the Date Plum. Diospyros decandro, found in 
Cochin China, bears a yellow fruit that is largely eaten by the 
natives. Diospyros edulis yields an edible fiuit, used in some parts of 
China and India. Diospyros lotus, a species common to the south of 
Europe and indigenous to the greater part of Asia, yields the ordinary 
Date Plum or Lotus, that famous fruit which, according to the 
traditions of the ancients, had the power of causing oblivion. The 
fruit in appearance is somewhat similar to black Cherries, is edible, 
and used both fresh and preserved. Diospyros Maboh, an cA^ergreen, 
shrubby species, jdelds the Mabola Plum of the Philippine Islands. 
The fruit of Diospyros melanoxylon, is eaten in some parts of India, 
though inferior to other kinds. An American species {Diospyros 



29o 

tcauta), indigenous to Mexico and Texas — a rather strong-growing 
tree— is said to yield a very palatable fruit when fully ripe. Anothei 
Amei'ican species {Diospifros virginiarm) — a strong-growing tree — 
which attains a height of sixty or seventy feet, is the true Ameiican 
Persimmon. The fruit is in appeai'ance something like a Medlar, 
and about the size of a Greengage Plum. It is not nearly equal to 
that of the Chinese Date Plum, but has a rich, sweet flavour when 
dead ripe. The wood of this and other species is valuable, and 
utilized for many purposes undei* the name of ebony or ironwood. 

Though the fmit of various species is utilized in different parts of 
the world, yet all are vastly inferior to the Chinese or Japanese 
Date Plum, the produce of Diospyros kaki. This species embraces a 
number of varieties, which vary considerably in size, shape, and 
depth of colour, as also in flavour. As this fruit has not been* 
generally cultivated in Australia the experience as to the relative 
meiits of the varieties introduced is too limited to arrive at positive 
conclusions at the present time. Some certainly appeal* to be 
vastly superior to others, but further expeidence regarding this 
fruit is necessary. It must also be remembered by cultivators 
that the fruit wants keeping for some days after it is gathered before 
it is eaten, to obtain it in perfection. If eaten direct from the tree, 
though apparently the fruit may be fully ripe, yet the flavour will 
be compai-atively poor, if not quite insipid. Many growers have 
made this mistake, and as a consequence the fruit has been condemned 
as being inferior to what it was expected to be. Though some- 
varieties will doubtless be found inferior to others, yet before dis- 
carding them the fruit should be tested when in the best possible 
condition, that is in about ten days or a fortnight after it is gathered.. 
Then again, the fruit should not be taken from the trees till it is; 
well ripened. The full richness and sweetness of flavour seems to 
depend upon chemical decomposition in the fruit. If wanted for 
drying the fruit must be treated the same, in order to fully develop 
its sweetness and flavour. Drying is easily affected by spreading the 
fruit upon trays and exposing to the sun, turning it several times,. 
pre\-iously removing the skins, Avhich are intensely astringent. For 
the same reason when the fruit is eaten fresh care should be taken 
that the inner part of the skin does not come into contact with the 
mouth. The dried fruit makes an excellent sweetmeat, and will 
doubtless become popular when it is more generally known. 

Cliltivation and Propagation. 

The Date Plum may be grown successfully in most parts of 
Australasia, but it will probably give the largest retuiiis in the medium 
warm districts. It is a deciduous tree, is somewhat slow in growth, does^ 
not attain a very large size, and commences to bear when four or- 
five years old. As the trees increase in age they bear more freely up 
to a certain limit, and as a rule, ai-e fairly prolific. Tlie ground 
should be deeply worked, and when necessary dminage must be 
proA'ided for, as the trees cannot thi'ive Avith an excess of water at 



296 

their roots. Planting may be done at any time during the Avinter, 
but the most favourable period is July or up to the middle of August, 
according to the localit}'. The distance apart should be from twenty- 
one to twenty-four feet, and care must be taken not to plant too 
deeply. Young trees should have their groAvth regulated so as to 
to obtain strong and well-formed specimens as soon as possible. 
Summer pruning may be practised with advantage with young trees. 
Older trees must have their growth regulated according to their 
requirements ; and, as the fruit is chiefly produced on the young 
growth, the last season's shoots should be shortened back and thinned 
out every winter. Keep the ground as free from weeds as possi])le 
by frequent light tillage, and before the hot weather sets in mulch 
the sui'face soil as far as the roots extend. Propagation is effected 
by seeds, layers, grafting, or budding. Seedlings will often come 
fairly true, but still there is a doubt about them, and they are mostly 
raised for stocks. They should be sown in shallow drills as soon as 
the fruit is ripe, covering them an inch deep. The next season the 
young trees should be planted in rows, leaving them nine or ten 
inches apart in the lines. The following year they will be i-eady for 
w'orking. Layers strike freely, but as a rule they do not make such 
durable and well-sha])ed trees as can be obtained by other means. 
Grafting and budding upon seedling stocks of their owii species are 
the uKjst generally |)ractised methods foi- perpetuating particular 
varieties. These operations are performed in the same way and 
times as is suitable for other deciduous trees. 



DURION. 

History and Uses. 

This is the Indian name of the fruit of Durio Zehethiniis, a robust 
ev^ergreen tree belonging to the order Sterculiaceae, whicn attains a 
height or seventy or eighty feet. It is indigenous to various parts of 
Southern Asia, and grows to great perfection in the ]Malayan 
Archipelago and the islands of the Indian seas. The flowers are 
pale yellow, produced from the main stems and largei- branches. 
The fruit is as large as a man's head, being generally about ten 
inches in length by about seven in breadth. It has a thick hard 
rind which is covered with warts and short strong pi-ickles. The 
inner portion consists of several cells Avhich contain the seeds and 
these are about the size of pigeon's eggs. The seeds ai-e surrounded 
by a thick cream- like substance which is the portion of the fi'uit 
that is utilized. The flavour of the fruit to persons unaccust(mied to 
it is at first most revolting, as its odour may be compai-ed to rotten 
onions, en* decaying animal matter. This sti'ong smell is caused by 
the presence of a large proportion of sulphuretted hydrogen. The 
feeling of disgust, however, soon passes away, and when that 
is overcome, it is generally admitted by those who have eaten 



297 



it, that the Durion is one of the most palatable fi-uits, and 
equal in flavour to the Mango. The fruit is in fact considered to be 
an exquisite delicacy, and in 
addition very nourishing and 
easy of digestion. It is a 
great favourite with the natives 
of Borneo, Sumatra, Java and 
Malaya Avho use it in large 
quantities. Europeans residing 
in those regions also become 
partial to it. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 
As the Durion is a native of 
moist tropical regions it can 
only be successfully cultivated 
in the warmest parts of 
Australia. It w^ould probably 
thrive in the coastal regions (jf 
Northern Queensland and 
North Australia. The most 
suitable localities are rich deep 

soils, bordering rivers or creeks where there is shelter from strong 
gales. Propagation is easily effected by seeds, which should be 
planted about two inches deep. They may be planted at any time 
of the year, but in the autumn or spring are the two most favourable 
periods. Plants may also be obtained from ripened cuttings of the 
current season's g-row th, with the leaves left on, which will strike 
freely in sand or light soil. 




Durion. 



EDIBLE ACORNS. 



Several species of Oak yield Acorns that are turned to good account 
as food for mankind in various countiies. Quercus Castanea, an 
evergreen American species, commonly know n as the Mexican Oak 
Chestnut, yields Acorns that are in flavour something like the 
Chestnut, and are used to some extent as food in Mexico. Quercus 
Garri/ana, a North West American species, commonly known as the 
Californian White Oak, has Acorns having a sw^eet agreeable flavour, 
which are eaten to some extent. This species attains a large size, 
and its timber is pale, hard grained, and very durable. Quercus Lohata, 
another species indigenous to North West America, known as the 
Sacramenta White Oak, has fairly sweet Acorns, which were formerly 
one of the staple articles of food with the aboriginal Indians.. The 
tree is tall and mde spreading, and its wood is of good quality. 
Quercus turbijietla, a shrubby species Avhich attains a height of only a 
few feet, has very sweet Acorns that are used as food. It is a native 
of California, and other parts of North West America. Quercus 
cuspidata, an evergreen tree of large proportions from Japan, bears 



298 

small Acorns in bunches which ai'e regulaidy sold as food in its native 
country. These Acorns have a sweet, pleasant flavour, and when 
baked taste somewhat like Chestnuts. Anothei' evergreen species, 
Quercus glabra, has Acorns that are largely used as food in its native 
country. Edible Acorns, largely used as food in China, ai-e obtained 
fix)m Quercus cornea, an evei-green tree of moderate growth indigenous 
to that counti'v. 

Cultivation a^d Propagation. 

All the species mentioned will thrive in the temperate regions in 
Australasia. They Avill also freely adapt themselves to various local 
condition of soil and climate. Though their cultivation as food- 
yielding trees for mankind would be of little practical value in this 
part of the woild, yet they might prove w^orthy of attention for 
feeding some classes of live stock. Pigs are remarkably fond* of 
Acorns, and all the species mentioned are relished by cattle, hoi-ses, 
and poultry. As ornamental trees all the species are w^orthy of 
attention, and are well adapted for parks and shrubberies. Some of 
them may also prove worthy of cultivation for the sake of their 
timber, which is highly appreciated in their native countnes. Pro- 
pagation is genei'ally effected by seeds which should be planted soon 
after they are I'ipe, covering them to the depth of two inches. Plants 
may be obtained from layers or cuttings, but these never make good 
ti'ees, which can onlv be obtained from seed. 



EGG PLANT. 

History. 

This plant, which also passes under the English names of Guinea 
Squash and Vegetable Egg, is know^n botanically as Solaanm melongena, 
and it belongs to the natui*al oi'der Solanacese. It embraces a number 
of varieties bearing blue or pm*ple flowers, and fruits varying con- 
siderably in shape, size, and coloui*. The one after which the plant 
is named is known as ovlgerum, its fruit in shape and colour bearing 
a perfect resemblance to a hen's eg^, though sometimes it is much 
larger. There are also purple, red, violet, yellow, and striped fruited 
varieties of various shapes. In Prance the fruit passes under the 
name of Aubergines, and in other places they are known as Bringals, 
Brinjals, and Begoons. In its natui-al state the species is very w^idely 
distributed, as it appears to be indigenous to India and various other 
parts of Asia, as also Northei'n Africa and Tropical America. Ac- 
cording to Bai*on von Mueller, *S'. insanum, S. longuni, S. serpintinicm, 
S. luidiitum, S. ferox. S. album, and S. j^sewlo-saponaceum are closely 
allied sjDecies, and may prove useful esculents. Solanum muricatmn, 
a shrubby South American species, known in Peru as the Pepino, 
may also prove serviceable. The fruit of this species is egg-shaped, 
about six inches in length, white with purple spots. 



299 

The commoii Egg Plant a|)])ears to have been cultivated in England 
as 6arly as the latter pai't of the sixteenth century according to 
histoHcal records. Gerard, in a work published in ir)96, says that 
the plant has somewhat doubtful qualities, and advises people to use 
it Avith cai'e, or to leave it alone altogether and be satisfied with such 
fruit as they know to l)e wholesome. This opinion was doubtless 
based upon the popular prejudice that formerly ])revailed in the 
United Kingdom against plants belonging to the vSolanum family, as 
they were all supposed to possess deleterious qualities. A closely 
allied species, Solanuui Insavnm (esculentum), was commonly known as 
the Mad oi- Raging Apple (Mala Tnsana) from its supposed identity 
with the Male Mandrake of the ancients, which is stated to have 
caused madness in those Avho ate it. Though these prejudices against 
the family gradually disappeared, yet, strange to say, though a useful 
esculent, the fi'uit of the Egg Plant has never come into general use 
in the United Kingdom. In France and other countries in Europe, 
however, the fruit is in general use, and large quantities are sold in 
the markets of Paris and other large cities, where they are as common 
as Tomatoes. The most popular varieties in Europe are the purple 
fruited kinds, which are more generally cultivated than others. The 
fruit is also extensively used in America, and more especially in 
Southern United States, where it is a common dish w^itli all classes of 
the community. In the Australasian Colonies the fruit of the Egg 
Plant is but seldom used, though it can be gi'own with little trouble. 
Sometimes plants are grown, but chiefly as curiosities owing to the 
curious appeai'ance of the fruit, and but comparatively few people 
appear to know its value for culinary purposes. 

Uses. 

The fruit of the Egg Plant can be used either when green or ripe. 
When used green the most common method is to boil it in the same 
way as a vegetable marrow, to which it has some resemblance in 
flavour. Sometimes the fruit is peeled, scored thickly with a knife, 
and oil poured over it to soak into the cracks, after which it is 
sprinkled w4th bread crumbs, salt, vinegar, pepper, and herbs being 
added to taste, and then it is baked. In Italy and France a common 
way of using the ripe fruit is to cut them in slices half-an-inch thick, 
and soak them in water eight or ten hours to remove the bitter 
flavour. The slices are then squeezed to press out as much of the 
juice as possible, parboiled, and afterwards fried in oil or butter with 
grated bread crumbs, seasoning of pepper, salt, and chopped herbs 
being added according to taste. Another popular way of using the 
fruit is to scoop out the insides and fry them in oil or butter, and 
boil the outsides whole. Wlien they become soft they are taken out 
of the water, the insides replaced, and then sent to the table. Some- 
times the fruit is simply cut in halves lengthways, the seeds removed, 
and the spaces filled wath chopped herbs and other seasoning, after 
which they are baked or fried. The ripe fruit of the Egg Plant can, 

T 



300 

if required, be kept for a considerable time, and will be found very 
serviceable as a winter vegetable. 

Cultivation. 

The Egg Plant may be cultivated successfully in all the Australasian 
Colonies. Independent of the value of the fruit for culinary purposes, 
the plants may be utilized to advantage for ornament in pleasure 
gardens. When used for this purpose their flowers are showy, and 
the bright-coloured and curiously-shaped fi'uit of most of the varieties 
is very effective in miscellaneous beds and borders. Any ordinary 
good garden soil is suitable for the Egg Plant, but it will only thrive 
to perfection in rich gi'ound. In preparing the land, manure should 
be used freely when necessary, and the ground deeply worked. It is 
essential in the cultivation of this plant for culinary purposes that 
growth should be strong and rapid. When grown as a crop the 
plants should be arranged in rows, four feet apart, leaving about 
three feet between in the lines. As the plants are tender, they 
cannot be safely planted out till all danger from frost has passed 
unless means are taken to protect them. The plants should be kept 
as free from weeds as possible, and more especially during the early 
stages of growth. Before the hot weather sets in it will be advisable 
to mulch the surface soil between the plants to conserve the moisture 
as much as possible. Should the plants show any tendency to make 
straggling growth, they must be kept within bounds by pinching 
back the shoots from time to time. As the plants require a steady 
supply of moisture, water should be used freely in diy weather, and 
growth will be materially assisted by the use of liquid manure 
occasionally, 

Propagation. 

As a rule the Egg Plant is propagated from seeds, though, if 
necessary, plants may be obtained from cuttings of the young shoots, 
which root freely in sand under a glass. Seed should be saved from 
the largest and most perfect fruits, which, as a rule are those that 
are first formed. The fruits must be allowed to get perfectly ripe 
before they are gathered. If required for home use the seed can be 
allowed to remain in the fruit till it is wanted, but, if necessary, it 
may be taken out, washed, dried, and packed away in paper bags. 
Seed will retain its vitality for about seven years, and will sometimes 
germinate when eight, nine, or ten years old. The seeds should be 
sown in rich, finely-prepared soil, covering them to the depth of half- 
an-inch. It is the better plan to sow it in pots or small frames 
rather than in the open ground. If early plants are required, and 
in many localities it will be an advantage to have them, they may 
be obtained by sowing in a hot bed as recommended for Cucumbers 
(see page 2ftl). Before putting them in the open ground, plants 
raised by artificial heat should be gradually hardened off, so that 
they will not be materially affected by the change. It will also be 



301 



advisable to shade fom the sun for a few days till the plants are 
established by sticking a few small branches round them, or in some 
other way. 

Varieties. * 

The following list embraces some of the best and most distinct 
varieties, of which there are many : — 

Blank Pekin. — A moderately robust variety , with large pyriform 
fruit. Colour, a very dee]) black-purple. ~ 




Blaek Pekin. 



LoBg Purple. 




White Fruited 



Large Purple. 



802 

Chiriese Lmig White. — Tliisis a late and soDiewliat tender kind, with 
pale green foliage. The fruit is Avhite, eight or nine inches in length 
and ahont two and a-luilf in diameter, more oi- less curved. 

Large Purple (America?/ Large Purj^Je^ Bound Purple). — This 
variety has remarkably large fi-uit from seven to eight inches long, 
and six or seven in diameter. Colour, deep purple, with occasional 
stripes of yellowish-green. The plant is hai-dy, compact in habit, and 
fruits ratliei- early in the season. 

Long Purple. — A hardy and prolific kind, Avith fruit from six to 
eight inches in length, slightly curved. Colour, light pur])le, usually 
marked or blotched Avith yelloAvish-green. Plant moderately hardy. 

Scarlet Fruited. — A handsome Aaiiety, Avitb brilliant scarlet fruit, 
which in shape and size is similai' to a lien's e^^. This variety is 
chiefly cultiAated as an ornamental plant, and seldom for culinary 
purposes. It is someAvhat tender in habit, and ripens late. 

White Fruited.— Th'm is the common vai-iety from Avhich the name 
is deriA'ed. The fruit is milk Avhite, similar in shape to a hen's egg, 
and ranges from three to tiAe inches in length, and fi-om tAvo to three 
in diameter. This is one of the earliest, hardiest, and most productiA'e 
varieties. 



ELDER. 

History and Uses. 

The European Elderberry is knoAvn botanically as Sarnhvcus nigtri 
and it belongs to the natural order Caprifoliacese, or the Honeysuckle 
family. The generic name is said to be deriA^ed from Sambnca, a 
musical instrument, some of the earliest of these l)eing made from 
the Avood of the Eldei-. The specific name nigrn is deiiAcd from the 
dark colour of the fruit. ScA'eral species of the family yield berries 
that are sometimes used for making Avine and medicinal j)urposes, 
but only to a small extent as comj)ai*ed Avitli the common Elder 
(S(fmbucus rtigra). This species is indigenous to the United Kingdom 
and many other parts of Europe, being a common plant in the foi-ests 
and hedgeiOAVs. It is a A-ery hardy plant, and Avill flourish in the 
most bleak situations, and at the same time its gi'owth is A^ery 
rapid, though, as a rule, it does not attain a large size, seldom 
exceeding tAventy feet, but, exceptionally, larger trees haAC been 
knoAvn. 

In England and some of the northei-n counti'ies of Europe it is a 
common practise to make Avine from the deep purple oi' black bennes, 
Avhicli are produced in great abundance. Elderberry Avine is a 
popular beverage Avith many during the Avinter season, being 
generally considered to be a comforting draught when warmed and 
spiced and taken before going to bed. It is also considered to he an 
excellent remedy foi- colds. From the Avine an excellent spirit can 
be obtained by distillation. Both the flowers and the bei'ries have a 
faint, sickly smell that is unpleasant and hurtful to some people, and 



:\0^ 

for this reason the Ekler should not be planted too near dwellings. 
Medicinally, the flowers, berries, leaves, and bark, are considered to 
be sei'viceable for certain complaints, though they are not in such 
high repute as they were formerly. The berries at one time held 
high rank among the remedies for fever, gout, i-heumatism, and 
cutaneous disorders. Both tlie berries and flowers act as aperients. 
The beri'ies are also reputed to possess narcotic properties to some 
extent. The flowers are used as a fomentation and in the preparation 
of cooling ointments. To a large extent tliey ai-e also used by- 
distillation in the preparation of Elder flower water, which is a 
popular application in cases of inflammation and cutaneous eruptions. 
The bark of the Eldei* is strongly purgative, and was formerly 
considered to be a sovereig-n remedy for di-opsy. When boiled in 
lard the leaves form a good unguent, formerly in general use by 
farriers. They are not touched by horses or cattle, but sheep will 
sometimes, eat them. They are obnoxious to many of the smaller 
insects, and assist in keeping them away. Branches hung up in 
dwelling-houses or stables will, to some extent, mitigate the pest of 
flies in summer, and when placed about the heads of hoi-ses the 
animals get great relief. An infusion of the leaves makes an 
excellent insecticide for aphides, thi-ips, red spider, and mealy bug*. 
The leaves are also said to banish moles and mice and other vermin. 
When young the wood of the Elder is brittle, bat with age it 
becomes hard and tough and can be utilized for various purposes 
where these qualities are desirable. Owing, however, to the large 
propoi'tion of spongy pith, it does not take rank among timber trees. 

Other species whose fruits are utilized are Samhucus australis a 
native of South America Somhucus canadensis^ (Canadian Elder) a 
robust species indigenous to North Eastern America which is used to 
make a wine, and has also valuable medicinal qualities. Samhucus 
glauca is the Califoiiiian Elder, a robust species which attains a 
height of about twenty feet and is very prolific. The fruit is used to 
some extent in its na.tive country in the same way as the common 
Eldei'. Samhucus Gaitdichaudiana an Australian species found in all 
the colonies except West Australia, and Samhucus xanthocarpa^ 
indigenous to Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland, yields 
sweetish fruit that is eaten by the aboriginals. 

Though the Elder flourishes in man}^ parts of Australasia, and 
more especially in the cooler regions, yet its value seems to be 
altogether ignored. Trees are by no means uncommon, and the 
writer has come across veiy fine specimes in various localities, but 
the fruit or flowers are seldom utilized as in Europe. As a rule it is 
simpl}' grown as an ornamental plant, and growers seem to have no 
knowledge as to its economic value. Possibly in time it will receive 
gi^eater attention, and will be utilized as in other countries. 

Cultivation and Pboi'agation 

The Elder ^vill grow in any ordinary soil, and its cultivation is 
very simjde. Prepare the gi-ound as for other trees, and, if a regular 



804 

plantation, set tlie plants out about twenty-one feet apai-t. The 
plant, however, does well as a hedge, and makes an excellent 
breakwind for the more tender fruits. When requii-ed as a hedge it 
may be planted five or six feet apart, and the plants must be Avell 
cut back for a year or two to induce a bushy bottom growth. 

Propagation is most usually effected by cuttings which strike 
finely in sand or light soil. They should be from twelve to fifteen 
inches long, and must be put in just befoi'e spring commences. 
Plants can also be readily obtained from layei-s which may be put 
down at any time Avhen growth is active. Bat little pruning is 
required, all that is necessary being to thin the branches when too 
numerous and to regulate growth to effect other objects. 



ELEPHANT APPLE. 

The fruit known under this name is the product of an evergreen 
small tree belonging to the order Aurantacea?, or Orange family, and 
known to botanists as Feronia elepha'nhim. It is a nati\'e of Southern 
India, and has bluish- white flowers. The name is derived from 
Feronia, the Goddess of forests, in allusion to the natural^ habitat of 
this tree. The fi^uit is the size of a large Apple, and has a hard, woody 
rind, with numerous seeds embedded in a pulp that is pleasantly sub- 
acid, with a flavour somewhat similar to the Bhel Fruit or Bengal 
Quince. 

Being a native of a warm country the Elephant Apple can onl}- be 
successfully cultivated in the tropical regions of Australia. As a 
commercial fruit it is scarcely woi'th cultivating, but in congenial 
localities it is Avoi-thy of attention as an ornamental tree. It requires 
an open soil, lich in vegetable matter, and must be sheltei'ed from 
high winds. Propagation is easily effected by seeds, Avhich should be 
sown when fi-esh, covering them an incli deep. Plants may also be 
obtained from layers and cuttings of the ripened wood of the current 
season's gi'owth. Avhich strike freely in sand^ under a glass. 



EUGENIA. 

History and Uses. 

Several species of Eugenia, a genus belonging to the natural order 
Myrtacece or Myrtle family, yield edible fruits of more or less value, 
which are utilized in various parts of the world. They are all 
handsome evergreen shrubs or small trees, and are rather widely 
distributed, species being found in Australia, Polynesia, India, South 
Africa, Ceylon, and South America. In some of the countries to 
which they are indigenous several of the species are regarded as 
useful fruits, but in Australia, though several are cultivated as 
ornamental plants, they are not utilized in any other way. Though 



305 

some of the species belong to ti'opical countries, and are tlierefore too 
tender for cultivation in the Southern Colonies, yet there are several 
natives of cooler regions that thrive well in all but very cold districts. 
These may be worth trpng, and though they may not prove quite 
satisfactory as fruit-bearing plants, yet their ornamental appearance 
Avill make them attractive as evergreen ti'ees or shrubs. The fruits 
of the various species diffei* considerably in size, colour, and flavour, 
some being as large as small Apples, while others are only the size of 
Currants. The relative value of the fruits of many of the specjes 
have not been precisely ascertained, and it is possible, by hybridi- 
zation and careful culture, to impi'ove upon the original kinds, as 
has been done with many other fruits 

The principal fruits obtained from this family are what are 
know^n as Rose or Malay Apples, which are the products of Eugenia 
Jambos {Jambosa vtilgaris) and Eugenia Malaccensis), Indian species. 
These bear fruit sometimes as large as small Apples, the pulp of 
which is juicy, wholesome, and agreeable. These and other tropical 
species, can only, as a matter of course, be cultivated in the warmer 
parts of Australia, and therefore are not likely to receive much 
attention in other regions. Eugenia unijfora (Michelii), a South 
American species known as the Bi*azilian Cherry, with frait the size 
of Cherries, is more hardy, and will grow in the medium warm 
districts where frosts are not severe. It is a handsome oi'naniental 
evergreen. Eugenia Ugni, a Chilian species, yields a fruit that is 
veiy popular in its native country, and largely cultivated. It bears 
small dull purple fruit about the size of a marble, and yields a 
pleasantly flavoured pulp and an aromatic juice, Avhich when mixed 
with water makes a refreshing drink. This species is an evergreen 
shrub which will thrive in all the milder districts. Eugenia 
myrti folia (australis) is a handsome Australian species w^liich attains 
the size of a large shrub. It bears oval, crimson, small fruit which 
is juicy, acidulous, and very palatable. The tree is very ornamental, 
and may be grown successfully in all the milder districts. Eunenia 
Smithii, {}ff/rtu,s Smithii,) another Australian species, is the "Lilly 
Pilly " of New South Wales. It has small waxy white fruit that is 
edible but inferior to other kinds, yet its handsome foliage makes it 
a desirable ornamental shrub. It is one of the hardiest species and 
will thrive in all but the cold distiicts. 

Among the many other species of Eugenia that yield edible fruits 
worthy of attention. Baron von Mueller, in his valuable work 
" Select Plants for Industrial Cultui'e," makes the following selection, 
Eugenia Hallii, a Peruvian sjjecies with lai'ge fruit. Eugenia Jamhohwa^ 
a S})ecies indigenous to Southern Asia, Polynesia, and Eastern 
Australia, w ith fruit the size of Cherries. Eugenia cordifolia^ a species 
from Ceylon, with fruit about an inch in diameter. Eugenia mahoides a 
species from Bi-azil, with fruit the size of small Chei-ries. Eugenia 
Nhanica., a Brazilian species with fruit the size of large Plums. This is a 
popular table fruit in its native country. Eugenia pifriformis, another 
Brazilian species with large palatable peai'-shaped fruit known in 
Brazil undei* the name of Uvalho de Campo. Eugenia revoluta, a 



306 

species from Ceylon, where it grows in elevated regions, with fruit 
the size of a lai'ge Cherry. Etigema rotundifolia^ this species is also 
from elevated I'egions in Ceylon, growing to an attitude of 8000 feet, 
and has fruit as large as a Cheiiy. Eugenia supra-axillaris a 
Bi'azilian species with large palatable fruit commonly known in its 
native country under the name of " Tata." Eugenia Zeyheri^ this is 
a robust South African species which attains a height of about 
twenty feet and bears fruit the size of Cherines. It must also be 
stated that the fi'uits of any of the before-named kinds make 
an excellent conserve, similar to that made from the Guava, to Avhich 
they are closely allied. 

Cultivation ani> Propagation. 

Any of the hardier Eugeniaa may be cultivated without difficulty 
in congenial localities. They will not stand sevei-e frosts, however, 
and must be sheltered from the effects of strong Avinds. Any faii'Iy 
good soil is suitable for them, but they will thrive best in a rich 
sandy loam. The ground should be well pj-epared, and drainage 
provided where necessary. If planted in shrubberies cai-e must be 
taken that sti'onger trees do not interfere with the growth of the 
plants. Keep the ground as clean as possible, and mulch the sui-face 
before the hot weather sets in, which will materially assist the plants. 
Seeds may be sOAvn at any time, covering them an inch deep. When 
large enough to handle, the gTowing plants should be potted off 
singly, or planted out in beds, whei-e they must be kept till the 
following season. The quickest Avay of obtaining plants is by layers, 
which may be put down in the spring or late in the summer. 
Cuttings of the i-ipened wood of the previous season's growth will 
strike in sand or light soil, if placed under a handglass, and be fit for 
planting out the following season. 



FIG 

History and Usks 

Botanically the Fig is known under the name of Ficus^ the origin of 
which is unknown, and it belongs to the natural order Urticacese, or 
the Nettle family. The edible Fig of commerce is Ficjs Carica, a 
species indigenous to the greater portion of Asia and Northern Africa. 
It has been naturalized in the south of Europe from time immemorial, 
and ranked among the necessities of life with the nations of antiquity. 
The Fig appears to have been a popular and generally used fruit with the 
Hebrews, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. By the ancient Jews this 
fruit appears to have been highly valued, as it is frequently mentioned in 
Bible history from the time of Moses. In Greece when Lycurgus decreed 
that the Spartans should dine in a common hall, Figs were included in 



307 

{he contributions that each individual had to make to the general stock. 
The Athenians considered this fruit to be of such great importance to 
the welfare of the community that they prohibited its export. This 
decree, however, was not generally popular, and was so frequently 
evaded that it became necessary to employ officials specially to detect 
breaches of the law. These officers were called Hukophanti (meaning, 
literally, discoverers of Figs), which in time became a term of 
reproach. From this name the English word sycophant is said to be^ 
derived. According to ancient historians, the Fig was always carried 
immediately after the Grape vine in the processions in honor of Bacchus, 
the god of wine. This deity was supposed to derive his vigour and 
corpulence from eating Figs as well as drinking wine. Saturn, one of 
the ancient deities, who was supposed to have introduced agriculture into 
the Roman states, was always represented with a crown of Figs. 
Cleopatra, the most luxurious of queens, is said to have had the asp, 
which deprived her of life, introduced in a basket of Figs. Among the 
Romans the opinion prevailed that plants had their sympathies and 
antipathies, and, according to Pliny, they were in the habit of planting 
rue near their Fig trees. This practice, he informs us, caused the fruit 
to be sweeter, while at the same time the rue would grow with more 
than ordinary luxuriance and have a more intensely bitter taste* 

Great medicinal virtues were attributed to the Fig by ancient nations. 
According to Pliny, among the Romans the fruit was considered to be 
the best restorative food, for persons recovering from sickness, and he 
tells us that '' Figs increase the strength of young people and preserve 
elderly ones in good health, making them look younger and preventing 
wrinkles." He further informs us that "Figs were considered to give 
corpulency and strength, and that it was usual with the athletes in the 
public games to eat large quantities." This writer also tells us that in 
his time no less than twenty-nine distinct varieties of Figs were known 
and cultivated by the Romans. In modern medicine the fruit is 
considered to be demulcent and laxative. When (piite ripe the fruit 
becomes highly flavoured^ and is very wholesome and digestible when 
eaten in moderate quantities. If it is eaten too freely, or if the fruit is 
not thoroughly ripe, some people are apt to suffer from flatulence or 
diarrhoea. Sometimes the fruit is eaten to remove habitual costiveness ; 
and, when split and roasted, Figs are often used as poultices for ulcers. 

The Fig is said to have been introduced to England in the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, during the reign of Henry YIII. Probably, however, 
it was introduced at a much earlier date by the Romans, when they invaded 
the country. Being more tender than many other fruits, and requiring 
protection in cultivation, it never became popular with the bulk of the 
people in any part of the United Kingdom. In fact, according to the 
old writers, this fruit appears to have been held in great contempt in 
England, and this is how such expressions as " Not worth a Fig," and 
" A Fig for such rubbish," had their origin. These expressions are used 
up to the present time, and are frequently heard. It is said to have 
been the custom of the Italians and Spaniards of the middle ages to give 
poisoned Figs to those upon whom they wished to have revenge, and 



808 

probably this practice may have been the cause of vulgar prejudice that 
formerly prevailed against this fruit in England. This prejudice, 
however, no longer exists in that ctmntry, where the fresh fruit is now 
largely used for dessert, and is highly esteemed by most people. In the 
south of Europe, throughout Asia and a considerable portion of Africa, 
dried Figs is an important item in the diet of the inhabitants. They are 
also an important article of commerce in some countries, and more 
especially France, Spain, Italy, Turkey, and Syria. 

The process of drying is simple, and easily carried out. In the 
countries where the Fig is an article of commerce, the practice is to 
gather the fruit when it is perfectly ripe and dip it in a scalding-hot lye 
made with the ashes of the tree. The fruit is merely dipped, and not 
allowed to stand in the lye, after which it is spread out on trays or 
mats and exposed to the sun. The fruit mu>»t be turned daily till it is 
thoroughly cured, taking care that it is not exposed to the rain or night 
dews. When the fruit is sufficiently dry it must be piled loosely in 
boxes or casks lor two or three days. After this is done the Figs should 
be tightly packed in layers in small boxes or dmms, in which they are 
sent to market. Another method of drying, practised to some extent, is 
to plunge the fruit into a boiling syrup of sugar for about two minutes 
and then dry in the usual way. The practice of drying in slow ovens 
has been introduced of late years, and more especially in America, by 
growers on a large scale. This plan is no doubt the most ecDUomical, 
easiest, and surest method of curing, as the grower has the most perfect 
control over his fruit, and the process can go on uninterruptedly through 
changes of the weather. On the other hand, however, sun-dried fruit, 
when carefully prepared, is generally superior to that which is manu- 
factured by artificial heat. 

The Fig may be grown successfully in nearly every part of Australasia, 
and its cultivation should be more general than it is at present It is 
one of those fruits that are likely to prove of great value in the future. 
For the fresh fruit the demand will always be somewhat limited, as in 
that state the Fig only keeps a short time, and its carriage is difficult for 
long distances. Probably, however, better and more certain supplies 
for our local markets may induce a larger consumption. In the pro- 
duction of dried Figs there is a wide field open to the energies of 
cultivators residing in favourable localities. The Fig is a fruit specially 
well adapted for the warm interior districts of Australia, where it 
flourishes as well as in any other part of the world and yields heavy 
crops. As yet growers have scarcely turned their attention to this 
industry, but the results obtained by a few enterprising pioneers show 
clearly that there is a great deal to be done in this direction. There is 
no reason whatever why growers should not make the drying of Figs an 
important business, and they will always be likely to command good 
markets for their produce. Even to supply the local demand, which is 
now met from outside sources, a considerable quantity of fruit is 
required. Then after this demand has been supplied, there ought to be 
no great difficulty in finding good markets elsewhere for any surplus that 
we may raise. 



809 
Cultivation 

Any fairly good soil is suitable for the Fig, and it does equally well 
in neavy or light land. The land should be well worked if of a heavy, 
retentive character, but in light, porous soils deep stiring is not so 
essential. Drainage must be provided for when necessary, as the Fig, 
even more than many other trees, is impatient of its rov>ts standing for 
a length of time in soddened ground. Fully-developed trees, when 
growing under favourable coaditions, will attain a height of from 
twenty to twenty-flve feet, and must not stand closer than from twenty 
four to twenty-seven feet if it is desired that they should grow to the 
largest size. Some growers, however, do not care about large trees, and 
prefer those that are more dwarf in habit. There is some reason in this 
preference, as dwarf trees are more easily managed in gathering the 
fruit and other respects. Dwarf trees are also more suitable for small 
places, where a number of fruits are required upon limited areas. Trees 
may in a great measure be kept down by severe root pruning and 
avoiding highly stimulating manures. The most favourable time for 
planting is in July, though it may be done at any time between the fall 
of the leaf and the starting of growth in the spring. 

The Fig requires but little in the way of pruning when the trees 
reach maturity if growth has been properly regulated previously. Young 
trees, as a matter of course, must have their branches thinned out or 
shortened, in order to get a strong w^oody growth and heads of the 
desired form. Sometimes, owing to local circumstances — such as a very 
rich soil, using manure too freely, or the natural vigour of the variety — • 
trees will make a rampant growth of wood, and produce but little fruit. 
This is a very common thing with Figs, and the evil can only be 
counteracted by root pruning, which should be done before growth 
commences. By adopting this plan the growth of over-luxuriant trees 
will be materially checked, and in most cases their fruitfulness is 
increased. 

The Fig always produces two, and sometimes three, crops of fruit, 
which are borne upon -wood of various ages. As a rule the second 
crop is the largest, and yields the best fruit. Fructification occurs in 
a somewhat singular manner, there being no visible flowers, and fruit 
rises from the A\-ood in the shape of small buds. These are perforated 
at the ends, but do not show^ the organs of fructification, which are 
concealed within. As the fruit enlarges the flower comes to maturity 
in its concealment. The pollen, being confined in this manner, requires 
the assistance of insects to disperse it, as wn'thout this help the fruit 
becomes abortive and drops off early. European cultivators assist in 
bringing about fertilization, or caprification as it is termed, ])y inserting 
straws, w^hich have been dipped in olive oil, to mix the pollen. In 
Turkey and Syria the opei'ation is assisted by hanging branches of 
the wild Fig in the trees. These wild Figs are infested with a species 
of cynips, which, in its winged state, penetrates the cultivated fruit, 
and so effectively disperses the pollen. This insect, which is known 
as BJastophaga psnes, {grossum) and commonly as the Caprification 



310 

Insect, has been introdnced to New South Wales at the instigation 
of Baron Von Mueller and the Australian Association for the 
Advancement of Science. It should be known howevei-, that some 
good authorities are doubtful as to the vakie of this insect to the 
cultivators of Figs. 





Prepared Cutting. 



Plants from Cuttings. 







Flute or Annular Budding, 



As in the case of other fruits, the Fig does best when its roots have 
not to contend with an undergTowth of weeds. The gi'ound should, 
therefore, be kept as clean as possible by fretjuent scarifying- and 



311 

hoeings, taking care not to distui'l) tlie roots to any great extent. 
Before the hot weather sets in, let tlie ground be mulched thi-ee or 
four inches deep, to check rapid evaporation and conserve moisture as 
much as possible. The Fig tree is a rather strong feedei;, and, if 
necessary, must be kept in good heart by the use of manure occasionally. 
Manure in large quantities, howe\'er, or when of too forcing a nature, 
is apt to cause over- luxuriance in growth, which is not desirable. 
When gi'own under favourable conditions the Fig is naturally a very 
long-lived tree. The first trees introduced from Italy to England 
by Cardinal Pole in 1525, and planted it in the grounds of Lambeth 
Palace, wei-e alive and floui-ishing but a few years ago. They were 
of the kind known as tlie White Marseilles, and when over three 
hundred years old bore excellent ci-ops of fi'uit. Another tree of tlie 
same variety brought from Aleppo by a Dr. Pocock was planted at 
Oxford in 1648, and up to 1819 it was in a flourishing condition, 
bearing heavy croj^s. INfany othei' well authenticated records exist 
of Fig trees attaining great ages. The wood of the Fig tree is light 
and spongy, and but of little value commercially. In the south of 
Europe it is sometimes used, when charged with oil, for polishing 
iron and steel. Foi'iiierly it was extensively used by the Egyptians 
in embalming the bodies of their dead. 

Propagation. 



Propagation is effected by seeds, eyes, cuttings, layers, grafts, buds, 
and suckers. Seeds will vegetate freely as a rule, and the plants 
generally come fairly true to their parents, but they are several years 
before they fruit. Cuttings root freely in sand or light soil, and 
produce vigorous, well-shaped plants. Those of last season's wood, 
ten or twelve inches long, should be selected, and planted in rows 
about thirty inches apart, leaving a space of a foot between in the 
lines. Insert the cuttings about half their depth in the soil. 
Layers root i-eadily, and very good plants may be obtained b}' this 
means. If desirable, plants may also be obtained fi-om single eyes, 
with a fair portion of wood attached, and planted two or three inches 
deep. This method, however, is only serviceable in allowing particular 
varieties to be propagated more quickly than could be done in the 
ordinary way. Suckei-s are freely produced, and plants obtained by 
this means are those mostly used. Grafting may be pi-actised, as also 
budding, both methods being useful in perpetuating varieties (juickly 
and in substituting better for inferior kinds. What is known as 
annular, flute, oi- whistle budding is popular with European gardeners 
in propagating Figs. Full dii-ections are given at page 21 for practising 
this method. Probably if the j)ractices of grafting and budding were 
more genei-ally adopted with the Fig, as vWth most other fruits, it 
would be an advantage to gi'owers. Varieties of fruits are often 
altered materially in chai*acter by the influence of the stocks upon 
which they are worked, and doubtless the Fig may be acted upon 
by the same means. 



312 

Varieties 

The varieties of the Fig are numerous, and the following selection 
embraces most of those that are reputable. The list includes several 
French, Italian, and Spanish varieties that are reputed to be specially 
well adapted for drying, but which, as far as the writei* is a\vai*e of, 
have not been introduced to the Austi-alasian Colonies. 

Bee de Perdrix. — A Spanish variety, with highly flavoured fruit, 
rather below medium size, pyriform in shape, and an excellent Fig 




Brown Ischia. 




White Adriatic. 





Brown Turkey. 



Smyrna. 



\ 



813 

for drying. Skin dark purple, with a rich bloom. Flesh dark rose 
coloured, firm, sugary, and jnicy. Tree moderately vigorous, and a 
free bearer. 

Black Boiirjassotte (Precoce Noire). — A very early French variety, 
with medium-sized, roundish oblate fruit. Skin quite black, and 
thickly covered with a blue bloom, cracks in lines when fully ripe. 
Flesh deep red, firm, syrupy, and very highly flavoured. Tree 
vigorous and prolific. ~ 

Black Genoa (Nigra). — This variety, which is supposed to be of 
Italian origin, bears large oblong fruit, very broad at the apex, and 
slender towards the stalk. Skin deep purple-black, covei'ed thickly 
with bloom. Flesh deep red, juicy, sweet, and well flavoui'ed. Tree 
very robust, hardy, and prolific. 

Black Ischia (Blue Ischia). — An Italian vaiiety, with medium-sized 
turbinate fruit, flattened at the top. Skin deep purple-black. Flesh 
deep red, sweet, and luscious. Tree hardy, very prolific, and bears at 
:an early period of growth. Fruit ripens a little after the Black 
Genoa. 

Black Provence (Black Marseilles). — A French variety, with 
roundish oblong fruit, rather below the medium size. Skin brownish- 
black. Flesh red, tender, very sweet, and luscious. Tree hardy, 
very prolific, and bears at an early age. Ripens rather early. 

Bordeaux (Vwlette, Violette de Bordeaux).— A. desirable French 
variety, with large, long pyriform fruit. Skin black, thickly covered 
with bloom, and when dead ripe splits in lines. Flesh yellowisn-red, 
tender, juicy, and sweet. Tree robust, and a moderately good bearer. 

Brown Ischia. An excellent Italian variety, with medium-sized 
roundish fruit, which ripens early. Skin light chestnut brown. Flesh 
reddish-purple, very sweet, and highly flavoured. Fruit somewhat liable 
to crack and burst in wet seasons. Tree hardy and robust, and a heavy 
bearer. 

Brown Turkey {Blue Fig, Blue Burgundtf, Brown Italian, Brown 
Naples). — This is a popular Fig of Italian origin, with large oblong or 
pyriform fruit, whicli ripens early. Skin brownish- red, covered with a 
thick blue bloom. Flesh red, very sweet, and luscious. Tree very 
hardy, and a regular and abundant bearer. 

Brunsioick Black (Naples, Broivn Ilamhurgh). — This is an excellent 
variety of doubtful origin, and one of the best of the dark-skinned sorts. 
Fruit large and pyriform. Skin deep vioiet-brown. Flesh reddish-pink, 
sweet, and richly flavoured. Tree very hardy and prolific. 

Castle Kennedy. — This is an old and popular variety in the United 
Kingdom, and derives its name from Castle Kennedy in Scotland, where 
it has been cultivated for considerably more than a hundred years. The 
fruit is very large, obovate in shape, and remarkable for its earliness, 
being ripe several days before most other kinds. Skin pale dingy-brown 
mottled with grey. Flesh pale, with slight stains of red in the centre, 
tender, sweet, and fairly well flavoured. Tree hardy, of vigorous habit, 
^nd an abundant bearer. 

Col di Signora Blauca. — An Italian variety of high quality, said to be 



314 

well adapted for drying. Fruit medium-sized, pyriform, with a rather 
long neck. Skin thick, yellowish-green, thickly covered with bloom. 
Flesh deep-red, firm, syrupy, and very highly flavoured. Tree said to be 
robust and prolific. 

Cot di Signora ^ero. — Another excellent Italian variety, that ripens 
late, and said to be specially suitable for drying. Fruit above medium 
size, long, and pyriform. Flesh very dark red, and exceedingly sugaiy 
and highly flavoured. Tree reputed to be vigorous, and a free bearer. 

D'Or de Laura. — A. French variety, said to be excellent for drying. 
Fruit rather under medium size, oblong. Skin yellowish-green. Flesh 
richly flavoured and sugary. Tree reputed to be hardy and prolific. 

Early Violet. — A variety of doubtful origin, with small roundish fruit, 
which ripens very early in the season. Skin reddish-brown, with a thick, 
blue bloom. Flesh red, and well flavoured. Tree hardy, remarkably 
prolific, bears early, and generally three serviceable crops. Though the 
fruit is small, this variety is valuable for its earliness and freedom in 
bearing. 

Malta (Small Brown). — A small but very richly flavoured variety of 
doubtful origin, suitable for drying, whose fruit will hang on the trees 
till it gets shrivelled, when it becomes a pleasant sweetmeat. Fruit 
roundish, and ripens late. Skin pale brown. Flesh pale brown, and 
very sweet. Tree fair, vigorous, and bears freely. 

Pean Dure {Peldure), — Another French variety, said to be admirably 
well adapted for drying. Fruit medium-sized, pyriform, with a short 
neck. Skin pale yellowish-green. Flesh pale red, sweet, firm, and rich. 
Tree fairly robust and prolific. 

Smyrna. — A variety with medium-sized, or under, sweet, richly 
flavoured fruit. This variety is one of the best drying Figs, and largely 
used for the purpose. It is, however, doubtful whether the true variety 
has yet been introduced to Australasia. 

White Adinatic. — This name has been given by the Americans to an 
excellent Italian variety which is known in its native country^ as Fico di 
Fragola, or the Strawberry Fig. It is a hardy, robust, and prolific 
variety. Fruit above medium size, pyriform, with medium neck and 
shoi-t stalk. Skin yellowish- green, and very thin. Flesh Strawberry-red, 
when dry a pale yellow, very sweet and rich. A good variety for 
drying. 

White Genoa, (Large White Genoa). — An Italian variety, with large 
roundish obovate fruit. Skin pale greenish-brown. Flesh pale red, 
sweet, and highly flavoured. Tree less hardy than some kinds, and bears 
moderately well. 

]Vhite Ischia (Green L'fchia). — Another Italian variety, with small 
roundish fruit, which ripens a little late. Skin pale yellowish-green. 
.Flesh reddish-purple, very sweet, and luscious. Tree small in habit, 
bears very early, and is remarkably prolific. 

White Marseilles (Rahy Castle, White N^aples, White Standard). — An 
excellent French variety, with round fruit rather above the medium size. 
Skin yellowish-green. Flesh pale brown, juicy, sugary, and very highly 
flavoured. 



iNoex^ 



VOL. 1. 

The Scmntific Names and Synonyms are printed in Italics. 



Mr A 

Aboh 


113 


„ Cranberry 


273 


A chras australis 


202 


., Dewberry 


221 


A dansonia digit a ta 


213 


Amygdalis amara 


106 


„ Gregorii 


214 


,, communis 


105 


^gle Marmetos ... 


217 


,, dnlcis ... 


lOG 


African Almond ... 


104 


Anacardiun occidentale . 


243 


„ Bread Frnit 


227 


Analysis of Fruit Ashes . 


34 


Akee 


104 


Anchovy Pear 


108 


A Igaroba ... 


239 


Anona Cherimolia 


291 


Alligator Apple 


291 


„ muricata ... 


290 


„ Fear 


209 


„ palustris ... 


290 


Alkaline Wash . . . 


98 


„ reticulata ... 


290 


Almender ... 


225 


„ squamosa ... 


290 


Almond 


105 


Aphides 


77 


Almonds, Variet 


[ES. 


Apple 

„ Bettle 

„ Borer Beetle 


109 
121 
122 


llrand's Jordan ... 


107 


Jordan 


107 


,, Moths 


'. 122 


Ladies Thin-shell ... 


107 


,, Root Borer 


122 


Large-fruited Sweet 


107 


Scab 


124 


Large Paper-shell 


107 


„ Scale 


124 


Pistache 


107 






Soft-shelled Sweet ... 


107 


Apples, Vabietie 


s. 


Sultana 


108 


Adam's Pearmain ... 


131 


Sweet Hard-shell el 


107 


Ailes 


131 


Tender shelled 


107 


Albermarle Pippin 


189 






Alexander ... 
Alfriston ... 


148 
133 


Alluvial Soils 


25 


American Blight ... 


120 


Allanbank Seedling 


133 



II. 



American Golden Pippin ... 


133 


Buff ... 


American Golden Russet . . . 


133 


Bulloch's Pippin ... 


American ^ewtoivn Pippin 


109 


Bullock's Seedling ... 


Amen can Red Juneating ... 


147 


Buncombe ... 


American Summer Pearmain 


133 


Butters' Woodpecker 


Anglesea Pippin ... 


176 


Burlivgton 


Annie Elizabeth ... 


134 


Burliriqton Greening 


Api 


161 


Caldwell 


Aporta 


148 


Calville Blanche ... 


Arbroath Pippin ... 


172 


Cambridge Pippin 


Arle}/ 


188 


Cannon Pearmain 


Aromatic Russet .. 


134 


Carlisle Codlin 


Ashmead's Kernel... 


134 


Carolina Red June 


Aurora 


184 


Carolina Red, Streak 


Autumn Pearmain 


184 


Carolina Spice 


Bachelor 


139 


Carter's Blue 


Baddow Pippin ... 


134 


Carse of Gowrie 


Baldwin 


134 


Catshead Beefing ... 


Baltimore Pippin ... 


152 


Cayuga Red Streak 


Baltimore Red 


135 


Cellini 


Barcelona Pearmain 


134 


Chamberlain's Late Scarlet 


Bauman's Beinette 


134 


Charles Apple 


Baxter's Pearmain... 


134 


Christie's Pippin ... 


Beauty of Hants ... 


134 


Chronical ... 


Beauty of Kent ... 


135 


Claremont Pippin 


Beaut}/ of ]\'avark ... 


144 


Claygate Pearmain 


Bedfordshire Foundling ... 


135 


Cleopatra ... 


Bell's Scarlet 


180 


Clifton Nonesuch ... 


Ben Davis ... 


135 


Clissold's Seedling... 


Benoni 


135 


Coates 


Bess Pool 


136 


Cobbett's Fall Pippin 


Betty Geeson 


137 


Cockle Pippin 


JJis/iop's Pip in ... 


189 


Coleman ... 


Blenheim Orange ... 


137 


Combermere Aj^ple 


Blenheim Pippin 


137 


Cooper's Market ... 


Blondin 


137 


Cop)manthorpfe Crab 


Blue Pearmain 


137 


Cornish Aromatic ... 


Bonum 


137 


Cornish Gilliflower 


Borovitsky 


137 


Cornish Jidy Flower 


Borsdorifer 


137 


Cotton Apple 


Boston Russet 


137 


Court Pendu Plat 


Brabant Bellefleur 


137 


Court of Wick 


Braddick's Nonpariel 


137 


Cox's Orange Pippin 


Bramley's Seedling 


139 


Cox's Pomona 


Brandy Apple 


152 


Cox's Red-Leaf Russet ... 


Brookes Pippin ... 


109 


Craike's Seedling 


Brownlee's Russet 


139 


CuUasaga ... 


Brown Spice 


134 


Dainty 


Buckingham 


139 


Devonshire Quarrenden ... 



111. 



Devonshire Red Streak . 


144 


GilleCs Seedling ... 


Ditton Nonpariel ... 


137 


Girkin Pippin 


Doimiey 


156 


Gladney's Red 


Douuito)! Golden Pippin . 


144 


Glammis Castle 


Downton Pippin ... 


144 


Gloria Mundi 


Dr. Ilarve// 


155 


Glori/ of York 


Dr. Hogg 


• 144 


Golden Apple 


Dredge's Fame 


144 


G oh J en Beaut 1/ 


D. T. Fish 


144 


Golden Drop 


Duchess of Oldenberg 


144 


Golden Harvey 


Duke of Devonshire 


146 


Golden Knob 


Dumelow's Seedling 


146 


Golden Noble 


Dundee 


153 


Golden Pippin 


Dutch Mignonne ... 


146 


Golden Reinette ... 


Earli/ Crofton 


157 


Golden Russet 


Early Harvest 


146 


Golden Husset 


Early Joe ... 


147 


Golden Winter Pearmain ... 


Early Julien 


147 


Gooseberry Pippin 


Early Nonpariel ... 


147 


Grange's Pearmain 


Early Red Margeret 


147 


Grange's Pippin ... 


Early Strawberry ... 


147 


Gravenstein 


Easter Pippin 


151 


Greenup's Pippin ... 


Edmonton Aromatic Pippii 


I 159 


Green Winter Pippin 


Elizabeth 


153 


Hambledon Deux Ans ... 


Elton Eiiypin 


144 


Uauq^shire Yelhnv 


Emperor Alexander 


... 148 


Hanwell Souring ... 


English Golden Russet 


153 


Hardivlck ... 


English Nonpariel 


170 


Harvey 


English VipxAn 


153 


llawherrti Fip)pin ... 


English Russet 


148 


Hawthornden 


Esopus Spitzenburg 


148 


Herefordshire Deefing 


Eve Appjle ... 


147 


Herefordshire Pearmain ... 


Evening Party 


150 


Herefordshire Red Streak 


Fall Pippin 


150 


Hoary Morning ... 


Fameuse 


175 


Hollandbury 


Fearn's Pippin 


150 


Holstein's Alpine Seedling... 


Ferris' Pippin 


150 


Hood's Seedling 


Five-crowned Pippin 


150 


Hoover 


Flanders Pippin ... 


168 


Horsleij Pippin ... 


Florence Pippin ... 


150 


Howes Russet 


Flower of Kent 


151 


Hubbard's Pearmain 


Forge 


151 


Hunt's Newtown Pippin ... 


Formosa Pijipin ... 


177 


Hunt's Nonpariel ... 


Fox Whelp 


151 


h'ish Codlin 


French Crab 


151 


Irish Peach 


Frith Pitcher 


165 


Irish Pitcher 


Frf/s Pippin 


142 


Irish Russet 


Garnet Pippin 


137 


Iron Ajyple 


Gmrnon's Piijpin ... 


142 


Isle of Wight Pippin 



IV 



Jersey Greening ... 


177 


McAfee's Nonesuch 


165 


Jewett's Best 


158 


McLean^s Favourite 


165 


Joaniiettiiig 


Ld8 


McLellan 


167 


Jolly Beggar 


158! 


Maiden's Blush 


165 


Jonathan ... 


158' 


Male Carla 


107 


Jul 1/ Pippin 


UGi 


Mammoth .. 


152 


Juneatiny ... 


168 j 


Mank's Codlin 


165 


Keddleston Pippin 


158! 


Mannington's Pearmain 


165 


Kentish Fillbasket 


159 


Margil 


165 


Kentuchy Pippin ... 


135! 


Marston's Red Winter 


167 


Kentucky Bed Streak 


159 : 


Matchless ... 


131 


Kerry Pippin 


159 


Matchless ... 


169 


Keswick Codlin ... 


159 


Maverack's Sweet ... 


167 


King 


139 


Merjqinch Favourite 


153 


King Apple 


161 


Mela Carla 


167 


King George 


137 


Melon Apple 


168 


King of the Pippins 


153 


Mere de Menage ... 


168 


King of Tomkins County . . . 


161 


M inch all Crab 


168 


King Philip 


158 


Minier's Dumpling. . . 


168 


Knight's Golden Pippin . . . 


144 


Mobb's Royal 


169 


Knightwick Pippin 


142 


Morgan'' s Favourite 


184 


Kirke's A dmirable . . 


156 


Morgan's Seedling... 


169 


Kirke's Lord Nelson, 


164 


Moustrous Pippin ... 


152 


Lady Apple 


161 


Moss's Incomparable 


169 


Lady P'itzpatrick ... 


1.39 


Mother Apple 


172 


Lady Henniker 


16-2 


Mr. Gladstone 


169 


Lady Washington ... 


189 


Munroe's Favourite 


169 


Lamb Abbey Pearmain 


162 


Murches Pippin ... 


165 


Lancashire Crab ... 


168 


Never/ail ... 


165 


Lane's Prince Albert 


162 


Newtown Pippin ... 


169 


Late Wine 


162 


New England Pigeon 


169 


Leathercoat Russet... 


179 


iVetv J/awthornden. . . 


187 


Lemon Pippin 


162 


New Rock Pippin ... 


169 


Lewis's Incomparable 


163 


NeiV York (xreening 


133 


Lima 


184 


Neiv York Pipjnn ... 


141 


Lincolnshire Holland Pippin 


163 


Newtown Greening... 


133 


Loddingtoji Seedling 


163 


Newtown Spitzenburgh 


169 


Lodgemore Xonpariel 


163 


Nickajack ... 


170 


Ljoiidon Pippin 


150 


Nonesuch ... 


170 


Lord Burghley 


163 


Nonpariel ... 


170 


Lord Derby 


164 


Norfolk Dearer 


170 


Lord Grosvenor ... 


164 


Norfolk Jleauji-n ... 


171 


Lord Gwyders Newtown 




Norfolk Beefing 


171 


Pippin 


133 


Norfolk Pippin 


131 


Lord Lennox 


164 


Norm<(ntou Wonder 


146 


Lord Suttield 


165 


Northern Greening 


172 


LordWolseley ' 


105 


Northern Spy 


172 


Lovedon''i3 Pippin ... 


170 


Norton's Melon 


168 


Lucombe's Seedling 


165 


Northwick Pi2)pin ... 


137 



V. 



N'utmeg Pippui ... 


141 


Round Pippin 


Oldacre's Xew 


IVS 


Roxhury liusset 


Old Golden PqjjJtu 


152 


Rot/a I Peanmnn ... 


Old .Pe<fr?uain 


156 


Royal Russet 


Old Fe((rm<(iii 


188 


Roga I Somerset 


Orange Pippin 


157! 


Russet Coat Nonpariel 


Ortlei/ Pippin 


141^ 


Russian Emperor ... 


Oslin 


172 


Russian 


Ox Apple ... 


152 


Rymer 


Ox J!:i/e 


169 


Sack Apple 


Oxford Pettcli ... ... 


180 


Sam Raw lings 


Pearson's Plate 


173 


Sam Young 


Peasegood's Nonesuch 


174 


Sandringham 


Peck's Pleasant 


174 


Scarlet Nonpariel ... 


Perfection ... 


174 


Scarlet Pearmain ... 


Pineapple Russet ... 


174 


Scuddamore's Grab 


Pitmaston Nonpariel 


174 


Shepherd's Fame ... 


Ponime de Neige ... 


175 


Shepherd' >< Perfection 


Portugid ... 


177 


Shepherd's Seedling 


Prince Bismarck .. 


175 


Shockley ... 


Prince of the Pippins 


175 


Shoreland Queen ... 


Princess Xoble 


153 


Small's Admirable... 


Putnam Russet 


137 


Smith's Cider 


Queen 


139 


Snoiv Apple . . 


Queen of the Pippins 


75 


Southampton Pippin 


Queens 


137 


Speckled Pearmain 


Read's Baker 


i71 


Speckled Golden Reinette 


Red Astrachan 


176 


Spice A2)pl€ 


Red Ingestrie 


176 


Spring Ribston 


Red Ju eating 


147 


Stamford Pippin ... 


Bed Quarrendeu ... 


144 


Stansill 


Red Pippin 


135 


Stettin Pippin 


Red Pippin 


170 


Stewart's Seedling... 


Red Streak 


176 


Stone Pippin 


Red Warrior 


177 


Stone's Apple 


Red Winter Pearmain 


189 


St. Helena Russet ... 


Reiitette JUanche d^Espag}ie 


187 


St Mary's Pippin 


Reinette du Canada 


177 


Striped Beefing 


Keinette Rouge Hatif 


177 


Striped Holland Pippin 


Reinette van Mons 


177 


Striped J ton eating ... 


Reine des lU'inettes 


175 


Striped Quarrenden 


Rhode Island Greening . . . 


177 


Stunner Pippin 


Ribston Pippin 


177 


Siunmer Golden Pippin 


Rokewood ... 


177 


Sum^ner Nonpariel 


Romanite ... 


179 


Summer Pearmain . . . 


Rome Beauty 


179 


Swaar 


Roo/vs Nest 


134 


Sykehouse Russet ... 


Rosemary Russet ... 


179 


Sylv<fu Russet 


Ross Nonpariel 


179 


The Queen... 



150 
137 
156 
179 
150 
174 
J 48 
U2 
181^ 
144 
156 
180 
184 
!80 
180 
176 
181 
174 
133 
181 
181 
181 
182 
175 
158 
134 
134 
134 
134 
182 
182 
146 
182 
183 
163 
177 
144 
183 
163 
147 
147 
183 
184 
147 
184 
184 
184 
137 
184 



VI. 



Thorh Fijipin. 
Tomviy lied 
Towur of Glainmis . . 
Traoers Pippin 
Twenty Ounce 
Tvvyford Beauty . . . 
Tuscaloosa ... 
Victoria Pipjjiv 
Waclhurst Pippin . . . 
Wagener ... 
\V< (Inter Court 
Waitliam Abbey Seedlin 
WdUz Apple . . 

Warner's King 
W((rner Rxsset 
Wdrren Pippin 
WarwicJcslm-e Pippin 
Wntennelon 
Wdttaugah ... 
Week's Pippin 
Wellington ... 

Westfield Seek-no- h'urtlier 
WItite Ikl I flower ... 
White CalVille 
White Pippin 
White Spanish Keinette 
White Winter Calville 
Whorle Pippin 
Wine Scj) ... 
Wine Sop ... 
Winter Codlin 
]Vinter Greening ... 
Winter Hawthorndcn 
Winter Majetin 
Winter Pearmain . . . 
Winter Queening . . . 
Winter- QuoJning ... 
Winter Red Strenk 
Winter Rose 
Winter Strawl^erry 
Woodstock Pippin ... 
Wolhiton Pippin ... 
Worcester Pearmain 
Wormsly Pippin 
Wyken Pippin 
Wf/ker Pippin 
Yates 

Yellow Bellefleur ... 
Yelloio Harvest 



187 
161 
184 
177 
184 
185 
185 
135 
185 
186 
172 
185 
174 
186 
137 
189 
188 
168 
157 
142 
14(3 
186 
141 
186 
141 
187 
186 
187 
188 
188 
187 
151 
187 
188 
188 
188 
188 
159 
170 
188 
137 
142 
188 
188 
188 
153 
189 
189 
146 



Yellow Newtown Pippin . . 


189 


Yelloiv Pippin 


142 


Yellow Pippin 


141 


Yellow Pippin 


142 


Yorkshire Beauty ... 


191 


Yorkshire Goose Sauce 


191 


Yorkshire Greening- 


191 


York Pippin 


150 


Crab Apples. 




A niher 


192 


Cherry Crah 


191 


Coral 


191 


Currant 


191 


Foxley 


191 


Lady Crab ... 


191 


Mareno'o ... 


19! 


Scarlet Siberian ... 


191 


Transcendent 


192 


Transparent 


192 


Yellow Siberian 


192 


Apricot 


192 


Apricots, Varieties. 


A lianas 


200 


Beauge 


196 


Blenheim ... 


197 


Breda 


197 


Brussels 


197 


Canipbellficld Seedling 


197 


Canino Grosso 


197 


Early Moorpark 


198 


Golden Drop 


198 


Gros Precoce 


198 


Gros Rouge 


11)8 


Hative d'Auvergne 


198 


Hemskirk ... 


19 > 


Kaisha 


198 


Large Early 


198 


Large lied ... 


198 


Mansfield Seedling 


198 


Moorpark ... 


199 


Montgamet 


199 


Musch Mu&ch 


199 


Orange 


199 


OuilUn's Early Peach . . 


199 


Peach Apricot 


l?00 


Pennant Hill's Oval 


200 


Pine Apple 


200 



VIT. 



Red Masculine 


200 


Barbadoes Gooseberry 


216 


Roman 


200 


>5 5? • • • 


232 


Royal 


201 


Barberry ... 


215 


Royal George 


199 


Bearberry ... 


219 


Jloyal Orange 


199 


Begoons 


298 


Royal Teach 


200 


Bell Pepper 


238 


Royal Persian 


199 


Bending Down Branches ... 


54 


Sardinian ... ... 


201 


liengal Quince 


-2ir 


SJiipley's 


197 


Benzole 


98 


St. Ambroi.so 


201 


llerhevis Asiatica ... 


215 


Stewart's ... 


201 


„ hiLvi folia ... 


215 


Transparent 


200 


„ Canadensis 


215 


Turkey 


20! 


„ Freemonti 


215 


Viard 


201 


„ Sepalensis 


215 






,, Siherica ... 
„ vulgaris ... 


215 
215 


Arbutus, Uva-Ursa 


219 


A rctostaphylos Manzanita . . . 


219 


Bertholettia excelsa 


225 


,, Uva-Ursa ... . 


219 


Bhel Fruit 


217 


Argan 


201 


Bigarreau Cherries 


^45 


A rgania sideroxylori 


201 


Bilberry 


217 


Armeniaca vulgaris 


192 


Bird Cherry 


245 


A rtocarpus commums 


226 


„ Pepper 


238 


y, mcisa ... 


220 


Bi-Sulphide of Carbon 


08 


Arsenite of Copper 


101 


Bitter Rot 


126 


Aspect for Orchards and 




Blackberry ... 


220 


Vineyards 
Aspiodotis ... 


23 

84 


Blackberries, Varietius 


• 


A talan tia glauca ... 


204 


Americ'in Dewherry 


224 


Auhergine ... 


298 


Common ... 


221 


Australian Apple ... 


202 


Cloudberry... 


221 


„ Cherry 


203 


Crandell's Early ... 


2 'J 2 


,, Cranberry 


203 


Dewberry ... 


222 


„ Currant 


204 


Dorchester ... 


222 


„ Damson 


203 


Eno^lish 


221 


„ Desert Lemon ... 


204 


Himalayan... 


222 


,, Mulberry 


204 


Kittatinny ... 


2 2 


Nut 


206 


Lawton 


223 


„ Peach ... 


208 


Low Blackberry ... 


224 


„ Plums ... 


208 


New Rochelle 


223 


„ Pomegranate ... 


209 


Wilson's Early 


224 


Avelhnio ... 


267 


Wilson Junior 


224 


A iipwlinn ri'i liyyilv) 


930 






,, Carambola 


2.38 


Black Currant 


284 


Avocado Pear 


209 


„ Knot 


90 


Bad and Good Planting . . . 


32 


„ Spot 


124 


BaeJ Fruit ' ... 


217 


Blastop)haga, psnes ... 


309 


P>anana 


210 


„ grossum 


309 


Baobab 


213 


Bleaberry ... 


217 


Barbadoes Cherry ... 


219 


Blimbing ... 


239 



VITI. 



Blood Plum 


224 


Carandas ... 


232 


Bhiestone ... 


99 


Carbolic Acid Emulsion ... 


99 


r>og Bilberry 


218 


Care in Lifting, Packing, kc. 


31 


Boiiedust ... 


36 


' Cargillea austral is... 


208 


Bordeaux Mixture ... 


99 


„ peritamera 


208 


Brahejnm f^tellatij'oiium 


104 


Carissa Brovmii 


232 


Brazil Almond 


22o 


„ Carandas ... 


232 


Brazilian Cherry ... 


305 


„ grandijlora 


232 


Brazil Nut ... 


225 


Carob 


239 


Bread Fruit 


2^Q 


Carpocapsa pomonella 


122 


„ Nut 


228 


Cashew Nut 


243 


Bringals ... 


298 


Castanea vesca 


264 


Bniijals 


29« 


Caterpillars 


77 


British Cranberry ... 


273 


Caustic Soda 


99 


„ Dewberry ... 


220 


Cayenne Pepper ... 


233 


Brosinmm Alirantrnm 


228 


CerasNs avium 


245 


Budding 


19 


„ C apron 2 aria 


245 


Bud Grafting 


19 


,, diiracina ... 


245 


Buffalo Berry 


228 


,, emai'ginata 


246 


Cactus Pieredia ... 


216 


,, Hid folia ... 


246 


Caccccia responsana 


122 


,, Juliana ... '" ... 


245 


Calif ornian Blackberry 


220 


,, lanro-ceraKi's 


246 


Elder ...' 


303 


„ liisitanica ... 


246 


Calodend7'<m Capense 


231 


Mahal eh 


246 


Cambuca ... 


230 


,, Padiis 


2i5 


(^anadian Elder 


303 


,, scroti 11 a ... 


246 


Canarium commune 


267 


,, serridata ... 


246 


Canker 


93 


„ tomentosa ... 


246 


Canning Fruit 


74 


,, vulgaris 


245 


Cape Chestnut 


231 


Ceratonia siliqua ... 


239 


„ Gooseberry ... 


231 


Chauliognathuspensijlvanicns 


123 


„ Plum... 


232 


Chayota 


268 


Caper Tree ... 


209 


Cherimoyer 


291 


Capparis arborea ... 


209 


Cherry 


244 


„ Mitchelli 


209 


„ Borer 


78 


Capsicum ... 


233 


„ Slug ... ... 


81 


Capsicums, Varieties. 




Cherries, Varieties. 




Bell Pepper 


238 


Archduke ... 


249 


Bird Pepper 


238 


Autumn Bigarreau 


249 


Bull Nose 


238 


Belle Agathe 


249 


Bullock's Heart 


238 


Belle de Choisy ... 


249 


Cherry 


238 


Belle d' Orleans 


249 


Chinese 


238 


Belle Magnifique ... 


252 


Guinea Pepper 


236 


Bigarreau ... 


252 


Long 


238 


Bigarreau de Hildesheim ... 


252 


Shrubby 


238 


Bigarreau de Holland 


252 






Bigarreau de Mezel 


o ri rt 




Jj'Vl 


Cnrambola 


238 


Bigarreau Napoleon 


252 



IX. 



Black Circassian ... 


252 


St. Margaret's 


Black Edglc 


252 


Tradescant's Heart 


Black Hawk 


252 


Twyford Bigarreau 


Black Heart 


..* 252 


Waterloo ... 


Black Russian 


252 


Werder's Early Black 


Black Tartarian 


252 




Bleedivg Heart 
Bohemian Black Bigarreau 


•>.'') 8 




. . ..dOO 

255 




Bullock'' s Heart ... 


261 


Cherry Capsicum ... 


Gherrt/ Diike 


258 


Chestnut ... 


Cleveland Bigarreau 


255 


Chilian Hazel 


Common lied 


1?58 


Chilies ... 


Downton ... 


255 


Chili Vinegar 


Early Black Bigarreau 


255 


Chinese Banana 


Early Duke 


261 


Olive 


Early Lyon.s 


255 


„ Raisin 


Early Purple Griotte 


2 5 


Chloride of Sodium 


Early Purple Guigne 


255 


Choco 


Early Red Bigarreau 


255 


Ckrysophyl I um pru ti iferum 


Early Rivers 


255 


Chupa 


Elklwrn 


261 


Cider 


Elton 


255 


Clay Soils 


Empress Eugenia ... 


255 


Clayey Loamy Soils 


Florence ... 


258 


Cleft Grafting 


Frogmore Early Bigarreau 


258 


Cloudberry 


Gascoigne's Heart .. 


258 


Cockatoo Bush 


German Mayduke ... 


255 


Cocoa Nut ... 


Governor Wood 


258 


„ Plum 


Heart of Midlothian 


258 


Cocos uucifera 


Herefordshire Heart 


258 


Codlin Moth 


Jeffrey's Duke 


258 


Coir .. 


Jeffrey'' s Royal 


258 


Compound Fertilizers 


Kentish 


258 


Copra 


Knevetfs Late Bigarreau • 


258 


Copromia Billardeira 


Large Black Bigarreau 


261 


Cordon Training ... 


Late Bigarreau 


258 


Cornel 


Late Duke ••• 


258 


Cornel Phmi 


Lion's Heart 


261 


Cornelian Clierry ... 


May Duke • • • 


261 


Cornus mascida 


iMilan 


361 


Cottony Cushion locale 


Monstrous Heart ... 


252 


Crab Apples 


Morello 


261 


Cranberry ... 


Ohio Beauty 


261 


Cream Fruit 


Ox Heart 


261 


Crickets 


Pie Cherry... 


258 


Crystallizing Fruit 


Bed Heart ... 


258 


Cucumber ... 


Rival 


261 


Cucumis ativus 


Rockport Bigarreau 


261 


Ciipania S'qnda 


Spotted Big< i rrea u, ... 


252 


Currant 



X. 



Currants, Varieties. 

BLACK. 

BJ<ich Grape 

Black Naples 

Carter's Black Champion ... 
Kentish Hero 
Lee's Prolific 
Ogden's Black 

RED. 

Champagne 

Cherry 

Fertile d' Anger's ... 

Goliath ... 

Houghton Castle ... 
Imperial lied 
La Fertile ... 
La Hatiye ... 
Jja Versaillaise 
Long-bunched lied 
Morgan's Red 
Pheasant's Ei/e 
Rahy Castle ... 

Red Dutch... 

Red Grape 

Victoria 

Wilmofs Red 



WHITE. 



White Crystal 
White Dutch 
White Grape 
White Imperial 
White Leghorn 



Custard Apple 

Cuttings 

Ijacti/lo^jius 

Date' 

Date l^lum ... 

D'lvidsoihia prurie^ts 

Davidson's Plum .. 

Dewberry ... 

Diospijros Cargillea 
,, deeandra 

,, edidis 

Kakl .. 
J J loins 

MaboLa .. 



289 
287 
287 
287 
287 
289 



,, melanoxylon 

„ temna ... 

,, Virginiana 

Dindijmds versicolor 
Diphiicephda collaspidoidet 
Diseases Injurious to Fruits 
Dogberry Tree ... 
Dogwood ... ... " ... 

Doticns pestilens 
I Draining ... 

2g() i Drain Pipes 

289 I Drying Fruits 



LH)0 
290 
290 
290 
289 
289 
290 
290 
290 
289 
290 



by Artificial 



Heat 

Durion 

Durio Zehcthinns ... 
Eau Celeste 
„ Grison 
Edible Acorns 
„ Fruits 

Egg Plant 

Elder 

Elder Leaf Water . . . 
()Q0 i Eleodendron argania 
oyQ ; Elephant Apple 
,, Beetle 
English Blackberry 
Kpilachiia ... 
Erechthias mystaclnetla 
Espaliers ... 
Eugenia 

Eugenia Australis ... 
, , cordifolui 



200 
290 



290 
290 
290 

290 
290 



290 
4 
80 
29 
20-4 
209 
209 
220 
208 
294 
294 
294 
294 
294 



Uallii ... 
„ Jandjuiana 
„ Jambos ... 
,, maboid&s ... 
„ Malaccensis 
„ myrti folia 
,, XJianica ... 

5 J pyiformis 
,, revohtta ... 
,, rotunili folia 
,, supr(( ajcillaris 

Ugni 
,j nni flora ... 
„ Vd'yheri . . . 
Fag as Castanea 
Feronia elephantnm 



294 
295 
295 

80 

80 

93 
271 
271 
121 

26 

27 

69 

71 

296 

296 
99 
99 

297 
1 

298 

302 
99 

201 

304 
79 

220 
88 

122 
60 

304 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

305 

306 

306 

305 

305 

306 

264 

304 



XT. 



Ficus Carica 


306 


Fungicides... 


98 


Fig 


306 


Fungi Injurious to Fruits ... 


89 


Figs, V^ 


.RIETIES. 


Fusicladimns 

Fui^icladinm dendriticmn ... 


90 
124 


Bee de Perdrix 


312 


Gathering and Storing App^ 


es 129 


Black Bourjassotte 


313 


„ Fruit 


62 


Black Genoa 


313 


Gean Cherries 


245 


Black Ischia 


::^i3 


General Manures ... 


- 3,1 


Black Mill miles 


313 


Geoffroya su.perha ... 


225 


Black Provence 


813 


Glwosjjorium versicolor 


126 


Jjlue BuruiuJy 


313 


Gooseberry Tomato 


232 


Blue Fig ... 


313 


Grafting ... 


7 


Bine Ischia 


313 


„ with Fruit Buds . . 


16 


Bordeaux ... 


313 


„ by Api)roach 


17 


Bro/rn Ifamhugrh 


313 


Great Whortleberry 


218 


Brown Ischia 


313 


Green Beetle 


80 


Broivn It<tlian 


313 


„ Vitroil 


102 


Brmon Naples 


313 


Grey Plum 


208 


Brown Turkey 


313 


Grias cauliflorus ... 


108 


Brunswick Black 


313 


Griotte Cherries ... 


245 


Castle Kennedy 


313 


Groundberries 


203 


Col di Signora Bla 


nca ... 313 


Grouseberry 


219 


Col di Sigdora Ner 


... 314 


Gryllus Servillei ... 


79 


D'Or de Laura 


314 


Guano 


37 


Early Violet 


314 


Guaparanga 


230 


Fico di Fragola, 


314 


Guarding against Frost 


40 


Green Jschia 


314 


Ouevina aveUano ... 


. 267 


Larqe White Genoi 


314 


Guigne Cherries 


245 


Malta 


314 


Guinea Pepper 


236 


Naples 


313 


,, Squash 


298 


Nigra 


313 


Gumming ... 


94 


Peau Dure ... 


314 


Gypsum ... ... 


37 


Peliliire 


314 


Hcematostaphis Barter i 


224 


Precoce noire 


313 


llidyzia galbula, 


87 


Ruby C<(stle 


314 


Harlequin Beetle ... 


80 


Small JJrown 


314 


Heart Cherries 


245 


Smyrna 


314 


lied year ya C nnninghami . . 


204 


Violette 


313 


Hellebore .. 


iOO 


VioleUe e Bordfiai 


u' ... 313 


High Blackberry ... 


220 


White Adriatic 


314 


Hog Cranberry 


2.19. 


White Genoa 


314 


Holly-leaved Cherry 


e46 


White Ischia 


314 


Hounds Tree 


271 


White Marseilles 


314 


Hovenia dntcis 


267 


White Naj^les 


214 


How a Young Tree Slioulc 




White Standard 


314 


be Cut 


51 






(hit^ shonlrl bp inarl^ 


.^9 


Fire Blight 


94 


„ Manures Sliould b 


e 


Flute Budding 


21 


Used 


38 


„ Grafting 


21 


I eery a Purchasi ... 


85 



XII. 



Illawarra Black Plum 


208 


Maraschino 


Inarching ... 


17 


Markings in Apples 


„ to Increase the 




Mar Hera glomerata 


Size of Fruit 


19 


„ tomentosa 


„ to Fill Vacant 




Marly Soils 


Spaces 


IJ 


Maroga cjigaritella ... 


Injurious Lady Birds 


88 


Matisia covdaia ... 


Insecticides 


08 


Mealy Bug .. 


Insects Injurious to Fruits 


77 


Mexican Little Apple 


Ja^ery 


270 


Mildew 


Jambosa vulgaris ... 


305 


Mixed Planting 


Jams and Jellies ... 


75 


Modes of Draining 


Juvia 


22G 


„ „ Grafting 


Kainite 


36 


Morello C^herry 


Keeping Fruit 


G3 


Mouldy Core 


Kerosene ... 


100 


Mulching ... 


Kirchwasser 


247 


Miisi Caveiidishi ... 


Lady Birds 


87 


,, Chin en. His 


Ldiulolphia florid a ... 


103 


„ nana... 


„ Owarieiisis 


!03 


,, paradisiaca ... 


L( turns Persea 


210 


y . JUgia ... < ... 


Layering ... 


3 


„ sapientnm ... 


Leaf Galls.. 


95 


Mussel Scale 


Lecaiiinin ... 


84 


Myopronm serratam 


Leis conformis 


86 


Mnrtus SmitliU 


Ijeptomeria acida ... 


205 


Mi/til(fspis ... 


Lpetops Iloptei 


122 


X((geia spinulnsus ... 


Ligatures ... 


22 


Native Apple 


Lilly Pilly 


305 


., Cherry 


Lime 


35 


,, Cranberry ... 


• > 


iOO 


„ Currant 


Lissanthe siqiida 


20:3 


,, Damson 


Litsea de ((batu 


204 


„ Desert Lemon 


Loamy Soils 


24 


„ Elder 


Locust Tree 


i39 


„ Juniper 


Lodoicea .'<eche/larnm 


270 


„ Kumquat ... 


London Purple 


101 


„ Mulberry ... 


Af<tba Curgillea 


208 


„ Myrtle 


MabolaPlum 


294 


„ Nut 


M<(cad((mia terni/olia 


207 


„ Peach 


Macrocen trus delicntns 


124 


„ Plums 


Mad Apple 


299 


„ Pomegranate 


Male Mandrake 


299 


Nitrate of Potash ... 


Ma Ipighia glabra ... 


219 


,, ,, Soda 


„ puni folia 


2i9 


Noyau 


.Malay Apple 


305 


Objects Attained by Pruning 


Mandram ... 


234 


Oniscus a. He litis 


Manures 


33 


Orcus anHralasice ... 


Manzanita ... 


219 


,, chali/beus 



XTIT. 



rthorrhin us cylir) drirostrh 


79 


,, Season 


53 


Oivenia acidiiJa 


208 


Prunus amygdalus. .. 


105 


„ cerasiferd ... 


208 


„ armeniaca ... 


192 


„ veiiosa 


208 


Pyrethrum ... 


101 


Oxycoccus macrocarpus 


273 


Pyrus amygdalceformis 


109 


,, pahisfn's 


273 


,, haccata 


191 


Oyster Scale 


84 


,, coronaria 


109 


Packing Fruit 


65 


„ mains 


-109 


Packing Dried Fruit 


73 


,j rivniaris 


109 


Packages for Small Fruits... 


67 


„ saHcifolia ... 


109 


Pear Slug ... 


81 


Qualities Required in Apples 


128 


Peaty Soils 


25 


Quandong ... 


208 


Pepino 


298 


Quassia 


101 


Perfumed Cherry ... 


246 


Queensland Nut ... 


207 


Per sea gratissimd ... 


210 


„ Sour Plum 


im 


Persimmon... 


295 


Qtierciis castaii ea ... 


•J97 


Phmnix dactyUfera 


292 


,, cornea 


298 


Phi/Uostict<( circnmcissK 


92 


,, cuspidata ... 


297 


PhysaHs Alkekeiigi 


232 


garryana 


007 


,, Peruvian ua 


231 


,, glabra 


298 


„ pi/bescens ... 


232 


„ lobata 


297 


Peireskia acnleata ... 


216 


„ turbinel/a — 


297 


Pimpla a'liiuUpes ... 


124 


Quincunx Planting 


31 


Pipturiis argenteus. .. 


204 


liabbit Berry 


208 


Planting 


29 


Raging Aj^ple 


299 


Podocarpus spin uIosns 


203 


Ratifia 


247 


Porcupine Wood ... 


270 


Red Currant 


284 


Portuguese Squash 


268 


Red Spider 


S2 


Potash ... 


36 


Requirements in Pruning . . . 


55 


Powdery Mildew ... 


127 


Resin Compound ... 


101 


Preparing Grafting Clay . . . 


17 


Rhizorpertha cnllaris 


122 


„ „ Wax ... 


17 


Bhyparochromvs ... 


83 


Preparation of the Land . . . 


27 


Ribes aureum 


284 


Preserving Fruit in Bottles 


75 


,, bracteatum ... 


284 


Principal Forms in Apples 


130 


„ cereum 


285 


Propagation 


2 


„ floridum 


285 


Pruning 


42 


„ ^Griffithi 


285 


„ to Modify Form ... 


43 


,, nigrum 


284 


„ ,, Promote Growth 


43 


„ rnbrum 


284 


„ „ Increase Produc- 




,. teunijlorum ... 


285 


tiveness 


45 


Rind Grafting 


I'J 


„ to Prevent the Spread 




Ringing to Promote Fruit- 




of Disease 


46 


fulness 


53 


„ to Renovate Old 




Ripe Rot 


106 


Trees 


47 


Root Cuttings 


6 


„ to Improve the Fruit 


47 


„ Galls 


95 


„ Newly Planted Trees 


48 


„ Grafting 


13 


„ in Accordance with 




„ Pruning 


4G 


Habit 


52 


„ Rot 


96 



XfV. 



Rose Apple 


305 


„ spinosum 


201 


JloHpellia grata 


'277 


Slugs 


85 


Riibus coesius 


221 


Snails 


85 


,, Canadensis ... 


221 


Soap 


101 


„ Cliamcemoras 


221 


Soda 


37 


„ CorylifoHus ... 


220 


Soils and their Treatment . . . 


24 


„ cuneifoliits ... 


220 


Solainnn alhnm 


298 


,, fruticosns ... 


220 


,, escuhntum 


299 


Riihus viUosus 


220 


,, . ferox 


298 


„ vitifoUm 


220 


„ insanmn ... 


298 


Rust 


91 


,, I on gum ... 


298 


Rutlierglen Fly 


83 


,, melon gena 


298 


Saddle Graftiiifi^ ... 


10 


,, mnncatum 


298 


Salt 


37 


oviger'tm ... 


298 


)) ••• • • • 


101 


„ pseudo-saponaceiim 


298 


Samh'ictis ((Nstralis ... 


303 


,, serpintinum 


298 


,, canadensis 


303 


„ >in datum ... 


298 


,, 6randichaiidi((na _ 


303 


Soot 


101 


„ glauca ... 


303 


Sooty Blight 


91 


„ y/?ym ... 


302 


Sour Gourd 


214 


„ mnthocarpt 


303 


Sour Plum... 


208 


Sand Blackberry ... 


220 


» Sop 


290 


Sandy Loam Soils... 


24 


Spanish Chestnut ... 


264 


Sandy Soils 


24 


Special Manures ... 


35 


Santalum acumination 


208 


Splice Grafting 


8 


„ Preisi^annm 


208 


Spon dias gla bra 


209 


Sea I dins 


97 


„ Sohmdr? 


209 


Scale Insects 


84 


Spur Pruning 


48 


Schi'^orieura lanigera 


120 


Sq>riiia)) // IJerv'ies... 


285 


Scorching ... 


97 


St. John\^ Bread ... 


239 


Season for Budding 


22 


Straivherry Fig 


314 


„ „ Grafting 


16 


„ Tomato 


232 


„ „ Planting 


29 


Styphelia hnmisifnsa 


203 


Sechitmi ednh^ 


208 


„ pinifolia 


203 


Securing Graft and Bud 




Subalterns Batter ... 


209 


Shoots 


23 


Sub soils ... 


25 


Seeds 





Suckers 


3 


Sehmdria cerani 


81 


Sulphate of Ammonia 


30 


Selecting Buds 


22 


„ Copper 


99 


„ Ki nds and Varieties 


27 


„ Iron ... 


37 


Shelter 


40 


,, ,, 


102 


Shepherdia argentea 


228 


Sulphur 


102 


„ canadensis 


228 


Sulphuring dried Fruits ... 


73 


Shield Budding 


20 


Summer Pruning ... 


48 


Shot-hole Fungus 


92 


Sunburn ... 


97 


Shoulder Grafting ... 


10 


Sitiistrohe ... 


97 


Shrubby (Capsicum ... 


238 


Super-phosphate of Lime ... 


30 


Side Grafting 


14 


Sweet Chestnut ... 


204 


SuLroxyJon anstrale 


202 


,, Sop 


290 



XV. 



Table of Manures . . . 


38 


Vacci in iirn ni'/rti II us 


217 


Tar Water 


102 


OxifCOCCKS 


273 


Tata 


800 


,, Ferinsf/lvaiiicinn 218 


Telephorus 2:>itlchel(t(s 


123 


,, idigiuosam 


218 


Terminal Grafting . . . 


16 


,, Vitis-Idece 


273 


Tetra n yclius teJuriiis 


82 


V((hei( Jiorida 


103 


Thrips 


8r. 


„ Oivariensis ... 


10':5 


Tobacco 


102 


Vegetable Egg 


...^ -^^ 


Tongue Grafting ... 


8 


,, Soils 


25 


Training 


58 


Veneer Grafting 


15 


Treatment of Wounds 


54 


Verariia creiiata 


87 


Trecidia africana ... 


227 


Volcanic Soils 


24 


U&eful Insects 


^Q 


Walnut-leaf Water... 


102 


„ Lady Birds... 


87 


Water Core 


127 


Use of Manure 


33 


Whip Grafting 


8 


„ Water 


41 


White Ants 


85 


Uses of Grafting ... 


7 


Whortleberries 


217 


Uvallio de Canipo ... 


305 


Wintei- Cherry 


232 


Vacci Ilium C'niadense 


218 


Wood Ashes 


87 


„ mdcrocarpon 


273 


Woodlice ... 


86 




THE AUSTRALASIAN 



FRUIT OULTURIST, 



CONTAINING 

Full and Complete Information as to the History, Traditions, Uses, 
Propagation, and Culture of such Fruits as are Suitable for Victoria, 
Ne^ South Wales, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, 
Tasmania, and New Zealand; 



ALSO 



Descriptive Lists of the Principal Varieties of FrvdtSj 

With Remarks as to their Adaptability 

for Particular Purposes. 

VOL. 2. 



By DAVID ALEXANDER CRICHTON, E.R.H.S., 

Late Expert and Lecturer upon ^' Fruit Culture'' and ''Special A ^cultural and 
Horticultural Industries " to the Victorian Department of Agnculture. 



[COPYRIGHT RESERVED BY THE AUTHOR.] 



MELBOURNE: 



MINERVA PRINTING WORKS, ANDERSON ST., MELBOURNE W. 

1893. 



3 
FIG MARIGOLD. 

This is the common name for various sj^ecies of Mesembryantheiniim 
which yield succulent fruits somewhat similar in appearance to small 
Figs. They are succulent or fleshy leaved plants belonging to a niitural 
order, of which they are the type, known as Mesembryaceae or Ficoidae: 
The species known are very numerous, the great majority being natives of 
South Africa. What is known as the Hottentot Fig is obtained front-two 
distinct species, viz., M. acinaciforme and M. edule, A somewhat similar 
fruit is obtained from J/. cequiU iter ale, which is indigenous to Australia 
and the west coast of America, as also from other species. The fruit has 
a sweetish pulp that is grateful to the palate. The leaves of these species 
may 1)6 used as a vegetable when boiled, and are eaten by sheep and 
other stock. The Hottentot Figs will thrive in the dry interior districts 
of Australia, and are worthy of attention for their fruit in some localities, 
and also as vegetable and fodder plants. The indigenous species named 
(J/, (jequilaterale) thrives well in salt land of all descriptions, and is a 
valuable plant for binding sea coast and other sandy soils. Propagation 
is readily effected by seed which is freely produced, or pieces of the stems, 
planted as cuttings, can be rooted without difficulty. 

FIVE CORNER. 

This is the common name of an Australian plant, an evevgreen 
shrub of loAv growth, belono-ing to the order Epacridacea^, and know* 
botanically as Sttjphelia viruJiflora . The fruit is very small, oval in 
shape, and contains a comparatively large seed which has a thin 
coveHng of gelatinous flesh that has a sweet and pleasant taste. The 
common name has originated owing to the calyx, or husk, having five 
angles. Though the fruit is of comparatively small value compared 
with others, yet it is very popular with childi'en in localities where it 
is indigenous, and is to some extent collected for sale in Sydney and 
its suburbs. The plant is indigenous to the coast regions of New 
South Wales, and is generally found in sandy and peaty soils. 

The plant is not worth cultivation for its fruit as other kinds are 
vastly superior, but being a neat shrub of compact growth, it deserves 
attention for ornamental purposes, and its light green flowers conti-ast 
well with others. Propagation may be effected by seed, layers, or 
cuttings of the young shoots, which will strike in sand under a glass. 

GAULTHIERIA. 

History and Uses, • '- 

This is a genus of ornamental evergreen shrubs belonging to the na,tural 
order Ericaceje. They are chiefly natives of cool regionn in North 
Western America, and two of the species yield fruit that is largely used 
by the inliabitants of the countries where they grow naturally. GauUhiMa 



ShaUoUy a spreading shrub, attains a height of from four to ten feet. It 
bears white flowers, and the fruit, which is produced in great abundance, is^ 
when ripe, a purple-black. The fruit is pleasantly flavoured, and is largely- 
used, in a fresh state, and also when dried by sun heat for winter use. 
It is also turned to good account for making jam and jelly. GaulthieHa 
myrsinitesy a procumbent shrub indigenous to Northern California, Oregon,, 
and British Columbia, produces fruit in great abundance, which is in 
colour scarlet. With the exception of being somewhat more aromatic, 
the fruit has similar properties to the other species, and is used in the 
same ways, 

OULTIVATIOK AND PROPAGATION. 

The Gaulthierias can only be cultivated successfully in the colder parts 
of Australasia. They would thrive well in the alpine districts, and their 
fruits are likely to prove useful acquisitions, as when known they would 
doubtless become popular. Both species thrive best in moderately moist 
peaty soil, and attain perfection under somewhat similar conditions to the 
Cranberry. When grown for their fruit the plants should be arranged in 
rows, abodt ten feet apart. As ornamental plants they may be utilized 
with advantage in congenial localities. Propagation may be effected by 
seeds, which should be sow^n early in the spring and covered to the depth 
of half-an-inch. Plants may alsc> be readily obtained from layers which 
strike freely if put down early in the autumn or spring. 



GEEBUNG. 

This is the common name for the fruit of several species of Persoonia,. 
Australian shrubs or small trees belonging to the order Proteacese. They 
are indigenous to the coast districts of New South Wales and other regions, 
andhave handsome bright green foliage that makes them very attractive as 
shrubs. The foliage is much used in Sydney in the formation of wreaths 
for decorations, as the leaves retain their rigidity longer than most other 
evergreen shrubs. The fruit is about the size of a small Cherry, the 
mucjiaginous flesh covering a large seed. In flavour it is very insipid, 
s%litly astringent, and it is absolutely worthless as a fruit, though it is 
'eateO with relish by aboriginals and children. The wood is light coloured, 
hard and durable, and is excellent for tool handles and similar purposes. 
The various species are not worth growing as fruit plants, but in congenial 
locaTities they are worthy of attention as ornamental shrubs. They thrive 
in sandy or peaty soils, and may be grown in localities where the frosts 
are but light. Propagation is ettected by layers, and cuttings of the 
ripened wood of the current season's growth will strike in sand under a 
glass. 

GEN I p. 

This is the name of an evergreen tree, indigenous to Guiana and other 
parts of tropical South America, belonging to the order Clinch on acesft 



(Rubiaceae), and known botanically as Geriipa Americana. It attains a 
height of about thirty feet, has handsome foliage, and bears pale yellow 
flowers. The fruit, which is about the size of an ordinary <'>range, has a 
thick rind or shell, containing a brown pulpy flesh whicli has a flavour 
somewhat similar to Orange marmalade. It is a popular fruit in Guiana, 
where it is commonly called Marmalade Box. This tree can only be 
grown successfully in the tropical regions of Australia, but where the 
climatic conditions are favourable it is worthy of attention both for its 
fruit and as an ornamental plant. It requires a deep, rich, and modera,tely 
moist soil, and must be sheltered from strong winds. Propagation is 
readily effected by layers, which should be put down early in the autumn 
or spring. Cuttings of the ripened wood of the current season's growth 
root freely in sand under a glass. 

GINGERBREAD PALM. 

This plant, which is also known as the Doum Palm is indigenous to 
Egypt, Arabia,, Nubia, and Abyssinia, and its fruit is used as food by the 
inliabitants of those countries It attains a height of about thirty feet, 
and is known botaaically as Hi/pliceiie cnnita [Thebaica). After a few 
years growth branches are formed, each one being surmounted with' a 
crown of fan-shaped leaves. The fruit is produced in large pendulous 
bunches of from one to two hundred. Each fruit is the size of a small 
Aj)ple, the outer portion being a fibrous sweetish pulp, having a flavour 
somewhat similar to Gingerbread, hence the common name. Several 
other species of Hyphjene yield edible fruits, and might prove worthy 
of cultivation in congenial regions. The Gingerbread Palm and kindred 
species can only be cultivated successfully in the warmer parts of Australia. 
It can stand heat and drought well, and would probably prove a useful 
fruit for the dry interior districts of the northern colonies This Palm is 
also well worth cultivating for ornament in warm dry regions, and makes 
a good avenue plant. As regards cultivation and propagation, the methods 
are precisely the same as those recommended for the Date Palm. 



GINGERBREAD PLUM. 

The fruit known under this name is produced by Parinarium macro- 
phyllum, a handsome evergreen small tree indigenous to tropical West 
Africa, belonging to the Chrysobalaneai section of the order Rosaceae. 
The tree has fine large foliage, odorous white flowers, and Plum-like 
fruit having a pleasant flavour somewhat like Gingerbread, hence the 
name. Parinarmm excelsnm, also a West African species, is a lai'ge 
evergreen tree attaining a height of about sixty feet, with long leaves and 
large terminal branches of scented white flowers. The fruit is produced 
in great abundance, and is about the size of an Orleans Plujn, but it 'is 
dry and insipid in flavour as compared with the Gingerbread Plum. It 



k known under the names of Grey Plum and Rough Plum. Farinarwm 
Nonda is a species indigenous to North Eastern Australia, known as the 
Nonda Tree, and recommended by Baron von Mueller for trial culture. 
It is a handsome evergreen tree, and attains a height of about sixty feet. 
The fruit is Plum-like, and is rather mealy, but possibly might be 
improved by cultivation. The Gingerbread Plum and kindred species, 
being natives of tropical regions will only thrive in the warmer parts of 
Australia, where they are worth cultivation both for their fruit and as 
ornamental trees. Propagation is readily effected by seed and layers. 
Plants may also be obtained from cuttings of the ripened wood of the 
current season's growth, which strike freely in sand under a glass. 



GOAT NUT. 

This name is used in California for the fruit of Simmondsia Calif ornica, 
& low-sized shrub of rigid habit belonging to the order Brexaceae. It is 
indigenous to California and other parts of North West America, and 
grows naturally under widely different conditions as regards soil and 
climate. This plant flourishes equally well near to the sea coast, in 
mountain districts, or the interior desert regions. It bears regularly and 
profusely Acorn-like Nuts, which have a pleasant flavour. The Goat 
Nut will thrive in any part of Australia excepting the tropical regions, as 
also in Tasmania and New Zealand, and owing to its hardiness and 
profuseness in bearing is worthy of attention, though the fruit is greatly 
inferior to many other Nuts. It may be grown successfully in almost 
any kind of soil or situation, and even in the most exposed places. 
Probably if tried it would prove a serviceable plant for hedges. Propa- 
gation is easily eff'ected by seeds, which should be planted an inch deep. 
Layers put down in the spring root readily, and cutting will strike freely 
if put in at the same season of the year. 



GOOSEBERRY. 

History. 

This familiar fruit is known botanically under the name of Whes, and 
it belongs to the natural order Grossulace*. The genus embraces a 
number of species, natives principally of the northern regions of Europe, 
Asia, and America, and only three or four are found in other parts of the 
world. With a few exceptions all the species are deciduous small shrubs, 
^nd, while only a few yield serviceable fruits, several others are used for 
prnamental purposes. The Gooseberry has originated from Rihek 
<yroiw/an<i;^. which embraces seven or eight sub-species, and is indigenous 
to ai?eat . fritain and many parts of Northern Europe. The specific 
name conies' from the Latin grossur—n small, green fig. There is some 



uncertainty as to the source from which the English name has been 
derived. According to some authorities, Gooseberry is a corruption of 
of Gorseberry, a name given on account of the bushes being prickly, like 
gorse or furze. Others assert that the name was originally Grosberry, 
derived from the specific one. Then, again, other writers say that the 
name originated through the fruit being commonly used in England 
as a sauce for young, or green geese. In some of the northern counties 
of England the fruit is commonly known as the Feaberry (Fever Berry) 
In some places this name is abbreviated to Feabes. A common name 
for the fruit in Scotland is Grozet or Grozer. Carberry is another name 
used in some parts of England for this fruit. In its wild state the 
fruit of the Goosebery is very small, and has a poor appearance in 
comparison with the cultivated varieties. Unlike most improved fruits, 
however, the Goosebery in its wild state has a richer flavour, if anything^ 
than the improved varieties. Cultivation has greatly altered the fruit 
in size, but has not improved its flavour. 

Edible fruits that may be classed as Gooseberries are yielded by several 
American species, the more prominent being as follows. Rihes cynoshata 
which is widely distributed in the United States and Canada, where it 
is known as the Prickly-fruited Gooseberry. Bibes divaricatum which is 
also widely dispersed, yields a small but pleasant fruit, as does also Bihes 
hirtellum. Bibes Menziesii a species indigenous to California, has large 
but somewhat dry berries. Rihes niveum, an Oregon species, has small 
dark berries that have a rich vinous flavour, but are somewhat acid. 
Bibes oxycanthoideSj indigenous to the mountain regions of California, 
where it is found at an attitude of from six to nine thousand feet, has 
pleasantly flavoured berries of medium size. Bibes quercetorum^ a species 
with well flavoured berries, is the Wild Gooseberry of California. Bibes 
rotundifolia a species with small richly flavoured berries is indigenous to 
Canada and the Northern United States. 

Tlie Gooseberry appears to have been quite unknown to the nations of 
antiquity, as no mention is made of it in their records. As to when it 
was first cultivated in England there is no evidence, but it was 
mentioned by the oldest writers upon British husbandry (Tusser and 
Gerard). The last-named writer says that in his time Gooseberries were 
generally used " in sauces for meats, also in broths, to which they not 
only gave a pleasant taste but made them serviceable to those troubled 
with the ague." Parkinson, another standard English writer, tells us that 
in his time *-the green berries were much used when boiled as a sauce for 
meat or fish, and more especially with mackerel.'' Gordon, a prominent 
Scotch horticulturist, writing in 1774, enumerates twenty varieties of 
Gooseberries as being cultivated in his time. Among the sorts mentioned 
by him are the Champagne, Ironmonger, and one or two others that still 
hold their own in collections. 

Uses. 

The Gooseberry is a useful fruit, both for dessert and culinary purposes, 
and it is turned to good account in several other ways. As a dessert 



8 

fruit it must be thoroughly ripe, as otherwise its flavour is not developed 
and it is somewhat indigestible. For culinary purposes the fruit is 
mostly used before it bec.omes ripe. Gooseberries are used in a green 
state extensively for puddings and tarts, being, when cooked, both 
wholesome and palatable. The unripe fruit may be kept for a long 
time in bottles with water, and large quantities are preserved in this 
way. In preserving in this way, the bottles are filled nearly to their 
tops and then plunged for two or three minutes in boiling water, after 
which they are tightly corked and sealed to prevent the admission of 
air. For canning the Gooseberry is one of the best of fruits and is in 
steady and increasing demand. In the form of jam the Gooseberry 
makes an excellant and popular preserve, and for this purpose it may be 
used either when green or ripe. Gooseberries yield an excellent and 
palatable wine, which when carefully made from the most suitable kinds 
and well matured, is somewhat similar to champagne. Wine is made 
by pressing thoroughly ripe berries (as in the case of Grapes), straining 
off the juice, and allowing it to ferment. When fermentation ceases it 
should be put into casks, and after standing five or six months, may be 
racked off and bottled. The wine may be used as soon as it is bottled, 
but it will be improved if allowed to stand for a few months. If 
carefully made. Gooseberry wine may be kept for many years, and its 
quality Avill improve with age. 

Cultivation. 

The .Gooseberry thrives to perfection in a cool and moist climate, and 
is a fru^t specially adapted for elevated localities and mountain ranges. 
It is useless to attempt its culture in the warmer districts. The flavour 
of the fruit is more highly developed in a cold region, as long as there is 
sufiicient warmth to ripen it. Fruit grown in the north of Scotland is 
by general consent admitted to have a higher flavour than that which is 
grown in the southern parts. In England also the Gooseberry is more 
highly flavoured in the northern than in the southern counties and more 
generally cultivated. Lancashire, in particular, has been, specially noted 
for Gooseberry culture for a long period, and many of the best varieties 
have originated in that county. Under the most favourable conditions 
the Gooseberry will attain a great age, and instances are on record of 
plants in Great Britain that were over forty years old and then yielded 
good crops of fruit. As a rule, however, there is a falling off in the yield 
and size of the fruit when the plants have passed their prime, which is 
usually the case when they are six or seven years old. The finest fruit 
and the best crops are invariably obtained from young plants, and 
plantations should be renewed at intervals of not more than seven or 
eight years. 

Though the Gooseberry may be grown successfully in any fairly good 
land, yet it thrives best in a rich, medium-light soil. To some extent the 
size and quality of the fruit is influenced by the character of the soil. 
For highly flavoured dessert fruit a rich, light, sandy loam, resting upon 
a gravelly subsoil, is the most suitable. If large Gooseberries are 



required, a strong loam, highly enriched, will give the most satisfactory- 
results. In preparing the ground let it be worked deeply, as a good root 
bed is a great advantage. Drainage must also be provided for if 
necessary, and if the soil is not sufficiently rich use enough manure to 
give the plants a fair start. Planting may be done at any time while 
growth is at rest, but it is advisible not to delay till after July. In 
selecting varieties the cultivator should bear in mind the object he has 
in view, and choose those adapted for his requirements. Care should 
also be taken to select well-shaped, vigorous-looking young plants, "The 
distance between in planting should be eight to ten feet each way. 
Keep down weeds by constant attention, but as the plants are apt to 
suffer when their roots are disturbed to any extent the work should be 
performed with care and as lightly as posssible. The Gooseberry is very 
impatient of drought, and it will be advisable to conserve the moisture in 
the soil as long as possible by mulching four or five inches deep early in 
the season, This mulching will also assist in supplying nutriment to the 
plants, which are strong feeders, and whose roots are never quite inactive. 
Plantations of Gooseberries must be kept in heart by the use of manure 
when necessary, and the plants should never be allowed to get stunted 
through lack of nourishment. 




Summer Pbunino. X Showing where Shoots should be pinched back. 



10 




Prepared Cutting 



Branch showing one and two year old wood. 

X — Showing where some of the side shoots 

should be cut back. 




Plant second year from the Cutting. 

Black lines showing where to cut. 

Dotted lines showing where branches 

will be the following season, ojsasj 



The fruit of the Gooseberry is produced both upon the last season's 
wood and spurs from older branches. As a rule the bushes require a 
regular pruning every winter, but to some extent the system must be 
varied according to the habit of the variety and the age and growth of 
the plant. The upright growing kinds, as a matter of course, require 



11 

somewhat different treatment in 2>runing to those that have drooping 
branches. Then, again, if specially large fruit is required, for show 
or other purposes, the shoots must be thinned out and shortened 
back more than would otherwise be necessary. As a general rule in 
pruning the branches should be shortened back and thinned out 
sufficiently for the circulation of air and light and to keep the plants 
compact. Care must also be taken to prune so that no branches will rest 
upon the ground. Summer pruning is useful, as it conserves the energy 
of the plant and saves cutting to some extent in the winter. The practicft 
consists in rubbing off superfluous shoots as soon as growth has fairly 
started, and afterwards stopping those that are too vigorous. 

Propagation. 

Propagation is effected by seeds, layers, and most generally by cuttings. 
Seed is seldom used except for the raising of new varieties, and ordinary 
cultivators rarely trouble themselves to raise plants by this means. The 
seed should be sown in shallow drills as soon as the fruit is ripe, and 
covered with soil to the depth of half-an-inch. In the following winter 
the young plants should be transplanted in rows about two feet apart, 
leaving from twelve to fifteen inches between in the lines. The plants 
will generally fruit the second year, when those that do not come up to a 
fair standard should be weeded out. Plants are readily obtained from 
layers, but this mode of propagation is not widely practised. The most 
generally adopted way of raising plants is by cuttings, which root freely. 
They should be selected from the previous season's growth from strong 
plants, leaving them about a foot long when the tops are cut off. Insert 
the cuttings about six inches deep after removing all the buds that would 
be below the surface, and press the soil firmly. The following season the 
plants will be sufficiently rooted for planting out permanently. A par- 
tially shaded and moderately moist piece of ground is the most suitable 
location for a cutting bed. 

Varieties. 

(Gooseberries vary considerably in size, colour, shape, and quality, and 
an immense number of varieties are cultivated. As a general rule, the 
thinner the skin the finer the flavour of the fruit, but there are exceptions. 
The yellow-fruited kinds, and more especially those of a deep amber hue, 
are considered to be the richest in flavour. The red-fruited kinds have, 
as a rule, a more acid flavour than the yellow sorts, but there are many 
exceptions. For instance, the Red Champagne variety is one of the 
richest and sweetest of Gooseberries. The green-fruited kinds are 
generally inferior to the yellow and red sorts, but to this rule there are 
also many exceptions. The white-fruited kinds are the poorest of all in 
flavour, but as this class, and also the green-berried section, comprise a 
numbei* of large and fine-looking varieties, they are grown rather exten- 
sively for culinary and exhibition purposes. 



12 

The following list embraces a number of the leading varieties in ench 
class : — 

Red GoosEBERiiiEs. 

Beauty — A useful late variety, with long berries. Skin deep red 
tinted with pink. Flavour good. Plant strong, spreading, and a good 
bearer. 

Billt/ Dean, — An old and popular variety, with large berries. Skin 
red. Flavour very good. Plant vigorous and prolific. 

Companion. — This is a useful early variety, with medium-sized berries. 
Skin bright light red, thin, and very hairy. Flavour rich. Plant 
sj)reading in habit, and a very good cropper, 

Clayton. — A good mid-season variety, with very large long berries. 
Skin dark purplish-red with broad light veins. Flavour very' good. 
Plant robust, somewhat pendulous in habit, and bears freely. 

Conquering Hero. — A mid-season variety, with very long well-pro- 
portioned berries. Skin dark red dotted with grey, and slightly hairy. 
Flavour good. Plant strong in habit, large, and spreading, and a fairly 
good cropper. 

Croivn Boh. — An old and favourite variety, with very large oblong 
berries, ripening at mid-seascm. Skin bright red with a tinge of green 
near the stalk, thin, and hairy. Flavour first-class. Plant strong, 
pendulous in habit, and an abundant bearer. 

Dan's Mistake. — A useful variety, with medium-sized berries, which 
ripen at mid-season. Skin bright light red tinted with pink, hairy. 
Flavour fairly good. Plant robust, erect in habit, and prolific. 

Dr. Hogg. — A desirable variety, with long somewhat fiat-sided fruit. 
Skin purplish-red with veins of a deeper colour, slightly hairy. High 
flavour. Plant of strong, upright habit, wood short-jointed, leaves large, 
and a good bearer. 

Foreman. — An excellent medium early variety, with large long 
berries. Skin smooth, colour very dark red. Flavour very good. Plant 
strong, spreading, with long pendulous shoots. 

Forester. — An early variety, with plump short fruit. Skin hairy, 
bright red. Flavour sweet and rich. Plant erect in growth, and a very 
free bearer. 

Ironmonger {Hairy Black). — This is one of the oldest varieties in 
cultivation and is a general favourite. Berries small and roundisli. 
Skin hairy, very dark red. Flavour rich. Plant spreading in habit, and 
very prolific. 

Lion's Provider. — An excellent and useful mid-season variety, with 
large long handsome berries. Skin bright light red with a pink tinge. 
Flavour good. Plant produces long erect shoots, and bears very freely. 

Red Champagne. — A favourite old variety, with small roundish fruit. 
Skin thick, hairy, deep red. Flavour very sweet and rich. Plant very 
«rect in growth, and bears in great abundance. One of the most popular 
dessert Gooseberries. 

Red Bobin.^ -An excellent early variety, with plump berries of medium 



18 

size. Skin hairy, very dark red. Flavour rich. Plant erect in habit, 
and a prolific bearer. 

Red Warrington (Aston, Volunteer). — This is an old and popular late 
variety, with roundish oblong berries, above medium size, and will hang 
well after they are ripe. Skin hairy, deep red. Flavour fairly good. 
Plant strong, pendulous in habit, and very prolific. This is one of the 
best varieties for culinary use and preserving. 

Rifleman {Duke of York, Royal Anne, Admirable). — A first-class lafe " 
variety, with large roundish berries. Skin hairy, deep red. Flavour 
very good. Plant robust, erect, and a free bearer. 

Rough Red {Red Hairi/, Scotch Red). — An old and favourite variety, 
with small round berries. Skin hairy, dark red. Flavour sweet and 
rich. A good preserving variety. Plant strong, spreading in habit, and 
very prolific. 

Rloughbot/. — A fine and useful late variety, with very large long 
berries. Skin smooth, bright light red with a yellow tinge. Flavour 
very good. Plant spreading, and bears freely. 

Slaughterman. — An early variety, with fine large long berries. Skin 
thin, slightly hairy% dark red and mottled. Flavour first-class. Plant 
pendulous in growth, and an excellent bearer. 

Whinhams Indiistry. — An excellent and popular variety, with very 
large berries, and in England considered one of the best early market 
Gooseberries. Skin a dark dusky red. Plant robust and very prolific. 

Gf; K KX OOOS K M V. \{ U IKS. 

Drill. — A late and excellent variety, wdtli large long berries Skin 
smooth, deep dull green tinged -with yellow. Flavour good. Plant 
vigorous, with a spreading' habit, and bears abundantly. 

Fearless. — A very good mid-season variety, with plump berries of 
medium length. Skin smooth, light green suifused with grey. 
Flavour good. Plant strong, spreading, and bears fairly well. 

General Markham. — A fine, medium early variety, Avith large long" 
berries. Skin smooth, dark Ibright green with veins of a lighter 
colour. Flavoui' very good. Plant sti-ong, with lai'ge foliage, and a 
prolific bearei'. 

Glenton Green {Hedgehog). — A mid-season variety with medium- 
sized berries. Skin rather thick, ver}' hairy, bright gi'een with 
lighter veins. Flavour sweet and i-ich. Plant strong, pendulous, 
and an excellent bearer. 

Green Gascoigne {Early Green, Green Hairy). — A very early vaiiety, 
with small round berries. Skin thin, thickly covered with hairs, 
dark green. Flavour very sweet and luscious. Plant strong, very 
erect in habit, and bears freely. 

Green Overall. — An excellent early variety, with plump round 
berries of medium length. Skin thin, smooth, deep gi^een. Flavour 
sweet and rich. Plant robust, spreading in habit, and bears very 
freely. 

Green PHnce. — A medium early variety, w4tli thick long berries. 



14 

Skin thin, slightly covered with hair, pale light gi*een. Flavour 
good. Plant vigorous, spreading, and an excellent bearer. 

Gretna Green. — A mind-season variety, with round plump berries 
of medium length. Skin hairy, dark bright green. Flavour sweet 
and good. Plant strong in habit, erect, and very prolific. 

Heart of Oak. — This is an excellent and popular old variety, with 
large oblong berries. Skin thin, smooth, pale green with yellowish 
veins. Flavour sweet and luscious. Plant strong, pendulous in 
habit, and a heavy bearer. 

Jolly T'ar.— Another excellent and popular old variety, with large 
obovate berries. Skin smooth, deep green. Flavour first-class. Plant 
robust, pendulous in habit, and an abundant bearer. 

Laurel {Green Laurel^ Green Willow). — This is an excellent medium 
early variety, with large obovate berries. Skin pale green. Flavour 
sweet and luscious. Plant erect, and very prolific. 

Pltmaston Green Gage. — ^A desirable vaHety, with small obovate 
berries. Skin smooth, bright gTeen. Flavour rich. Plant erect in 
habit, and bears well. 

Plunder, — A medium early variety, with large long beiTies. Skin 
smooth, light green tinged with white. Plant vigorous, spreading 
in habit, and a very free bearer. 

Prog7r88. — A late variety, with long berries a little flat-sided. 
Skin slightly covered with hair, pale green. Flavour good. Plant 
strong, pendulous in habit, and very prolific. 

Safety. — A mid-season variety, with long tapering berries. Skin 
thin, smooth, pale gi'een. Flavour sweet and luscious. Plant robust, 
spreading in habit, and an abundant bearer. 

Sir Charles Napier. — This is a good variety, with large berries of 
medium length. Skin smooth, deep green with lighter veins. 
Flavour good. Plant vigorous and prolific. 

Shiner. — A variety with very large and heavy roundish berries. 
Skin smooth, light green tinged with white. Flavour good. Plant 
vigorous, spreading in habit, and bears abundantly. 

Telegraph. — An excellent late variety, with large long beiTies. 
Skin smooth, deep bright green with light veins. Flavour very 
good. Plant strong, erect in habit, with short joints, and a good 
bearer. 

Thumper. — A first-class late variety, with large plump berries of 
medium length. Skin hairy, deep gi-een. Flavour very good. 
Plant moderately robust, erect in habit, Avith short-jointed wood, 
and bears freely. 

Thunder. — A good early variety, with plump berries of medium 
length, Skin hairy, deep green. Flavour very good. Plant 
moderately robust, erect in habit, Avith short-jointed wood, and bears 
freely. 

White Gooseberries 
A Ima* — A useful variety, with large plump berries of medium 



15 

length. Skin smooth, greenish white. Flavour good. Plant strong, 
spreading in habit, and an excellent bearer. 

A ntagonist — This variety is one of the largest white Grooseberries 
in cultivation. Berries very large and long, ripening at mid-season. 
Skin hairy, creamy white with pale green veins. Flavour very good. 
Plant very robust, spreading in habit, and bears in great abundance. 

Bright Venus. — An excellent rather late variety, with medium- 
sized obovate berries, which hang well after they are ripe. Skm 
slightly covered with hair, greenish white. Flavour very sweet and 
luscious. Plant strong, rather erect, and a good bearer. 

Careless. — One of the best of the white varieties, with large long 
berries. Skin smooth, creamy white. Flavour good. Plant vigorous, 
spreading in habit, and bears very freely. 

Cri/stal. — A useful very late variety, with small roundish berries. 
Skin thick, smooth, creamy white. Flavour fairly good. Plant 
moderately vigorous, spreading in habit, rather pendulous, and a 
fair bearer 

Elizabeth. — A fine medium early variety, with large long berries. 
Skin smooth, greenish white. Flavour good. Plant strong, pendulous 
in habit, and a prolific bearer. 

Hero of the Nile. — A mid-season variety, with plump berries of 
medium length. Skin smooth, greenish white. Flavour good. 
Plant moderately vigorous, spreading in habit, and bears freely. 

Jenny Jones. — A medium early variety, with large long berries. 
Skin smooth, thin, greenish white. Flavour sweet and rich. Plant 
strong, spreading, and a moderately good bearer. 

King of Trumjps. — This variety has thick plump berries of medium 
length. Skin slightly covered with hair, dull greenish white. Flavour 
good Plant moderately strong, pendulous in habit, and a free bearer. 

Lady Leicester. — An early variety, with plump berries of medium 
length. Skin hairy, greyish-white with green veins. Flavour good. 
Plant moderately robust, erect in habit, and prolific. 

Mitre. — A variety ripening at mid-season, with thick round berries. 
Skin hairy, greyish-white. Flavour very good. Plant strong erect in 
habit, and an excellent bearer. 

Moreton Lass. — An excellent mid-season variety, with thick roundish 
berries of moderate length. Skin smooth, creamy white. Flavour sweet 
and rich. Plant strong, erect, and bears very freely. 

Postman. — A desirable variety, with large round berries of medium 
length. Skin hairy, white, with broad green veins. Flavour good. 
Plant very vigorous, spreading, and a good bearer. 

Queen of Trumps. — A first-class early variety, with large long berries. 
Skin smooth, dull greenish -white. Flavour rich. Plant very robust, 
spreading in habit, and a good cropper, 

Sheba Queen. — A variety with large obovate berries. Skin greyish- 
white and downy. Flavour very good. Plant strong, erect in habit, and 
a good bearer. 

Snowball. — This variety has large round fruit of medium length. 
Skin hairy, creamy white. Flavour good. Plant strong, spreading, and 
prolific. 



16 

Snowdrop. — An excellent variety, with thick plump berries of medium 
lengtli. Skin thin and hairy, greyish white with broad green veins. 
Flavour rich and luscious. Plant vigorous, spreading, and prolific. 

Tallf/ llo. — This variety has large long oval berries. Skin hairy, 
greenish-white. Flavour fairly good. Plant strong, erect, and a free 
bearer. 

^Yllite Lion. — A first-class late variety, with very large long berries. 
Skin greyish-white. Flavour very good. Plant strong, pendulous, and 
prolific. 

Whitesmith {Lancashire Lass). — An old and popular variety, with 
large roundish oblong berries. Skin creamy white. Flavour very good. 
Plant strong, erect, and a free bearer. 

Yellow Gooseberries. 

Broomgirl. — An excellent old variety, which ripens early, and has 
large plump berries of medium length. Skin thin and hairy, dark 
yellow shaded with olive brown. Fruit sweet and highly flavoured. 
Plant robust erect in habit, and bears very freely. 

Catherina. — A medium early variety, with large long berries. Skin 
slightly covered with hair, bright de6p orange. Flavour sweet and 
luscious. Plant moderately robust, spreading, and a fairly good bearer. 

Criterion. — An excellent variety, with plump berries of medium length, 
Skin slightly hairy, dark greenish-yellow. Flavour very good. Plant 
vigorous, spreading, slightly pendulous, and bears very freely. 

Early Sulphur (GoldeT) Ball). — A very early variety, with medium- 
sized roundish oblong berries. Skin hairy, pale yellow. Flavour fairly 
good, but not e(|ual to many other varieties. Plant strong, erect, and a 
great bearer 

Garibaldi. — A variety with large long well-formed berries. Skin 
hairy, bright deep yellow. Flavour sweet and rich. Plant strong, 
spreading in habit, and very prolific. 

Gipsy Queen, — A first-class early variety, with large fruit of medium 
length. Skin pale yellow, blended with white. Flavour sweet and 
luscious. Plant moderately vigorous, spreading, and a good cropper. 

Goldjinder. — A desirable variety, with very large long berries. Skin 
hairy, light yellow. Flavour very rich. Plant robust, spreading, and 
prolific. 

High Sheriff. — An excellent variety, with large round berries. Skin 
very hairy, deep orange. Flavour sweet and rich. Plant strong, 
pendulous, and an excellent bearer. 

Leader. — One of the best yellow varieties, with large berries of medium 
length. Skin smooth, thin, dull greenish-yellow. Flavour very rich. 
Plant robust, spreading and a very free bearer. 

Jjeveller. — Another of the best yellow varieties, with large long berries. 
Skin smooth, dull greenish-yellow. Flavour sweet and rich. Plant 
vigorous, spreading, and an excellent bearer. 

Moreton Hero. — A first-class variety, w^ith large long berries. Skin 



17 

thin, smooth, pale yellow. Flavour very rich. Plant strong, erect, and 
prolific. 

Mount Pleasant. — A late and excellent variety, with large long 
berries. Skin hairy, deep orange yellow. Flavour rich. Plant strong, 
spreading, and a free bearer. 

Perfection. — A variety with large roundish berries of medium length. 
Skin thin, slightly hairy, light yellow. Flavour sweet and luscious. 
Plant fairly vigorous, and a moderately good bearer. __ _ 

Pretty Bo//. — A very good variety, with large berries of medium length 
Skin hairy, bright orange, mottled with a deeper shade. Flavour rich. 
Plant moderately vigorous, and very prolific. 

Bailway. — A good late variety, with large roundish fruit of medium 
length. Skin dull greenish-yellow Flavour good. Plant strong, 
spreading in habit, and bears freely. 

Smiling Beaut tf. — A variety with large oblong berries. Skin thin, 
smooth, deep yellow. Flavour very rich. Plant robust, pendulous, and 
a good cropper. 

Irumpeter. — A desirable variety, with large long berries. Skin 
smooth, dull pale orange. Flavour good. Plant strong, spreading, and 
prolific. 

Two to 0)1 e. — A variety with large long berries. Skin thin, hairy, 
bright golden yellow. Flavour good. Plant robust, spreading in habit, 
and a free bearer. 

Yellow Champagne {Hairy Amber). — An old and favourite variety, 
with small roundish berries. Skin hairy, deep yellow. Flavour very 
sweet and rich. Plant vigorous, erect in habit, and very prolific. 

Yelloiv Warrington {Yelloio Aston).— A useful old variety, with 
medium-sized roundish oblong berries. Skin hairy, deep yellow. 
Flavour rich and luscious. Plant strong, pendulous in habit, and 
bears abundantly. 



GOURDS. 

HisTORV AM> Uses 

The plants known under this name, embrace several species of 
Cucurbita Avhicli is the type of the order Cucurbitacese or the 
Cucumber family. They include the Pumpkin, Squash, Vegetable 
Marrow, Calabash Grourd, and other kinds. Several of them are 
largely cultivated as vegetables, some are utilized in other ways, and 
many are grown as purel}- ornamental plants. The various kinds 
differ considerably in the size and shape of their fruits, which in 
some cases assume fantastic forms. Pumpkins, or Pompkins, have 
originated from two species, viz., Cucurbita maodma, which is the 
source of large fruited varieties and Cucurbita Pepo the parent of 
the smaller kinds. There is some uncertainty as to the origin of 
these species, but probably they belong to Eastern or Central Asia. 
The various kinds of Pumpkins are excellent as a vegetable when 

2a 



18 
Forms of Pumpkins. 




Turks Cap. 





Ironbark 




Large Oval. J^'lat. 

Forms of Squashes. 





Electors Cap 



Eound Warted. 



19 



Forms of Squashes. 




Ohio. 





Patagonian. 



Chestnut. 




Crookneck. 




Waited or Early Bush 
Crookneck. 



Portmanteau n 
Nqapohtan. 



20 
Forms of Squashes 





Hubbaid. 



Brazilian Sugar 



Forms of, Vegetable Marrows 





Common Forms. 



Long White. 



Italian Green Striped. 



21 



Forms c»i- Lagexaria Vulgaris. 




Long-fruited Gourd. 




Long Siphon Gould. 





Flat or Plate Gourd. 



Club Gourd. 




Siphon Gourd, 




22 

ripe, and may be kept in good condition for several months. They 
make^also a very g-ood vegetable when used young. As food for 
cafcfele; the Pumpkin is also deserving of attention. They are 
extensively cultivated in some parts of Australia and more especially 
in New South Wales, where they are often grown with the maize 
crop^. 

What is known as the Squash has its source in Cncurhita melopepo 
which however is considered by some botanists to be merely a variety 
of C. Pepo. Fruits differing widely in form and size commonly 
bear the name of Squash and many would be more correctly classed 
as Pumpkins. The fruit of several varieties is largely used as a 
Tegetable and these kinds are generally cultivated. 

The Vegetable Marrow or Succade Gouid as it is sometimes called, 
has its source in Cucurhita ovigera which some botanists consider to 
be merely a form of C. Pepo It is said to have oi-iginated in Persia, 
and was first taken to Europe about seventy years ago. The fruit of 
the Vegetable Marrow can be utilized as a vegetable in various 
stages of growth, and when used green is better than that yielded by 
any other plant of the same family. Though generally used gi^^en 
when partially grown, the ripe fruit also makes an excellent 
vegetable, and it may be kept for a considerable time. It makes an 
excellent winter vegetable and should be largely used as such. 
When the young unripe fruit is used it should be i-emoved from the 
plants when not more than half grown, leaving none to mature, as 
when allowed to attain its full size and ripen, the plants Avill cease to 
bear freely. 

Cucurhita moschata is the Musky Gourd, a species whose origin is 
uncertain. This species has very large fruit and is extensively used 
in Italy and other countries in Southern Europe. The Calabash or 
Bottle Grourd is Lagenaria vulgaris (Cucurhita lagenaria) an Indian 
species. The fruit of this species, when lipe, has a hard outer 
covering or shell, and after the inside pulp is removed it is used as 
vessels for holding liquid, hence the name Bottle Gourd. There are 
numerous varieties of this species which differ widely in the shape of 
their fruits. Lniffa cegyptica {Momordica hi fa) y'elds the fruit known 
as the Dish-Cloth or Sponge Gourd. The flesh of this Gourd consists 
of a porous sponge-like substance which is very soft and pliable. 
For use in the bath it is preferred to the ordinary sponge by many 
and also for kitchen use. 

Cultivation and Propagation. 

All the species and varieties of Gourds require a rich soil, warmth 
and moisture to bring them to perfection. They also require strong 
and rapid growth for their development. All the species are tender 
and cannot be safely planted in the open ground till all danger from 
frost has passed. The treatment required in cultivation is, in every 
respect the same as recommended for the Cucumber. Pi'opagation is 
also effected in the same way. Some slight difference in practice 
will, however, be necessary, as regards the distances between the 



28 

plants, which should be determined by the growth of the particular 
kind, leaving in all cases sufficient room for- free development. 
There must also be some difference in practice as regards the removal 
of the fruit, as when used before it is fully developed, as with the 
Vegetable Marrow, it must be taken off regularly when partially 
grown. On the other hand when Gourds have to ripen, none of the 
fruit should be removed, as that which is formed first is usually the 
best. 



GRAPE. 

History. 

Botanically, the Grape Vine is known as Vitis vinifera, and it belongs 
to the natural order Vitacece. Vitis is derived from a Celtic w^rd, and 
signifies the best of trees, in allusion to the great usefulness of the genus. 
The specific name vinifera means wine-bearing. The English name 
Grape comes from the Saxon " Grab " or '* Gripe," signifying a bunch or 
cluster. As is the case with many other of our economical plants, the 
early history of the Grape is involved in some obscurity. 

Excepting the Pig, the Grape is the oldest fruit mentioned in history, 
and it appears to have been cultivated by mankind from a very 
remote period. The first record we have of this fruit is in the 
Bible, which informs us that Noah planted a vineyard, and made use 
of wine. Probably the Grape was known at a still earlier period, 
though no records exist as to its cultivation previous to the Deluge. 
Some learned theological writers have been of opinion that it was 
the Grape, and not the Apple, as is generally supposed, which was 
the forbidden fruit that tempted Adam and Eve in the Garden of 
Eden. With the ancient Hebrews and contemporary nations the Grape 
Vine appears to have been very popular, as it is frequently mentioned in 
the Bible. Wine appears to have been in general use by the Jews, and 
they are said to have had a custom of, from humane motives, plying 
criminals with it before their execution, in order to stimulate them. 
Vineyards were common with this nation, and at a very early period 
Ararat, Damascus, and Lebanon became famous for their wines. 

According to history, the Grape was first introduced to Europe by the 
Greeks, who, at an early period, became renowned for their wines. This 
reputation is alluded to frequently in the works of Homer, Horace, and 
other ancient historians. Old Greek writers inform us also that in 
making wine it was the practice of their nation to use various odoriferous 
herbs, as also salt water, to give particular flavours. According to pa£fan 
mythology, Bacchus was made a deity because he taught men tJie use of 
wine. As the god of wine and the vintage he was always represented 
with a crown of the Grape Vine. According to Pliny, Bacchus was the 
first being who wore a crown. The goddess Juno was also always 
represented wearing a crown of Grape leaves. The traditions of the early 
Egyptians claim for Osiris the credit of being the first to grow the Grape 



24 . 

and teach the use of wine. Some authorities have been of opinion that 
Bacchus, Osiris, and Noah were simply different names for the one 
individual. 

From Greece the Grape was taken to Italy, and soon afterwards it 
was distributed through the other countries of Southern Europe. Soon 
after its introduction to their country the Vine became very popular 
with the Romans, who cultivated it extensively. According to Pliny, 
no less than 195 varieties of Grapes were known and cultivated in his 
time. Wine appears to have been used freely *by both Greeks and 
Romans, not only for ordinary purposes, but also in oblations to the 
gods when practising their religious ceremonies. But though the use 
of wine was general with the Roman nation, yet for a long time its abuse 
was strictly guarded against by special legislation. Young men were 
not allowed to drink wine till they were thirty years of age, and women 
were strictly prohibited from touching it at any time. Any breach of 
the laws dealing with this matter led to very severe punishments. 
According to history, a prominent Roman, Egnatius Macennis, in a fit of 
anger killed his wife for drinking wine, and when tried for the offence 
before Romulus he was acquitted on the ground that under the 
circumstances his action was justifiable. It is also recorded that a 
Roman lady of rank was stoned to death by her own relations for 
breaking open a cellar and indulging in wine. Cato informs us that the 
custom of kissing women originated in the desire to find from their 
breath whether they had been taking wine. Gradually, however, the 
severe restrictions as to the abuse of wine were relaxed, and drinking to 
excess become a common practice with both sexes. So great did the 
demand for wine become eventually, that vine-growing increased to such 
an extent as to cause the neglect of other branches of Roman agriculture. 
To change this state of affairs, Domitian issued an edict ordering that 
half the vineyards should be destroyed, and prohibiting the planting of 
new ones. 

Great attention appears to have been given to their vineyards by the 
ancients, who seem to have been well acquainted with the arts of 
propagating and pruning. Pliny informs us, that, in order to encourage 
pruning, wine from unpruned vines was prohibited in sacrificing to the 
gods. The art of preserving Grapes, both in a fresh and dried state, 
appears to have been generally j^ractised by several of the nations of 
antiquity. Dried fruits, or raisins, was prepared by both Greeks and 
Romans, whose practise was to dip the bunches into a hot lye made with 
wood ashes, and then dry them in the sun. Fruit is prepared in Spain 
at the present time in precisely the same manner. Columella informs us 
that fresh Grapes were in his time preserved for long periods by packing 
them in small jars, one bunch in each. The fruit was gathered when 
perfectly dry and the sun shining fully upon the bunches, which were 
then hung in a shady place to cool. The bunches were suspended in 
the jars so that they hung by their stalks, and the space left between was 
filled with chaff. Afterwards the mouths of the jars were closed tightly, 
and covered with a layer of pitch or wax, to exclude the air. The jars 
were then kept in cool cellars till the fruit was wanted. 



25 

According to history vineyards were iit one time common in England, 
and the Grape is supposed to have been introduced to that country at 
the time of the Roman invasion. Vineyards are frequently mentioned 
in early Saxon charters, and also in the Domesday Book. William of 
Malmsbury, who lived at the beginning of the twelfth century, described 
flourishing vineyards as existing in Gloucestershire, and states that the 
wine made from them was equal to that which was obtained from 
France. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries many of the castles_ 
and monasteries in the southern and western counties of England appear 
to have had their vineyards. If these historical records are to be 
credited, the climate of England must have changed materially, or the 
Grape Vine has become more tender than it was, as in that country it is 
at the present time a very uncertain plant when grown in the open air 
without protection. Under cover, however. Grapes are grown to a 
greater degree of perfection in the United Kingdom than in any other 
part of the world. Within the last few years bunches up to 26 lbs. in 
weight have been produced under glass, and 10 to 15 lbs. is quite a 
common weight. 

Grape Cultuee as a Prominent Industry. 

Among the many useful fruits none is more universally cultivated 
or holds a higher rank, from a commercial point of view, than the Grape. 
It is cultivated extensively in every division of the globe, and in many 
countries vine-growing is a staple agricultural industry. The cultivation 
of the Grape became a staple agricultural industry in France, Spain, and 
Portugal at remote periods, and ever since those countries have been in 
high repute for their wines. In those countries at the present day, 
and also in Italy and Greece, vine-growing is a prominent industry, and 
in many cases localities are turned to good account for vineyards which 
are comparatively useless for other purposes. In those countries 
vineyards are frequently to be seen on the steep sides of mountains, 
where it would be impossible to cultivate grain or any other ordinary 
crops. Throughout a considerable portion of Germany, the vine-growing 
industry occupies a prominent position, as it does also in Hungary and 
Switzerland. Vine-growing is also receiving a considerable amount of 
attention in the United States, and more especially in California where 
the production of wine and the manufacture of raisins and currants has 
assumed large proportions. Great advances in Vine culture has also 
been made in the Australian colonies, and more especially within the 
last few years, and the annual yield of wine is now very considerable. 
There is every promise that it will be much greater a few years hence, 
and one of our staple agricultural industries. 

The Grape is sucessfully cultivated for wine-making in European 
countries up to the 51st degree of latitude. In the Southern Hemisphere 
the limit is about the 40th degree. As regards altitude the highest 
point at which the Grape is successfully cultivated is about 3000 feet 
above the sea-level in Spain. At Teneriffe the limit of successful 
cultivation is 2500, and on the Alps about 2000 feet. Though the 



^6 

Grape Vine will grow freely in moderately cool localities, and may 
even yield heavy crops, yet the fruit always possesses more acidity 
than wheti grown in warmer regions, and consequently is less valuable 
for wine. A moderately high temperature is not only more favourable 
to the perfect ripening of the fruit, which is essential to the production 
of good wines, but the strong heat also develops more saccharine matter, 
which increases their strength. Within the tropics, however, except in 
very elevated regions, the heat is generally too great for the successful 
cultivation of the Grape Vine, as the juices are apt to ferment before the 
berries are fully ripe. In Australasia the climatic conditions vary con- 
siderably, and growers for wine must always bear this fact in mind 
when they are planting. The character of wines are materially 
influenced by climate, as also other local conditions, and planters must 
select varieties that are likely to prove most suitable. In the warm 
dry districts, where there is a strong light, and a grejit heat at the 
ripening period, wines rich in alcohol can be obtained, which will be 
similar to the Sherry and Port of Spain and Portugal. From the cooler 
districts near the coast, or more elevated regions, light dinner wines 
such as Claret, Chablis, and Hock can be produced in perfection. Then, 
again, in intermediate climates, such as exist in many parts of the colony, 
various clas-<es of wine can be produced. 

Hardiness and Longevity. 

The Grape Vine is naturally a long-lived plant, and under favourable 
conditions will attain a great age and size. Many instances are recorded 
by ancient writers as to its great longevity. Pliny mentions a vine that 
existed in his time, which was over 600 years old. Columella tells 
us that Seneca possessed a large Grape Vine that produced over 
2000 bunches of fruit in a year. Strabo describes a Grape Vine whose 
stem was twelve feet in diameter. Theophrastus mentions a plant 
that was so large that a statue of Jupiter and columns for .Juno's 
Temple were carved from it. At Ravenna in Italy, the doors of the 
cathedral are said to be made of vine wood. The planks being twelve 
feet long and fifteen inches wide. Coming to modern times, there are 
numerous instances of Grape Vines attaining a great age and size. In 
Italy, Spain, and Greece, well authenticated records exist of vineyards 
lasting for more than 300 years, and then yielding good crops. The 
celebrated Hampton Court Vine in England, which was planted in 
1769, is still in a flourishing condition, covering about 2000 feet of 
wall space, and producing over a ton of fruit annually. Another 
English vine, growing in Essex, and planted in 1756, has attained a 
still greater size. Both of these plants are of the variety known as the 
Black Hamburgh. 

Uses. 

Medicinally, ripe Grapes are considered to be cooling and antiseptic, 
but laxative if taken in large quantities. They are considered to have 



27 

beneficial effects in bilious fevers, dysentery, and inflammatory infections, 
Eaisins and currants are considered to be somewhat more laxative than 
the fresh fruit. The unripe berries of Grapes contain free citric and 
tartaric acid in abundance, which disappear as the fruit ripens. The 
juice of unripe fruit, which is known as "verjuice," was at onetime 
considered to be a good application for bruises. Formerly, the leaves 
and tendrils of the Grape \me were used in cases of diarrhoea and 
hemorrhage, or other complaints requiring astringent remedies. By 
ancient nations the sap of the Grape Vine, called *' Lichrj-ma,,' was 
considered to be an excellent remedy for weak eyes when applied 
externally, and for the stone or gravel w^hen used internally. 

The Grape Vine was utilized by ancient nations in a variety of ways. 
In addition to making wine, large quantities of the fruit were eaten 
fresh, or dried as raisins, and they formed a considerable item in the diet 
of the people. The tendrils cut young were very popular with the 
Romans as a pickle. From the Summer prunings, or tendrils cut into 
small pieces and bruised, with the addition of boiling water, an 
intoxicating li.{uor was obtained by fermentation. It was also customary 
to use the leaves in cooking for enveloping small balls of chopped meat, 
a practice still followed to some extent in various parts of Europe in 
roasting small birds. 

There is a wide field open to cultivators in the Australasian Colonies, 
in the production of Grapes, and they can scarcely go wrong in entering 
upon this industry. Whether the object of the grower be the production 
of wine or the making of raisins and currants, he has a large and 
exi)anding market open to him, as these products are not only required 
in considerable quantities for our own use, but any surplus raised can 
be profitably exported. The cultivation of the Grape Vine for wine is 
likely to prove one of our staple agricultural industries, as the right 
kind of produce will always be in great demand in the British market, 
to which we must necessarily look to as the safety-valve against over- 
production in carrying on our agricultural industries. Wine has an 
advantage over some of our other farm products, as it is more valuable 
in proportion to bulk, and is, therefore, better able to bear the transport 
and other charges. Another advantage is that wine may be kept for 
many years, if necessary, and therefore, need not be forced upon 
stagnant or glutted markets. Some attention, during the last few years, 
has been paid to the growing of Grapes for raisins and currants, and a 
considerable area has been planted with kinds that are suitable. This 
industry gives promise of expanding to large proportions, as the con- 
sumption of both raisins and currants within the colony is considerable, 
and after the home supply is met, there is nothing to prevent 
Australian growers from finding a good market for any surplus they 
may raise in the United Kingdom. 

Conditions under which the Grape may be Cultivated. 

The Grape Vine may be grown with success in almost any soil and 
situation, and no fruit is more cosmopolitan in its requirements. It will 



28 

thrive more or less in most parts of Australasia, except in tropical 
regions, and comparatively p<^or soils, which are useless for other crops, 
may be often utilized to advantage with Grape Vines. But though the 
Grape will readily adapt itself to various conditions, yet the fruit will 
vary considerabl) in quality according to the climate, nature of the soil, 
and treatment. As a rule, the strongest and highest flavoured wines 
are obtained from calcarous or limestone soils in the medium warm 
districts ; clay, schistose, and volcanic soils also yield rich wines. 
Though heavy crops of fruit may be obtained from rich deep alluvial 
soils, yet the wine from them will usually be only of a secondary class. 
Sandy soils are more suited to the production of light than strong wines. 
The same remarks will apply when the fruit is grown for raisins or 
currants, but to a less extent with table grapes. As regards the site 
for a vineyard, the question of aspect is not of much consequence in the 
medium warm regions. In the colder districts, however, or in other 
localities where the frosts are apt to linger, the aspect is a matter of 
some importance, and when a choice is available, some care should be 
taken to get the best one as far as is practicable. The most perfect site 
is a gentle slope, with an aspect between north and east, so as to obtain 
the advantage of the morning sun. Alluvial flats, or the bottoms of 
gullies, where cold fogs are prevalent, should be avoided for vineyards, 
as late frosts are generally common in these localities. In situations 
that are liable to these late frosts, a crop of Grapes can never be 
depended upon, as if they occur when the plants are in blossom, there 
is small chance of any fruit setting. Proximity to mountain ranges 
will often have a material efi'ect upon the climate, and consequently 
upon the quality of the fniit for wine-making. The cultivator will find 
it to his advantage to take into consideration all these details, in order to 
obtain the maximum of success in his business. 

Preparation of the Soil. 

It is advisable in planting vines to prepare the ground in the best 
possible manner, as far as is practicable, as a good foundation is of 
greater importance than is commonly supposed. The treatment required 
is not the same in all classes, and the cultivator must modify his practice 
to suit local conditions. Heavy retentive soils require to be deeply 
stirred, so that air may be able to penetrate freely, and to give the plants 
facilities for sending their roots down. These soils are too compact to 
afford a good feeding ground for the vines unless they are worked deeply. 
Things are, however, somewhat different in the case of loose sandy 
and gravelly soils, or where the subsoil lying near the surface is free and 
open. An ordinary deep ploughing may be sufficient in these cases, as 
no mechanical treatment is required to free the under soil, which is 
naturally open enough, when the top crust is broken, to admit air and 
allow the roots to penetrate. When such conditions exist, it is un- 
necessary to spend labour and capital in stirring the land deeply. But, 
unless in soils that are naturally light and open, deep cultivation should 
be the rule, and any extra expunditure in this direction will generally 



29 

prove an excellent investment. It is true that some cultivators have 
obtained satisfactory results from land that has been merely ploughed 
in the ordinary way, and this fact has induced many to arrive at the 
conclusion that deep stirring is unnecessary. This conclusion, however, 
is wrong, as though shallow working, as previously stated, may be 
sufficient for certain soils, yet it is not for others. In breaking up the 
ground, though deep stirring may be necessary, it is not advisable to 
turn up a bad subsoil to the surface, a mistake that has often been made.~ 
Whenever, therefore, the under soil is inferior, the better plan will be 
to simply break or stir it, and leave it in the same position as before. 
On the other hand, if the soil is uniformly good no harm will result from 
turning it over. The very best means of preparing land is by hand 
trenching, which disintegrates and mixe& the soil more thoroughly than 
can be done in any other way. This method, however, is too costly for 
the majority of cultivators, who have necessarily to study economy in 
getting the ground prepared and planted. Land may be fairly well 
prepared by using a subsoil plough, by which it can readily be stirred to 
the depth of from fifteen to eighteen inches. The ground may also be 
easily and cheaply prepared by deeply ploughing, and following in the 
furrows with anotlier plough without the mouldboard. 

Drainage should be provided for when necessary, and more especially 
in the case of heavy soils. Though the Grape is more hardy in being 
able to stand in wet land than most other fruits, yet it will thrive better 
when there is perfect drainage. Whenever the water hangs for any 
length of time in the ground it shows that assistance is required in the 
form of drainage. Some soils, such as are sandy, gravelly, or open 
limestone, may have sufficient natural drainage, when, as a matter of 
course, there is no occasion to make provision for it. 

Selection of A^arieties. 

In making a selection, cultivators must be guided in a large measure 
by the objects they have in view in utilizing their Grapes, as also the 
climatic and soil conditions, which are important factors. When the 
production of wine is the object the planter should carefully consider 
what kinds of Grapes are likely to give the most satisfactoiy results. 
He should, therefore, plant such kinds as will supply wines that can be 
produced to perfection in the particular locality. Some districts are 
specially suitable for wines of a particular chiss, which other localities are 
unsuitable for, and this fact the grower should duly consider in making 
his selection. Growers will also do weJl to bear in mind that it is 
impossible to obtain superior wines of different classes from the same 
vineyard. Many of the early cultivators made the great mistake of 
planting many reputable varieties, and attempting to make wines of all 
classes. Because they grew the same varieties of Grapes as produce 
Claret, Hock, Port, Sherry, and other European wines, they have been 
too often under the impression that their products w^ould be similar. 
They lost sight of the fact that the various classes of European wines are 
produced under widely different conditions as regards climate, soils, and 



30 

treatment. Though a particular kind of Grape is certainly required as 
the base of each sort of wine, yet it must be remembered that results are 
often materially modified by climates, soils, seasons, degree of ripeness 
when fruit is gathered, and after treatment. The same kind of Grape 
will, under widely different conditions, produce wine that will vary 
greatly in quality. In this resi)ect, however, some varieties differ to a 
much larger extent than others. Lateness in starting into growth and 
ripening its fruit is also a matter that must be considered in choosing a 
variety for the more backward districts, though in warmer regions this is 
a matter of no great importance. As regards climate, the varieties chosen 
for the cooler and moister regions should be such as produce Claret and 
other light dinner wines of a similar class to those made in the French 
districts of Bordeaux, liurgundy, and Champagne. On the other hand, 
in the inland or more northern districts, where great heat prevails with a 
dry atmosphere, strong wines similar to the Port and Sherry of the South 
of Europe can be produced. Then again in some localities there is a 
sort of intermediate climate where different classes of wine can be 
produced in perfection. As regards the influence of soils upon the 
quality of wines, it is a well-known fact that many of the choicest kinds 
in Europe are the products of poor land that is unfit for general 
cultivation. Some of the best vineyards of Burgundy consist of calcareous 
soil containing over eighty per cent, of insoluble matter. Bordeaux has 
vineyards composed of from eighty-five to ninety per cent, of pebbles 
and sand. In the Hermitage district the soil is a decomposed granite 
containing over seventy-five per cent, of insoluble mat.ter. In the 
Champagne district the best wines are obtained from chalky soils 
containing about eighty per cent, of carbonate of lime. The famous 
wines of Madeira are obtained from volcanic soil containing a very large 
percentage of sand and gravel. Then again in the Gironde district in 
France good wines are produced from low-lying flat land, but their 
excellence is said to be due to the large proportion of oxide of iron 
contained in the soil. As a matter of course, Grape Vines grown in poor 
soils yield much smaller crops than the same kinds growing in better 
land, but the low return usually gives wine of the highest quality. 
There is certainly some subtlo influence in these poor soils to cause a 
higher quality in the wine, though the yield may be small. The writer is 
of opinion that lists of varieties said to be better adapted for particular 
localities, soils, and other local conditions are more likely to mislead than 
benefit the cultivator, as from the lack of precise information there are no 
data upon which absolute conclusions can be based. Some kinds are 
certainly more cosmopolitan in their requirements than others, but the 
main object of the cultivator should be to produce Grapes suitable for 
the wines best adapted for his locality and purposes. A list of varieties 
at the end of this article will afford suflicient information to enable 
growers to make suitable selections. 

In planting for Raisins and Currants, the selection of Grapes is more 
limited, as but a comparatively few varieties are suitable. The kinds 
suitable for drying are those that have sweet fleshy berries, and belong 
to the Muscat section. It may not be out of place to mention th.at the 



31 

name Muscat, which is applied to a class of Grapes, is not derived from 
the peculiar musky flavour of the fruit as is generally supposed, but is a 
term applied by the ancient Romans, and signified "to attract bees," from 
the great sweetness of the berries. One of the best and most generally 
cultivated varieties for Raisins is the Muscat of Alexandria^ which also 
passes under the name of Muscat Gordo Blanco and various other 
synonyms. For Currants the only Grape is the Black Corinth, or Zante 
as it is sometimes called, both names being used for the one kind. The^ 
source of the Sultana Raisins is the White Corinth, which has somewhat 
larger berries. These are the principal kinds used, but several others may 
be utilized for drying. 

As regards table Grapes, the grower has a wider range in making a 
selection, but, as a matter of course, he should only plant such varieties 
as are likely to give him the best returns. In selecting, he should take 
into consideration quality, appearance, freedom in bearing, period of 
ripening, and hardiness. Early Grapes may pay well in some districts, 
but not in others, and kinds that will hang long and keep well will often 
give the best return. Then, again, if the Grapes have to be sent long 
distances, the adaptability of the fruit for packing and carriage must also 
be considered. Some kinds are excellent table Grapes, and also suitable 
for wine-making, a matter of some consequence to the grower, as it gives 
him the option of utilizing the fruit in two ways. Raisin Grapes may 
also be used as table fruit, and there is a great demand for the Muscat of 
Alexandria in its fresh state. This demand will in many cases enable 
growers to sell large quantities of fresh Grapes at higher prices than can 
be obtained by drying the fruit. 

Pkopagation. 

The Grape Vine may be propagated by seeds, eyes, cuttings, layers, 
grafting, inarching, and budding. 

i'^eeds are seldom used except in raising new varieties, and, as a matter 
of course, there is no certainty as to what kind of fruit seedlings will 
yield. The seeds should be sown early in the spring in rich light soil, 
covering them to the depth of half-an-inch. When the young plants 
have made their second pair of leaves, they should be carefully trans- 
planted into rows, three feet apart, leaving half that distance between in 
the lines. No further removals should take place till the plants fruit, 
which will generally be in the second or third year, but it is often longer 
before they can be tested. 

Eyes. — Propagation by eyes is a very common method among European 
gardeners in the cultivation of the Grape under glass ; but, as the only 
advantage that ordinary vine-growers can obtain from this method is that 
it enables them to propagate a particular variety quickly, thei-e is no 
great inducement to practice it in this part of the world. When this plan 
is adopted, the eyes should be taken from well-ripened shoots, leaving 
about an inch of wood above and below. These pieces should be planted 
about two inches deep, with the eyes uppermost, and as a rule they will 
strike freely. 



32 

Cuttings. — The most general mode of propagating the Grape Vine is by 
ciUt'mgs, which root with great facility. They should be made from well- 
ripened wood of the previous s«jason's growth, taking care that the shoots, 
are free from disease of any kind. Some difference of opinion exists as to 
the best length for cuttings, but this point must, to some extent, be 
decided by the locality in which tl ey are to be grown. The projjer 
length will range from nine to fifteen inches, with from three to six 
joints, and as a rule the cuttings should be inserted so as to only leave 
one or two buds above the ground. In the warmer and drier districts^ 
where the dry seasons are severe, the cuttings should be planted deeper 
than in cooler localities, and consequently they nmst be proportionately 
longer. There is, however, no other advantage in using long cuttings, 
and for ordinory conditions shorter ones are preferable. The best cuttings 
are those that are taken from the lower portions of the shoots, and these 
should have the preference when they can be readily obtained. Some- 
times cuttings are used with a base of two-year-old wood, and these are 
called, from their appearance, " mallet cuttings." These cuttings strike 
freely, but only from the portion at the base of the last season's shootti 



Strong: Cutting with 
two joints. 



Cutting with three 
joints. 



Mallet Cutting. I 



Shield or Heel 
Cutting. 



and the old wood is liable to decay. To get over this drawback, some 
growers make it a practice to merely leave a " shield " or " heel " of the 
old wood, as shown in the illustration. Cuttings may be either planted 
directly where they are to remain or rooted in nursery beds. Each plan 
has its advantatres and drawbacks. As regards the first, Grape Vines do 
nor bear shifting so well as ordinary fruit trees, and are often seriously 
checked by removal. On the other hand, when cuttings are planted out 
directly they often fail through the effects of dry weather unless they 
receive special attention in watering and keeping them free from weeds. 
The writer considers that the surer and more economical method is to 
strike the cuttings in nursery beds, and plant out the following season. 
When this plan is adopted, a large number of plants can be obtained from 
a small area that can be readily attended to by the cultivator. The 



83 

cuttings should be planted in rows, from two to three feet apart, leaving 
from four to six inches between in the lines. Many plant closer, but 
this, in the opinion of the writer, is a mistake, as when the cuttings 
begin to root they must have space for development. The rooting of the 
cuttings will be assisted by placing a layer of broken charcoal, about an 
inch thick, at the bottom of each trench so that the heels will rest upon 
it. Failures often occur through cuttings being allowed to get too dry 
before they are planted ; in fact, many thousands fail every year in_ 
Australia from this cause alone. Though the Grape possesses great 
vitality, and will stand some ill-usage, yet when the wood, by long con- 
tinued exposure, has its juices dried up more or less, growth becomes 
uncertain. Cuttings are too frequently sent to planters with little or no 
coverings to protect them, and sometimes remain for weeks in this 
condition before they are put into the ground, and as a consequence a 
large proportion will fail. It will, therefore, be advisable to partially or 
wholly bury the cuttings in the soil till they are wanted, and when sent 
away they should be packed so that they will not suffer from exposure 
till they arrive at their destinations. 





Showing form of Hoots from a Ion or 
Cuttiiigr. 



Showing Form of Boots from a short 
Cutting. 



Lai/ering is a method not generally practised, though it is often 
useful for filling up gaps in vineyards, where plants have gone off. It is 
effected by simply bending down the branches, and covering them with 

2b 



84 

Layering. 




Multiple Layer.— Layer with Plants forming from each 
joint. 





Layering an old vine. Lines showing where to cut 
when rooted. 



Plant from a Multiple 
Layer. 




Ordinary Layer 





Layering with a reversed branch. Lines showing I Layer seperated into two 
where to cut when rooted. I plants. 



6h 

three or four inches of soil at the part where they are required to throw 
out roots. They will generally root very freely when treated m this 
manner, and furnish strong plants. When a layer is put down to supply 
the place of a plant that has gone off, it must be carried across in a trench 
sufficiently deep to prevent any interference with the cultivating imple- 
ments. Plants may also be replaced by another method known technically 




Another way of Layering an old vine. 

as " Reversed Layering," by which the top of the shoot is inserted in the 
ground, as shown by the illustration. The branches strike readily in this 
position, and their future growth is not affected, it being precisely the 
same as from an ordinary layer. As a matter of course, all the buds on 
the looped branch should be removed excepting those required to form 
the future plant. 

Grafting may be sometimes practised with advantage in working old 
stocks of inferior kinds with better ones. Whenever the varieties are 
not giving satisfaction, it will be advisable to replace them with better 
kinds. Varieties are sometimes shy bearers when growing upon their 
own roots owing to the peculiarities of soils and other local causes, but 
bear freely when grafted upon other kinds. In Europe grafting is 
largely practised since the advent of the Phylloxera insect which has 
caused immense losses in the vineyards of France and other countries. 
It has been found that the American species of Grapes, which are quite 
distinct from the varieties of Vitis vinifera, afford stocks that can 
withstand the attacks of the troublesome insect. There has been no 
occasion so far to use these stocks in Australasia, and it is to be hoped 
that there will be no need for them in the future. Grafting the ordinary- 
varieties of Grapes upon stocks of species indigenous to hot countries 
may also prove serviceable in the tropical portions of Queensland and 
North Australia, as also in some of the South Sea Islands. Baron von 
Mueller, in his work, ^'Select Plants for Iml'istrial Culture," directs 



86 




RtrDDING. 




Stock and Scion 
prepared. 



Stock and Scion 
fitted. 



Cleft Grraftittic for tin old Stock, 



attention to a number of these species. There are various methods of 
grafting, and care must be taken that the one practised is suitable to the 
conditions existing between stock and scion. When the stock and scion 
are equal, or nearly so, in size, what is known as " whip " or '* saddle " 
grafting are the best methods. For old stocks ordinary " cleft " grafting 
is the method most generally practised. Full instructions as to these 
forms of grafting will be found at pages 8 and 10, volume 1. Then, 
again, some of the more delicate kinds thrive better upon stronger stocks 
than their own, and then grafting may be an advantage. Ordinary 
cleft-grating is the method most generally adopted with the Grape Vine, 
and the operation should not be performed till after active growth has 
commenced, and the sap is rising freely. 

Inarching, or grafting by approach, is a method of propagation that 
may sometimes prove useful for filling up vacancies in the branches, or 
enabling new or weakly varieties to be established quickly upon robust 
stocks. The operation may be performed at any time when growth is 
active. 

Budding is a method of propagation that is but seldom practised, 
though it may be useful in some cases. Plump well-formed buds should 
be chosen for the purpose, and they must be inserted as soon as the sap 
is in full motion, as in budding fruit trees. Another method of budding 
is to inlay a piece of wood with a bud into the stock, as shown by the 
illustration. In practising this form of budding, great care must be taken 
that the inserted piece fits closely into the cut made in the stock. 

Plajs^ting. 



In planting Grape Vines, the cultivator must be guided to a great 



37 

extent by practical and econotnical considerations. In the first place, 
he has to decide as to what distance apart the vines should start in 
order to get the maximum returns when fully established, and to enable 
the work of cultivation to be carried on with the greatest facilities. 
The next consideration is whether cutting , or rooted vines are to be 
used, and how the plants are to be trained. Some difference of opinion 
exists as to what distances the plants should be apart, and, consequently, 
conflicting advice is given by authorities. The writer holds the opiinbiT 
that, as with other fruits, the Grape Vine requires sufficient room for 
free develoi^ment, and that it is a disadvantage to plant too thickly. 
Better returns can be ol.'tained from a vineyard of well-established 
vines planted at the rate of 500 to the acre than from a similar area 
containing four times that number. By crowding the vines they, after 
a few years' growth, must necessarily show a falling oft" in vigour 
through the competition of their roots and the dimini'^hed supplies of 
light, air, and plant food. It is maintained by some authorities that 
Grape Vines should be ' planted closer in the cooler regions than 
warmer districts, but the writer disagrees with this conclusion. Close 
planting not only lessens the vigour of the vines, but also, owing to the 
large amount of foliage, retards light and heat, which are primary 
essentials in ripening crops in late and cool districts. According to the 
experience and observations of the writer, Grape Vines should not be 
planted closer than 8 feet by 8 feet, and up to iO feet by 10 feet. 
These distances allow plenty of room for development, and facilities 
for cultivating with horse-power. Currant Vines being of extra 
vigorous habit, and requiring to be pruned long, should be planted from 
fifteen to twenty feet apart. The plants should be so arranged as to afford 
the greatest facilities for cultivating the ground and gathering the 
crops. The simplest and most generally adopted practice is to plant 
in squares, which admits of the ground being worked in two directions. 
But, as a matter of course, when the vines are trellised, the cultivating 
implements can only be worked in one direction. Care should be taken 
in planting that the vines are regularly placed, so that the rows will be 
perfectly straight every way. When the area planted is large, it should 
be subdivided into moderately-sized blocks by cross-ways, sufficiently 
wide for vehicles, so as to afford the greatest facilities for carr3dng 
away the crop, carting manure, and other purposes. Planting may be 
done at any time between the fall of the leaf and the starting of growth 
in the spring, but it is not advisable to delay too long. On the other 
hand, no advantage is gained by planting in the dead winter months. 
If cuttings are used, they should be inserted so as to leave two eyee 
above ground. They may be planted in slits made by the spade, or 
small holes formed with a dibber or bar. Care should be taken that 
the openings are uniform in depth, and that the earth is consolidated 
round the base of the cuttings, and more especially in light soils. When 
rooted plants are used, the holes should be made sufficiently large to 
allow the roots to be spread out properly. Broken or bruised roots 
should be carefully removed, as they will afford no assistance to the 
plants, but may rot if allowed to remain. One year rooted plants 



38 

are, as a rule, better than those of a greater age, as the older they are 
tlie more they suffer when shifted. 

Tlie luunber of vines required to plant an acre can be ascertained from 
the folkming table : — 



Plants 


to the Acre. 




j 


Plants 


to 


the Acre. 


3x3 


requires 


4840 






9x8 lequires 


605 


4x3 


,j 




H830 






9 X 9 




537 


4x4 


,, 




2722 




i 


10 X 7 




622 


5x4 


ti 




2178 




1 


10 X 8 




544 


5x5 


ft 




1742 






10 X 9 




484 


6x5 






1452 


1 




10 X 10 




435 


6x6 


j» 




1210 






11 X 11 




360 


7x6 






1023 






12 X 12 




3o2 


7x7 


^^ 




888 






13 X 13 




257 


8x7 


>r 




788 






14 X 14 




222 


8x8 


»» 




680 






15 X 15 




193 


9x7 


>* 




691 


Trai 


NINC. 









The Grape Vine may be trained in various ways according to the 
requirements or fancy of the cultivator. The one most generally adopted 
in vineyards is the Currant-bush style, in which the plant is encouraged 
to form several branches, each carrying one or more fruit-bearing shoots. 
When the plants are trained on trellises, fences or walls, long lateral 
branches should be encouraged, and spurs formed along their whole 
length. Care should be taken, whatever form may be adopted, to 
arrange the branches, as far as is practicable, so that each one will get 
a fair share of the planters growth. In order to attain this object, the 
main lateral branches should, as nearly as possible, be kept at the same 
level, as there is always a tendency for the sap to rise more freely to the 
upper shoots than the lower ones. The height of the stems to the 
branches is of no material importance, but in all cases, the growth should 
be so arranged that the bunches of fruit will hang clear of the ground. 

Forming the Plaiits. — It is essential that Grape Vines should, from 
the time they are planted, be trained so as to bring them into the desired 
forms, whatever style of growth may be adopted. The first consideration 
is to form the stems to the required height, before allowing the formation 
of permanent lateral branches. If a high stem is required it will be 
stouter and stronger if formed gradually, and more especially when the 
(Wrant-bush style is adopted. This object will be attained by shortening 
'the main or leading cane for two or three years, to two or three eyes, 
according to its strength, in preferance to leaving long shoots. Some- 
times, if growth is weakly, it may be advisable to shorten back the 
leading cane to one eye. When planted the vine should be simply 
shortened back to two, three, or four eyes, according to its strength. 
The next year the same course must be followed but if the plant is 
strong a second shoot from an upper bud may be preserved and shortened 
back' to a single eye. The second year after planting it will be advisable 



39 



Pruning Young Vines. 




Young Plant 




The same properly Pruned and Planted 






First year after Planting. 
Before Pruning. Lines | After Pruning 
showing where to cut. 



Before Pruning. After Pruning. 
Second Year after Planting. ' 






Third Year after Planting and subsequent Prunings 



40 

to cut away, clean to the stem, the lower shoot, shorten back the leading 
one to two or three eyes, and also the branch that has formed below it. 
The third year after the vines are planted the shaping of their stems 
will be completed, under ordinary circumstances, and the shoots should 
be cut back so as to form the necessary lateral brandies. The illustrations 
will afford a good idea as to the way vines of different ages should be 
cut to bring them into the proper forms. 

Trellising. 

The system of trellising in vineyards has certain advantages, as it 
allows the branches to be spread out so that they can get the maxinmm 
of benefit from sun and light. They can be better secured against the 
effects of high winds and heavy rains, and facilities are afforded for 
long-rod pruning, which is the better mode for some varieties. Some 
people object to trellising, on the ground that it increases the cost of 
cultivation, because horse implements can only be worked one way, and 
more hand labour is required. On the other hand, it can be argued 
that vines or trellises are flat on their supports, and do not take up so 
much room as round-headed bushes. Consequently, the cultivating 
implements can approach nearer to the plants. Trellises carried over- 
head offer advantages when space is limited, or a shady walk or yard is 
required. Very large returns can be obtained from vines trained in this 
way, and this method is specially commended to persons having but 
limited areas of ground. It is also an excellent way of training the 
Currant Grape. 

Tlie Thomerif System. — This method of training is practised to some 
extent in France and other parts of Europe for high trellises, walls, and 
buildings. By this method the drawback of having one set of horizontal 
arms starting from a higher level than another, and consequently an 
irregular growth, is obviated, and an area of trellis or wall space well 
above the ground can be regularly covered. The theory of the system 
is to form the stems either high, low, or medium, so that the crowns 
will be at different heights from the ground. Each vine is trained with 
either one or two lateral arms, as shown by the illustration, and these 
carry the full strength of the plants. There is no limit as to the height 
Vines may be trained under this system, and it is specially suitable for 
the cultivation of Grapes against the sides of buildings or high walls. 

The Chaintre Sifstem. — Under this system the vines are trained 
with long stems and branches so as to trail over and cover the ground 
surface. These branches are supported by short forked stakes, in such a 
maimer that the bunches of fruit are kept clear of the ground. When 
the winter pruning is given the vines are turned over into the adjoining 
rows, the stakes removed, and the necessary tillage effected. Then the 
stakes are fixed again and the branches placed upon them. It is claimed 
for this system that through the foliage being spread out, the ground 
is well shaded, and keeps moister and cooler than if it were fully 
exposed to the action of sun and wind. This system entails more labour 
in pruning and tilling than ordinary modes of training, as also in 



41 

TuEliLTSINa 




Vine Trained with Two Arms. 




Showing Trellised Vine in Fruit. 




¥=f=^ 



i il 



j ^^11- 



m 



Trellis formed of Battens and upright Wires. 



harvesting the crop. In practising the Chaintre system the rows should 
be farther apart than for ordinary cultivation, say from fifteen to eighteen 
feet. 



42 
Trellising. 




Fruiting Vine with One Arm. 




Tlie Thomery System. 




The Chaintre System 



43 
Pruning. 

Grape Vines require regulai* and systematic pruning, in order to 
distribute the bearing wood regularly, and obtain large bunches of fruit. 
Most of the buds contain, in embryo, a shoot that if allowed to develop, 
will produce two or more bunches of fruit, and if all these are permitted 
grow, the strength of the plant will be distributed through a large 
number of channels. Consequently, the shoots will be slender, anH 
weakly, and the bunches and berries small. Therefore, it is necessary 
to reduce the number of shoots to what the plant can support to 
perfection. The system most generally practised in this part of the 
world is what is known as "short-spur" pruning With this method, 
the previous year's wood is shortened back to one, twc, or three buds, 
according to the strength of the shoots. If there are two or more 
shoots starting from near the same base, only one should be retained, 
and the others cut out close to the stem. Some kinds will yield better 
and with greater certainty upon longer spurs, with five, six, or seven 
buds. This method may be tried with kinds that do not give satis- 
factory returns under the " short-spur" system. Short pruning, generally 
speaking, induces the formation of strong shoots and large showy 
bunches, and hence it is well adopted for many table Grapes. On the 
other hand such wine Grapes as the Burgundy and other Pinots, 
Cabernet Sauvignon, and kindred varieties, whose bunches are com- 
paratively small, require long pruning. In all cases the higher buds are 
stronger and more fruitful than those near the base, and this is specially 
the case with some varieties. Another method is what is known 
as * ' long rod " pruning, which is extensively practised by European 
gardeners and vine growers, and under this system one or two of the 
previous season's shoots are left half their length, or longer according 
to their strength. These branches are fastened horizontally to stakes 
or trellises, and wdll produce several fruit-bearing shoots. A 
corresponding number of the previous season's shoots should be 
cut back to short spurs, with one or two buds. The main shoots 
from these buds furnish the " long rods" for the following season, when 
the old ones must be cut back to " short spurs." By alternating in this 
way a supply of suitable wood will always be provided for. The balance, 
however must always be preserved. Another system of ** long-rod" 
pruning, practised to some extent by European gardeners, is to provide 
for three shoots instead of two, as by the ordinary^ n etliod, and renew the 
wood every third year. This system has advantages, as it affords a 
better supply of ripened wood to carry the fruit-bearing shoots, and it 
may be practised as easily as the more common method. Some varieties, 
and more especially the more delicate or shy-bearing kinds, will yield 
better crops \nth a long run of the previous season's wood than with 
short spurs. An extended growth of wood appears to be more congenial 
to the nature of the Grape Vine than the close cutting that pertains to 
the " short-spur " system. By practising the " long-rod " method, the 
advantages of a long growth can be obtained without unduly extending 
the plants. When, through defective pruning or old age, branches do 



44 



Long Hod Prunin( 




With ne EocI and Spur. 





With Looped Rod 
and Spurs. 



With Two Rods and Spurs, 



become unduly extended they should be headed back and a new growth 
encouraged. In localities where frosts are troublesome, it will be advisable 
to adopt the '* long-spur " system, as if the upper and more advanced 
buds are seriously injured the shoots may be shortened back to a lower 
bud that has not been affected. In pruning Grape Vines the cut should 
invariably be from the side opposite the bud, and a little above it, slanting 
upwards. Pruning may be done at any time during the winter, but it 
should be delayed as long as possible. Early pruning is conducive to an 
early growth in the spring, and, as a consequence, there is a greater risk 
from frosts. July will be quite early enough to commence, even in the 
warmer districts, unless large areas have to be treated, when it may be 
necessary to begin sooner in order to get through the work in good 
time. Even if the plants bleed rather freely after being pruned it does 
not matter, as the the loss is merely water, and not true sap as is 
generally supposed. Root pruning is not often required by Grape Vines, 
though in the case of very vigorous plants it may sometimes prove useful. 

Protecting Grape Vines from Frost, 



A great trouble to cultivators in many localities, and even in the 
medium warm districts of Australia, is the risk from frosts during the 
first and second stages of growth. This risk may to a great extent be 
avoided in localities where frosts are but light or unfrequent by adoptii g 



46 

the practice, which is general in some parts of Europe, of making small 
fires that will give a dense smoke, in various parts of a vineyard. These 
fires will not be required regularly, but need only be kindled on nights- 
when danger from frost is apprehended. By adopting this plan losses of 
crops will often be avoided, and the extra labour entailed will simply be 
an insurance charge. In the cooler regions of Australia, and to a large 
extent in New Zealand and Tasniaida, where frosts are more severe, 

Grape Vines must be effectively protected, or otherwise the crops will 

necessarily be uncertain. Vines may be effectively protected in thesa 

Mixed Pruning, 




Vine before Pruning 




Vine after Pruning. 



46 



Double Long Kod Extension. 




Pruning First Year. 
A — The liong Rod. 
B— The Spur- 



Pruning Second Year. 
A— Long Rod of the First 

Year. 
B— Long Rod from Last 

Season Spur. 
C — Extension Long Rod 

from upper bud of A. 
D— The Second Spur. 



Pruning Third Year. 

A— ^pur formed by cut- 
ting back clos^, A '^t^^ 
C branch of previous 
Season. 

B — Long Rod Second 
Year's ^Vood. 

C — Extension Long Rod 
from upper lUid of B. 

Q) —Long Rod from last 
Season's Spur. 



47 

regions by partially covering them with light mats made of straw or other 
suitable material, from the time growth starts in the spring till all risk of 
frosts is passed. This mode of protection is very common in those parts 
of Europe where similar climatic conditions exist. The coverings used 
most generally are straw mats, which are fixed in a nearly horizontal 
position over the plants at first. As growth progresses the mats are 
raised to a slanting position. In order to supply supports for the mats 
it is usual, on one side of each row, to form a ridge of soil eight or nine_ 
inches high, and on the other side a line of stakes is fixed. The mats, 
or other coverings, rest upon these earthen walls, or ridges, and are 
fastened to the stakes upon the other side. Possibly strips of hessian 
cloth or some similar material may, in many cases, be found to be cheaper 
than mats. But whatever material is used, it must be something that 
will permit the free circulation of air. It should be borne in mind that, 
in affording protection to Grape Vines, not only does it prevent the ill 
effects of frosts, but induces the more vigorous development of the buds, 
and the fruit sets with greater certainty. Though the expense of protecting 
the plants will certainly add considerably to the cost of cultivating, yet 
on the other hand it makes results more certain, and in some regions will 
allow the Grape Vine to be grown successfully where otherwise it would 
fail. In fact, the practice of protecting Grape Vines is indispensable to 
cultivators in most parts of New Zealand and Tasmania, and would prove 
very serviceable in the cooler regions of Australia. 

Summer Pruning. 

This term includes various operations to regulate the growth of the 
Vines from the time they start in the spring till the crop is fit for use. 
Summer pruning is of material importance in the cultivation of the 
Grape Vine, it being essential that the growth of the shoots should be 
regulated so as to distribute them to the best advantage, and prevent a 
waste of energy by the plants. The operations comprised under this 
heading are Disbudding, Stopping, and Topping. 

Disbudding. — This operation, as the term implies, consists in the 
removal of surplus, and therefore useless shoots, in the early stages of 
growth. Disbudding should be practised more or less with all kinds 
of Grapes, but some varieties require it to a far greater extent than 
others. Sometimes the necessary disbudding may be done by one 
operation, but in most crises it will be advisable to go over the vines a 
second time. As the plants when starting into growth usually make 
more shoots than are required, it will be advisable to remove some of 
them. It will, however, not be advisable to remove all the surplus 
shoots at this early stage of growth, as a portion should be left for 
awhile. By adopting this plan there will be a better final choice of 
shoots, and more foliage to stimulate root action. The second disbudding 
should take place when the shoots are six to eight inches long, or as soon 
as possible after the flowers appear. In disbudding care must be taken 
to remove the weaker and sterile shoots by rubbing them off. 



48 



Stopping. — When the fruit has formed, the tops of the shoots should 
be pinched otF with the thumb and finger, three or four joints above the 
upper bunch. It is not advisable to nip the shoots closer, as sufficient 
foliage must be left to shade the bunches. Cultivators must also bear in 
mind that each shoot 'should carry enough foliage to supply its share of 
the plant food obtained from the atmosphere, and assist in promoting 
healthy root action. When extended shoots are required, as will be the 
case when " long-rod pruning " is practised, the branches should not be 
pinched back at all. 

Toppina. — In some parts of Europe it is a common practice to cut the 
tops off the vines just as the fruit is lieginning to ripen so as to reduce 
the amount of foliage and expose the bunches more freely to sun and 
light. To a limited extent this practice is followed by some cultivators 
in this part of the world. The advantages to be derived from topping will 
depend upon local conditions, such as climate, 
aspect, character of the season, and lateness in ripening 
of the variety. In the colder regions, where the 
Grape is late in maturing, the ripening period will 
be accelerated by the removal of some of the 
foUage, and exposing the bunches more freely to 
light aud sun. Vines growing on a shaded slope, 
where the sun has but little power, may also be 
assisted by the reduction of the foliage. Then, 
again, the removal of a portion of the foliage may 
be beneficial in a late cool season, and with kinds 
that are backward in ripening. Topping is not 
required in the warmer regions as a rule, though 
it may prove serviceable under special conditions. 
Wher-e the sun is powerful and the heat great, a 
gof»d shade is required, and a reduction of the 
foliage is likely to do much harm. When bunches 
are fully exposed to the sun's power the fruit is 
liable to get scalded and seriously injured. Foreign 
cultivators from the colder wine-growing regions of 
Europe often fall into error through adopting 
the same practice in topping their vines that they 
were taught in their native countries. These people too often, in 
ignorance, lose sight of the fact that, though in co(»l late regions a 
reduction of the foliage is an advantage, yet, on the other hand, a full 
shade is an essential requirement in the warmer districts. 

Thinmng. — Sometimes more bunches are formed on a shoot than it can 
bring to perfection, and it will be necessary, if fine fruit is an object, to 
reduce the number. As a rule, not more than two bunches on a shoot can 
mature to perfection. Some varieties set their berries very close on the 
bunches, and it is a common practice with Eur()})ean gardeners to thin 
them out when about the size of .small peas. If specially fine fruit is 
required this practice may be adopted with advantage with close-berried 
table varieties. 




Stopping. — Showing 
where Shoot should be 
pinched back. 




49 

Ringing the Bearing Shoots. 

The practice of ringing, or girdling, the branches, known also as 
"annular incision," is followed to some extent in Europe, chiefly by 
gardeners growing Grapes under glass, but is seldom adopted in 
Australasia. The theory of ringing is that it assists in causing the fruit 
to set, and hastens the period of maturity. Very often at the flowering 
period the sap is too strong, and unless interrupted this excess of 
vigour tends to the abortion of the "^ 

flowers. By checking the return flow 
of sap this contingency is avoided. 
Experience has also proved that this 
treatment causes the fruit to ripen 
earlier than it w^ould do otherwise, 
and some growlers are of opinion that 
. its quality is improved. The operation 
should be performed when the flowers 
are fully developed. It is performed 
by the removal of a narrow ring 
of bark from the fruit-bearing shoot, 
below the bunch. In order to ensure ^ 

success the cut must be clean through ^'"'"''''''^•"^sCot"^' ^ ^''"^^^^ 
to the wood, and the ring of bark 
should be perfectly removed. As a 

matter of course, shoots treated in this w^ay will die back, and must 
be cat away at the winter pruning. The practice of annular incision 
is not of much value in general Grape culture, but it will sometimes 
prove serviceable in regions where vines are grown undei' glass, as 
will be the case in some parts of N^ew Zealand and Tasmania and 
in the colder districts of Australia. 

Tying 

When long canes have been left they should be securely fastened 
to the trellises or stakes before the leaves expand. If single stakes 
are used for long canes, it will be advisable to fasten them so that 
they wdll bulge out to some extent. When no suj^ports are used — 
a common practice in some districts — the canes should be tied 
together so as to form bows or loops. As ^'owth progresses the 
young shoots should be carefully tied to their supports when they 
are from twelve to fifteen inches long, or soonei- if practicable, as, 
being very bi'ittle, they are easily broken off by strong winds and 
heavy rains if not well secured. It is not ad^-isable, how^ever, to 
make the fastenings too tight, as the branches require room for free 
development. Every vine grower should make due provision for an. 
adequate supply of suitable material for tying. The materials are 
various, the principal being the Osier Willow, New^ Zealand Flax, 
and indigenous Rushes or similar plants that grow in many localities. 
Rve straw also makes a good tying material. As a mattei* of course, 

2c 



50 

tlie material tliat is most readily and economically obtained should 
have the preference, other things being equal. 

Keeping the Land Clean. 



An undergrowth of grass or other weeds is undesii-able in a vine- 
yard, as it helps to exhaust the plant food and nioistui-e at the 
expense oi' the vines. In the spring and eai'ly summer this under- 
growth is specially injui-ious, as it absoi-bs a deal of moisture, 
and causes the soil to dry up much moi-e rapidly than would 
be the case under other conditions. The more the moisture 
can be conserved in the summei', the better for the vines, 
and this object will be materially promoted by keeping down 
the weeds as much as possible. Sometimes continuous rains 
will prevent cultivators from keeping the land clean, but weeds 
should never be allowed to make headway if it is possible to prevent it. 
Care should, however, be taken in destroying weeds not to work the 
ground deeply among the vine roots. Deep ploughing or digging will 
nectssarily injure the r* ots, more or less, and the lighter the work is 
performed the better, The scarifier and the hoe are better implements 
for the work than the plough or the spade. Several stirrings may be 
necessary during the year to keep the weeds down ; but, as a matter of 
course, the requirements in this respect will often differ materially. 
These stirrings will also assist in keeping the suface soil loose — a matter 
of some importance in the case of heavy soils which aie liable to cake 
after rain. A loose surface is a material check to rapid evaporation, and 
the finer the tilth the better. Surface stirring should be invariably 
practised with irrigated land after each application of water. In 
cleaning ground, advantage should be taken of bright drying days, and 
on no account should the work be done while the surface soil is wet and 
cloggy. 

Mulching, 



Mulching is not generally practised in vineyards, yet it is a valuable 
aid to cultivators in dry distiicts. If the surface soil is covered with a 
layer of long stable manure, straw-, grass, or other material suitable for 
the purpose, it is protected from the direct influence of sun and drying 
winds, and consequently their is less evaporation and the ground retains 
its moisture longer. There are some who object to mulching, on the 
ground that the material used harbors insects and interferes with culti- 
vation. As regards the first objection, it may be admitted that mulching 
does to some extent favour certain kinds of insects, but notwithstanding 
this drawback, the advantages are far greater than the disadvantages. 
Respecting the second objection, it may be said that, when the surface 
soil is mulched, weeds grow but little during the summer, and the 
ground does not require stirring. When the summer is over and the 



51 

Tnulching has served its purpose, it can readily be worked into the land 
by the cultivating implements if the layer is not too thick. A layer 
three or four inches thick will be sufficient for practical purposes. 
jVlulching should be done before the hot weather has fully set in. 

Manubing. 



Some soils contain naturally large deposits of suitable plant food for 
ihe Grape Vine, and these will require but little or no assistance in 
manuring for many years. Others again are" poorer in plant food, and 
.deficiences have to be made good at an earlier period, and before the 
plants suffer through lack of nourishment. It is wTong to suppose that 
manure is not wanted for Vines, an opinion that is common, as the 
'Grape, like all other fruits, must be able to obtain the necessary amount 
■of congenial plant food from the soil, or otherwise growth will fail more 
or less. Though it is quite true that the excessive use of manure, while 
conducing to strong growth and heavj'- crops, will cause deterioration in 
the quality of fruit, and more particularly with wine Grapes, yet, on the 
other hand, supplies sufHcient to keep up a healthy normal growth will 
"be beneficial. In exhausted soils the fruit is not only limited in quantity 
-and size, but is often also poorer in quality than it w^ould be under more 
favourable conditions. Even soils that were originally rich may after 
a while become more or less exhausted, and cease to give satisfactory 
returns without assistance in the form of manure. Certain essential 
minerals, such as lime, potash, or phosphorus, may be lacking in the soil, 
and a deficiency of either will prevent satisfactory growth. Any of 
these materials, when lacking, can be replaced at a comparatively small 
•cost. Potash, according to the writer's experience, is more frequently 
lacking in vineyards than other minerals, and many of the failures, 
•either wholly or partially, are due to its absence, or presence in insufficient 
■quantity. Stable or farmyard manure is an excellent general fertilizer 
for weakly or exhausted Grape Vines, as it contains all the essentials 
for plant growth. The work of manuring may, however, often be done 
more effectively and economically by the use of special fertilizers. 
Annual and moderate dressings of manure are more effective than 
heavier ones given every two or three years, as steady regular growth 
is better than over-vigour at one period and a lack of strength at another. 
Table Grapes, as a rule, may be more freely stimulated by the use of 
manure than kinds that are grown for wine, raisins, or currants, as a 
lower density in the juice and a lesser degree of sweetness are of no 
material importance. 

Injurious Insects. 



Cultivators of the Grape are troubled with various insect pests which 
sometimes cause a great amount of injury The more prominent of these 
are as follows : — 



Common Vine Moth. 
Showing Various Stages of Development. 




Moth on Wing. 



Caterpillar 



All Natural Size. 



r)8 



Hawk or Celery Vine Moth. 

Showing Various Stages of Development. 




Pupa. 



Moth on Wing. 





Moth at Rest. 



Caterpillar. 



All Natural .Size. 



Caterpillars.— '^everdl species of Caterpillars cause damage to Grape 
Vines and it will be advisable to keep them down as far as practicable. 
The Common Vine Moth (Agarisfa glycine) is familiar to all cultivators, 
.and seldom fails to make its appearance. The Caterpillars of this species 



54 

are very voracious, and make great liavoc M'itli the foliage of Grape Vines- 
in a short time, and very often strip the plants bare. The Moth is a 
handsome insect having black wings with yellowish white markings and 
when expanded they measure about an inch and a half across. This- 
insect increases with great rapidity and produces two or three broods of 
Caterpillars in a season. The first brood generally makes its appearance- 
soon after the vines come into leaf. The eggs which are produced in 
great numbers are deposited in the stakes and stems of the vines. Being 
so numerous these Caterpillars are difficult to deal with when they make- 
their appearance. Hellebore powder lightly dusted over the plants is 
one of the best remedies. A solution of London Purple or Paris Green 
in the proportion of J lb. to 100 gallons of water used as spray is also 
effective. But if possible the Caterpillars should be prevented from 
making their appearance, and this may be done to a great extent by 
painting the stems of the plants and stakes with a thick coating of lime 
and sulphur when the vines are pruned. When this practice is adopted, 
immense numbers of the eggs will be destroyed. Another prominent 
and sometimes very troublesome Caterpillar is the Celery, or Silver- 
striped Hawk Vine Moth, {Chwrocampa celerio) This is a very large 
and voracious Caterpillar that frequently causes a good deal of damage by 
rai^idly clearing vines of their leaves, though fortunately these pests are not 
often numerous. They are about two inches long, in colour vary from 
green to brown, and are furnished with a horn-like protuberance near the^ 
tail. The Moth is large, measuring three or four inches across with its 
wings expanded, and is of a chocolate brown with spots and markings. 
It i.s nocturnal in habit, flies with great rapidity, and makes a humming 
noise with its wings. The Caterpillars appear to be produced all the 
while the vines are in leaf. The remedies are the same as those 
recommended for the C^ommon Vine Caterpillar. Hand picking is,. 
however, the most effective way of dealing with this pest, when the 
Caterpillars are but few in luimber, as is often the case. There are 
several different species of Hawk ^loth and other Caterpillars that eat the 
foliage of Graj^e Vines and they require precisely the same treatment 
as recommended for the ones described. 

Phylloxera. — This is one of the most destructive insects with which 
European Vine-growers have to contend and one of the most difficult to 
deal with. It has caused great ravages in France and other countries 
where viticulture is a prominent industry, and in some regions has 
completely destroyed what previously were flourishing vineyards. It has- 
made its appearance in Australian vineyards having been discovered in 
the Geelong district, Victoria some few years back. Promjjt and severe 
measures were adopted and there was good reason for believing that 
the pest had been eradicated in Victoria. Afterwards the insect was 
discovered at Camden and Seven Hills in New South Wales, and strong 
eflforts have been made to eradicate it. Recently, however, the pest 
has re-appeared in Victoria, in the Bendigo district. The insect 
is of American origin, is known scientifically as PhijUoocera vestatn'x- 
and commonly as the Grape Vine Louse It is a very small 
insect, being barely visible with the naked eye, and in colour is a 



P lYI-LOXREA. 

Insect in Vavicu^ Stages of Development 







T>arva B'ir.st Stage. \ Larva Second Stage. ' Larva Third Stage. | Perfect Insect 




Winged Female 
All Highly Magnified, 



dull orange. There are various forms of the insect, one class being 
subterranean and feeding upon the roots, while another section attacks the 
leaves. Each class has breeders or " queens " which multiply with great 
rapidity and more especially the serial class. This last named class is, 
however, less common than the underground one. Some of the insects 
produced under ground come to the surface, develop wings and become 
aerial. Scientists also say that the aerial type will product- subterranean 
insects. The underground form of insects attach themselves to the small 
roots which they feed upon and gradually destroy the vitality of the 
plants. A strong vine may be able to withstand the attack for two or 
more years but it must eventually succumb to it. Roots of affected vines 
become swollen in parts forming small tubercles. When the leaves are 
attacked, round fleshy galls are formed often in considerable number. 
Various remedies have been recommended, but none are thoroughly 
effective and some are not always practicable. Among these are the 
submersion of the vineyard in water, a method that is effective to a large 



56 



extent but only practicable in 
a few cases. Sulphide of 
Carbon injected among the 
roots has proved successful to 
a certain extent but it is an 
expensive remedy. The most 
effective way of dealing with 
the pest appears to be the 
destruction of affected plants 
as soon as the insect is detected. 
Should the pest make its 
a])pearance in any locality it 
will be advisable that the 
ordinary varieties be grafted 
upon what are known as 
resistant stocks. These are 
supplied by several American 
species which are being used 
very successfully in European 
vineyards. Full information 
respecting these kinds will be 
found under the heading of 
American Grapes. 




Koot of Grape A'iiie in Natural Condition. 



Injurious Fungi. 



There are various kinds of 
Fungi that are troublesome 
to Grape cultivators and several 
are unfortunately too well 
known. As regards others, 
however, our knowledge is less 
perfect and there is a wide 
field for further investigation. 
Grape Vines are often affected 
by obscure diseases and doubt- 
less these in the majority of 
cases are due to the action of 
Fungi. In doubtful cases culti- 
vators will do well to en- 
deavour to ascertain, as far as 
may be practicable, the cause 
of the trouble and to promptly 
apply the most effective 
remedies. The following list 
embraces the more prominent 
and troublesome Fungi, so far 
as they are known : — 




Eoot of (J rape Vine affected with PhyJloxeia. 



57 



Showing effect on Grapes. 



Anthracnose. — This disease Black Eot. 

which is commonly known as 
Bhick Spot and scientifically as 
Spaceloma ampelinum is a very 
troublesome fungus to Giape 
Vines. It first makes its api)ear- 
ance in the form of minute 
black circular dots on stems, 
leaves, and berries, and these 
gradually enlarge till they aie 
half-an-inch across or more. As 
they advance in age and size 
these spots bec(mie lighter in 
colour. If not checked promptly 
as soon as it is discovered, this 
fungus spreads rapidly and will 
■cause much damage. Its effects 
upon both the leaves and fruit 
■cause them to gradually shrink 
up and drop ofi'. This pest is 
not easily eradicated if it gets 
■established, and though it may 
be kept in check by the judicious 
use of remedies, it is likely to 
reappear more or less the follow- 
ing season. Consequently the 
cuttings and leaves of affected 
plants should, as far as may be 
practicable, be destroyed by 
fire. The most effective remedy 
is the Bluestone Ammonia 
Solution used as a spray. 
Apply just as the Vines are 
coming into leaf, again when 
the flowers appear, and give a 
third spraying when the Grapes 

are the size of small peas. Further applications, if necessary, should 
be given at intervals of three or four weeks till the berries attain their 
full size. Bordeaux Mixture and Eau Celeste also make effective sj^rays 
and Sulphate of Iron is considered to be a good remedy. 

Black Rot. — This disease is very often comfounded with Anthrac- 
nose, but they are quite distinct. Though the effects are somewhat 
similar. The fungus is known scientifically as Phsolospora {Lock- 
stadia) Bidwillii. It makes its appearance in minute dots upon 
foliage and fruit. These dots increase rapidly in size if not checked, 
and as the fungus growth extends the leaves and fruit shrivel up. 
Several remedies are used \^dth more or less success including 
Bordeaux Mixture, Eau Celeste and Ammonia Carbonate of Copper. 
Directions for making and using these preparations will be found 




58 

on page 98, volume 1. Anotliei- i-eniedy that has been used very 
effectively is a simple solution of Sulpliate of Copper. It is made by 
dissolving* one pcjund of Sulphate of (yoppei- in twenty-five gallons of 
water using it as a spray. This sohition is a good one for spraying 
the Vines before growth has started. Imt is too strong for young and 
tender leaves and shoots. 



Peronospoka. Viticola. 
Enlarged 20<> Diameters. 




A A A — Showing the Conidia or Fruiting Threads emerging from the Pores on 

under side of the r.eaf . 
B B — Showing the Mycehum ramifying among the Cells inside the Leaf. 



59 



Doivny Mildeiv. — This Downy Mildew 

fungus is Pero wo5pora wY/co/« Showing Bunch badly effected. 

and as it is exceedingly 
troublesome to Vine growers 
in Fi'ance, it is also com- 
monly known under the 
name of French Mildew\ 
This fungus makes its 
appearance in minute white 
spots, on the undersides of 
the leaves, warm humid 
weather being most favoiii-- 
able for its development. 
These spots gradually in- 
crease in size till they cover 
the greater poi-tion of the 
leaf surface, and the foliage 
withers and decays. Reme- 
dies, Bluestone and Lime 
applied either as a spray or 
a 2^owder, is considered to 
be one of the most effective 
remedies. It is prepared by 
mixing ten pounds of blue- 
stone with six gallons of 
warm water in one vessel 
and seventeen pounds of 
quicklime and three gallons 
of water in another. When 
thoroughly dissolved mix 
togethei'. and if required as 
a spray add water at the 
rate of ten gallons to one. 
If required as a powder the 
material should be placed in 
shallow vessels and allow^ed 

to dry by evaporation. Another fairly effective remed}^ is the 
ordinary Kerosene Emulsion w4th about three per cent, of carbolic 
acid and a small proportion of glycerine added. The remedies 
should be applied as recommended for Anthracnose. 

Mouldy Root. — This disease w^hich is perhaps better known under 
its French name Poui'ridie is caused by various species of fungi 
including Agaricus melleus and Dematophora necatrix the latter being 
the most common. It mostly occurs in damp badly drained soils, 
and is said to be more frequent in land recently taken from forests, 
according to the experience gained in France, where the disease is 
very destructive. When Grrape Vines are affected by this disease, 
they quickly lose their vigour, assume an unhealthy appearance, 
make weakly growth and gradually die away. If the roots are 




60 

examined a white grey or brown fungus growth will be found upon 
them. This mould is at first white then changes to grey then brown 
and black. It is composed of minute filaments which are matted 
together and spread over the roots, and also extend some distance 
into the soil. Some of these filaments come to the surface to 
fructify or produce a perfect fungus. Agtiricns melleus oi- Honey 
Agaric may be taken as the type of the class. This fungus is as 
large as an ordinary mushroom, and is edible. The spores of this 
fungus are produced in great numbers and they rapidly germinate 
when the conditions are favourable. AV'henever this disease is 
discovered it will be advisable to take up and destroy with fire, any 
plants that are badly affected, and lime should be supplied liberally to 
sweeten the soil. Prevention is, however, much better than cure 
and the disease should be avoided by perfect di'ainage. Mouldy 
Root is a disease that will never or rarely occur in land that is 
thoroughly drained. 

Oidium. — This fungus (Oidhim Ttickerii) is generally known as the 
Common Mildew or Powdery Mildew and is widely prevalent in 
vineyards in all parts of the world. In Australasia it is a widely 
spread and very troublesome pest, some varieties of Grapes being 
specially liable to its attacks. Heat combined wdth moisture seems 
to be the most favoiu'able conditions for the spread of this fungus, 
and it is generally woi'se in districts near to the sea coast. On the 
other hand in the dry interior districts it causes less trouble, as a 
rule. The Oidium is a fungus that grows upon the outer tissues of 
the Vine and attacks the buds, leaves, young Avood, tendrils, flowers, 
berries, and stalks. Its appearance at first is like thin white powder, 
and it usually attacks the leaves first. But the l^erries seem to 
attract the fungus most and they are often entirely covered Avith 
its greyish white powdery looking filaments. If left unchecked the 
ett'ect of the parasite is to tighten the skins of the berries and cause 
them either to dry up or crack. But though the Oidium is a 
troublesome fungus, yet it may be eft'ectiA^ely combatted by the use 
of sulphur, provided it is not allowed to get a strong hold before the 
remedy is applied. A still better plan is not to Avait for the 
appearance of the fungus, but to apply sulphur as a pi-eventative and 
giA^e several dressings during the season. The first dressing should 
be given in the spring, soon after groAvth has started. A second one 
may be given when the floAvers make their appeai'ance and others at 
intervals of tAvo or three Aveeks as circumstances may require. In 
applying sulphur Vine growers should bear in mind that the i-esult 
may be materially influenced by atmospheric conditions. It is not 
the contact of the particles of sulphur Avith the fungus that destroys 
the latter, but the fumes that are caused by the action of heat. 
Sulphur should therefore be applied on bright calm days and Avhile 
the air is Avarm. Sulphur is usually applied by means of belloAvs 
specially arranged for the purpose, but may be effectively used Avith 
a common flour dredger or a bag that Avill allow it to come through. 
Though sulphur in all its forms may be used, yet it should be 
remembered that the finer the poAvder it is reduced to, the quicker 



61 

OlDILM TUCKERIl. 
At an Early Stage cf Development. Enlarged 200 Diameteri 




^ A — The Conidia or Fruiting Threads, 
g jg_The Mycelium or Suckers. 



Kipe Condition'. 
Enlarged 400 Diameters^ 




Showing effect on Grapes A —She wing the way the Spores are emitted". 



62 



Tufted Leaf Blight. 
Increased 100 Diameters. 



will l^e its action as the greater will be the exposed surface. In 
France it is a pi'actice to mix the sulphur with soot as by reason of 
its dai-k colour the latter absorbs more i/eadil}' the heat from the 
sun, and causes a moi'e activ^e giving off of the sulphur fumes. The 
quantity of sulphur required for each di'essing must necessarily vary 
to some extent according to the size of the plants, the distance apart 
and the stage of growth. For a vineyard planted ten by ten about 
15 lbs. will be sufficient for a first dressing, per acre. A second 
dressing will take about double the quantity required for the first 
one as there Avill be a much larger expanse of foliage. For the same 
reason the after dressings will take from 35 to 40 lbs. each. 

Tufted Ledf Blight. — This somewhat common 
disease in Australasian vineyards is caused 
by a fungus known as Cercospora viticol<( 
(Cliulosporium umpelmum), which appears in 
the form of numerous rounded or irregular 
spots upon the leaves, which vary in size from 
minute points to half-an-inch. These spots 
when small are in colour a dark brownish 
purple, but Av^ien larger they become paler in 
the centre. As it develops, the fungus forms 
minute tufts of black or very dark green which 
are barely visible to the eye, but which when 
seen under a microscope have the appearance 
as shown by the illustration. This fungus 
like most others produces its spores in great 
numbers and increases rapidly. Though 
troublesome, liowever, it is less hurtful than 
some other fungi. In treating this disease it 
is advisable to destroy aifected leaves as far 
as may be practicable. Remedies: 1. Lime 
in a powdei'ed state dusted over the affected 
Vines. 2. Eau Celeste. 3. Bordeaux Mixture. 

White Hot: — This disease is caused by a 
fungus known as Comothi/riiim diplodeillid 
which has been prevalent in various parts of 

Australia during the last few years. It is a very troublesome pest, 
and causes much damage in vineyards that it attacks. The effects 
of this disease are similar to those produced by Anthracnose and it 
is somew^hat alike in appearance to a superficial observer. It 
attacks the leaves, shoots, and fruit, and seem to affect some varieties 
to a much greater extent than others. When the leaves are attacked, 
brown irregular patches appear upon the upper surface. Soon after 
their appearance the patches are covered Avith a bluish grey mould. 
When the young leaves are attacked they often turn black and 
wither off as from the action of frost. As the patches mature they 
break away, the spores of the fungus are spi-ead and another 
germination takes place. Wlien the shoots are attacked the disease 
most generall}^ appears at the joints and often runs in longtitudinal 




A — Tufts bearing finger- 
shaped spores growing 
upon the upper surface 
of the leaf. 

B — Upper surface of leaf. 

@ — Suckers or Roots. 



68 

:strips. The effects are at first small swellings and discoloration, and 
the bark detaches itself in strips from the wood. The wood has a 
blistered appearance and when badly attacked dies back. White 
Rot sometimes attacks the bunches when the beri-ies are the size of 
small peas, bnt more generally when they are fully grown, and 
first appears in the form of small brown shining spots. These spots 
increase rapidly, and in a few days covei' the entire surface. The 
effect is that the berries gradually shrivel up and in some cases 

drop off. The following preparations have pi'oved effective remedies 

for the White Rot fungus: 1. Sublimated Sulphur 14 1b., Slaked 
Lime 5 lb., and Sulphate of Copper 1 lb. These materials which 
must be crushed to a fine powdei-, and thoroughly mixed, form a 
preparation known as Sulphatine. It is applied as a powder in the 
same way as sulphur. 2. Bluestone and Sodium Carbonate used as 
a spray. 3. Sulphate of Iron used as a spray. Directions for 
making and using N'o.'s 2 and 3 remedies will be found at pages 
99 and 100, volume I. Cultivators must bear in mind that in the 
use of remedies for this disease prompt action is necessary as soon 
as it can be detected. 

Fruit not Setting. 

This is not a common occurrence, and may result from various 
•causes. The most general cause is due to atmospheric conditions, 
such as an abnormally low^ temperature or excess of rain at the time 
the flowers make their appearance. Frost wdll often cause the 
abortion of the flowers, and heavy rain sometimes washes off the 
pollen, and prevents fecundation. In many cases the result is brought 
about by the action of minute insects or fungi. Other probable 
causes are over-luxuriant growth or want of vigour in the plant at 
the flowering period. Sometimes the tendency to failure is owing to 
short pruning, as some varieties have inferior fruit buds in the 
•shoots near to the stocks, or none at all. Some varieties have a 
much greater tendency to fail through the non-setting of the fruit 
than others, which is a proof that atmospheric conditions are the 
principal cause. The evil can scarcely be altogether avoided, but 
cultivators may mitigate it materially b}^ excluding varieties that are 
specially liable to be affected, care in pruning so that each vine is 
treated according to its particular requirements, and judicious culti- 
vation. The French term for the non-setting of Grapes is " Coulure," 
and this name is frequently used in Australasia. 

Berries Making Irregular Growth. 

Sometimes, and more especially with a few varieties, the berries 
set freely, but they develop irregularly, so that while some retain 
their normal size, others increase in bulk but slightly, or not at 
all. Consequently, the bunches are composed of uneven berries, some 



of which do not ripen properly. This defect 
may be induced by various causes, the principal 
one being unfavoui-able atmospheric conditions 
when the flowers appeal-, which prevents the 
proper development of the berries by making- 
some of the blossoms abortive. When these 
floAvers are rendered abortive their places are 
taken by later and secondary ones which are 
inferior to the first or main ones. These 
secondary flowers are usually weakly, and only 
develop berries when the primary ones fail. 
Sometimes the evil is caused by the lack of 
some essential materials in the soil, such as 
potash or phosphoric acid. When the trouble 
is due to the last mentioned cause the 
cultivator may avoid it by taking care that 
there are no soil deficiencies. If caused by 
atmospheric conditions the evil cannot be 
absolutely avoided, but it may be mitigated 
by discarding such varieties as are specially 
liable to be affected. 

Cultivation Under Glass. 




Ijimch with Berries of 
irregular growth. 



In the cooler regions of Australia, and to a large extent in Tasmania 
and New Zealand, the cultivation of the Grape in the open air will 
necessarily be uncertain, and the aid of glass houses will be required. 
Glass houses may also be used with advantage for the pi-oduction of 
table Grapes earlier in the season than they can be obtained when 
growing under ordinary conditions. Gi-ape houses may be divided 
into two classes, the first including structures that merely afford 
protection from the changes of the weather and low outside tempera- 
ture, and the other embracing buildings fitted with appliances for 
supplying artificial heat to stimulate and hasten gi-owth. 

Cool Houses. — The first class, or cold houses, ai-e those that will be 
more generally required, and when economy is a consideration they 




A Lean-to Grape House. a a — Ventilators. 




A Span-roof Grape House- 



65 

may be constructed very cheaply. The simplest and cheapest kind of 
Grrape house is what is known as the Lean to. A useful house of this 
kind may be constructed as follows : — Dimensions, thirty feet in length, 
fifteen in width, with a back wall ten feet high, and the front one two 
feet. These walls may be simply composed of boards fixed to posts, 
but, if convenient, it will be better to make them of brick or stone. 
A wooden plate or cap is fixed on the top of the walls to receive the 
rafters, and upon these fixed sashes rest. Ventilation is provided by 
openings at the top of the back and front walls fitted with wooden 
shutters upon hinges which open outward, as shown by the illustrationT 

A Span-roof Grape house has the front and back walls of equal 
height, as shown by the illustration, and may be constructed as 
simply as the Lean-to, with the exception of the ridge, to receive the 
roof. In a house of this class it is also necessary to have openings in 
the ridge filled with shutters to afford the necessary ventilation. 

Forcing Houses. — These are structures which can be heated 
artificially to hasten growth and bring Grapes to maturity earlier in 
the season than they can be obtained in the ordinary way. Houses 
of this description may be constructed on the same lines as recom- 
mended for cold structures, but it is necessary that the walls and 
other parts should be more solid as a protection against the external 
cold air and to enable the internal temperature to be easily kept up 
to the proper standard. Heat is applied by means of hot water pipes 
fixed low down on the inside of the walls, and supplied from a boiler 
placed outside the building. Very cheap and effective boilers of 
va-rious forms are now available, and the cost of heating a Grape 
house need not be a very expensive item. 

Treatment op Vines Under Glass. 

Vines under glass, either in cold or forcing houses, should in the 
first place be trained so that the branches will cover the whole of the 
roof surface. The methods best adapted for the purpose are the 
"Thomery" and the "Extended Long Rod," both of which have 
been fully described in the section upon Training, page 38. A wire 
trellis or rods should be fixed six or eight inches below the rafters 
for the support of the branches, taking care that they are securely 
tied from time to time as growth progresses. In order to prevent 
scorching, the inside of the glass should be thinly smeared with 
whitening or some similar material shortly after growth has started. 
Air mtist be admitted freely, and more especially after the fruit has 
set. While the plants are in blossom the houses ought to be kept 
somewhat closer and warmer than usual, and at this time it is not 
advisable to wet or sprinkle the foliage. At all other times the 
syringe may be used freely with advantage, and more especially on 
harsh drying days. In heated houses growth should be started at a 
temperature of from 60 to 65 Fah., and this must be kept up till 
the bunches are well developed. As a matter of course, as the 
weather increases in warmth the fire heat may be reduced in 

2d 



66 

proportion. Insects and fungi are often troublesome in cultivating 
Grape Vines under glass, and care must be taken not to let these 
pests get a firm hold. As soon as detected, the necessary remedies 
should be promptly applied. Care should also be taken, as a pre- 
ventative, to remove loose bark and paint the stems with lime and 
sulphur before growth starts. It will also be advisable, in the case 
of heated houses, to sprinkle powdered sulphur and lime upon the 
hot water pipes frequently, as the fumes will materially assist in 
keeping down Oidium and other fungi. 

Thinning Bunches of Grapes. 

In the cultivation of Grapes under glass it is a common practice 
with European gardeners to reduce the number of berries when too 
numerous. Some kinds have a tendency to set ho thickly that as the 
berries increase in size they have not room for development, and 
consequently do not come up to the highest standard in quality. By 
thinning out the bunches the drawback is avoided, and the beiTies 
attain their full size and flavour. The operation should be performed 
when th<^ berries have fairly well formed, and must be done with a 
pair of sharp-pointed scissors, and with great care. Sometimes a 
second thinning may be necessary, and this should be done before the 
berries get large enough to press each other by over-crowding. As a 
matter of course, the practice of thinning is only to be recommended 
for choice table Grapes, and can necessarily only be adopted upon a 
small scale. It will, however, prove serviceable if specially fine 
bunches are required for exhibition or other purposes. 

Gathering, Packing, and Preskrving Grapes. 

The Grape reaches the highest degree of perfection when allowed 
to get fully ripe upon the Vine, and some kinds are richest in 
flavour when permitted to hang till they begin to shrivel. If required 
for packing, the bunches should be gathered when perfectly dry, 
and never when there is any moisture upon them from rain or 
dew. For local markets, that can be reached within two or three 
days, it will be sufficient to pack the bunches firmly in the boxes 
so that they will not shift. In packing the boxes, which should 
not be large, the fruit must be laid in bunch by bunch, as closely 
as possible, and in such a way that a gentle pressure will be 
required to fasten down the lids of the cases. When packed to 
travel long distances, and remain some days in the cases, the spaces 
between the bunches should be filled with thoroughly dr}^ sawdust 
or corkdust. Large quantities of Grapes packed this way are sent 
to England from Spain and Portugal, and generally ai*rive at their 
destination in prime condition. Formerly, before the advent of 
steam transport, Grapes from these countries were often several 
weeks in the cases before they reached the English market, and 
seldom suffered to any great extent. Grapes may be preserved 
fresh for several weeks by various methods. One method is to 



67 

suspend the bundles, so that they do not touch each other, with 
strings from rods in a moderately dry room or shed ; another plan 
is to place the bunches in jars or boxes, filling the spaces between 
with thoroughly dry bran or sawdust. Bunches of Grapes may 
also be kept for a considerable time if cut with pieces of the wood 
three or four inches long attached to the stalks. The ends of these 
pieces of stem should be inserted about two inches in tubes or 
bottles filled with water. These are placed slanting on shelves in 
such a way that the bunches will hang clear. There will be no 
occasion to change the water if a small piece of charcoal has been 
placed in each bottle ; it will, however, be necessary to keep the 
tubes or bottles filled up as the water is absorbed. 

Making Raisins and Cuerants. 

Grapes can be i-eadily dfied by sun heat, and raisins or currants 
^re most generally prepared by this means. This is, in fact, the 
method generally adopted in European practice. Drying by fire 
heat has of late years been practised to some extent, and more 
particularly in California, but though this method has the recom- 
mendation of being more economical and speedy, yet, as a rule, the 
produce is inferior to sun-cured fruit. Various methods are adopted 
an curing raisins, and even in Spain, where this industry is earned 
on principally, the practice varies considerably. In the province of 
Valencia the usual plan in curing is to prepare a hot \je made of the 
ashes of Vine wood and Rosemary. The bunches are dipped in this 
preparation, spread out in the sun to dry, and turned daily till 
sufficiently cured. In the district around Malaga, which is also 
noted for its raisins, the bunches are simply dried in the sun without 
undergoing any pi-evious preparation. This dipping process doubt- 
less hastens the curing, but in other respects no benefit can be 
derived from it. On the other hand, if the bunches are kept too 
long in the hot solution there will be a risk that the berries will be 
partially cooked, or the skins crack and allow a portion of the Grape 
sugar to escape. The easiest and quickest way of sun-drying is to 
spread a layer of bunches on wooden trays of moderate size and 
uniform in shape. These should be fully exposed to the sun, and the 
bunches turned every day till they are sufficiently dry. Care must 
be taken in drying that the fruit is not exposed to dew or rain, as if 
it gets wet there is a risk of its spoiling. The time required for 
•drying will, as a matter of course, depend largely upon the weather, 
but also to some extent upon the size of the Grapes, and the degree 
of ripeness. If the weather is clear and hot, ordinary i-aisins can be 
made in twelve to fourteen days, but will require a longer time w^hen 
the conditions are less favourable. Currant b, having smaller berries, 
<can be dHed in a shorter period, and will generally be sufficiently 
cured in a week. Sultanas require a day or two more than currants, 
but less drying than the ordinary raisins. When dried by artificial 
heat, the bunches are placed on open trays in a building specially 



68 

constructed for the purpose, and curi-ents of hot air are made to pass 
through them till the surplus moistui-e has evaporated. As soon as 
the drj^ng process is complete, whether by artificial or sun heat, the 
fruit should be placed in heaps or boxes for a few days, when it will 
slightly ferment or " sweat." The next thing will be to pack it as. 
tightly as possible into small boxes or kegs, where it will remain till 
required for use. When the stems have to be removed, which is 
necessary with currants and some classes of raisins, it must be done, 
as a matter of course, before the fruit is put into the cases. Grapes 
for drying should invariably be fully ripe before they are gathered, 
and when practicable they ought to be left to hang till they begin to 
shrivel. 

Making Grape Jam or Jelly. 

Grapes can be utilized to advantage when made into jam or jelly. 
All kinds may be used for the purpose, but those with pulpy and 
somewhat acid berries will give the best results. Only sound Grapes 
should be used, and these, when picked from the stalks, must be 
boiled slowly for about four hours for jam, adding sugar at the rate 
of about one pound to three pounds of fruit, or a greater proportion if 
the Grapes contain a large quantity of acid. For jelly the berries 
should be boiled slowly without sugar till the pulp separates freely 
from the skins, when the mass should be strained through coarse 
muslin or some other suitable material. To each pint of juice one 
pound of white sugar should be added, and then boil briskly for 
an hour. Preserve in jars as with other jams or jellies. 

Wine-making. 

This is a subject which the writer does not intend to treat exhaus- 
tively, as there are so many details to be considered, and so much to 
be said in connection with each one, that the most complete information 
can only be given in a work specially devoted to wine-making. The 
writer, therefore, proposes to touch lightly upon the more essential 
matters in such a way that the information may be serviceable to 
those whose knowledge of the subject is limited. Though the process 
of making wine is simple, yet various essential matters have to be 
duly considered in order to obtain the fullest measure of success. 
Modifications in treatment are necessary according to the variety of 
Grape, its degree of ripeness, and the class of wine that is desired. 
As regards the latter requirement, it must be remembered that the 
foundation of a particular class of wine is in a certain variety, which 
is essential to the production of the desired article. It is simply 
impossible to make a particular kind of wine without its proper base. 
But the qualities of Grapes are modified materially by climate, soil, 
and degree of ripeness, so that the one kind grown under different 
conditions may produce wines that vary considerably in strength and 
character. In the warmer districts, where there is a strong heat 



69 

and light at the ripening period, the Grapes will contain a large 
proportion of glui.ose, consequently the wine will be richer in alcohol, 
and, therefore, stronger by several degrees. In the colder regions, or 
in other localities when the season is unfavourable for ripening, the 
Grapes will retain more acidity and a lower proportion of glucose, 
and, consequently, the wine will be lighter in character. A very wet 
season, or when water has been supplied at a late period by irrigation_j_ 
may decrease the percentage of glucose, and make the wine very low 
in quality. Then, again, if Grapes are allowed to hang till they are 
dead ripe and begin to shrivel, they will be richer in glucose and 
have less acidity. 

. When wine of a high strength is required, the Grapes should be 
allowed to hang till they attain the fullest degree of ripeness. In the 
cooler districts it will be necessary, as a rule, to let the crop get 
thoroughly ripe before it is gathered, as even then the fruit will, 
generally contain a good percentage of acidity. Unless the Grapes are 
fully ripe the wine will not be up to the highest possible standard. 
On the other hand, in the warmer regions, where wines are too rich 
in alcohol, it may be advisable to gather the Grapes before they get 
sufficiently ripe to develop the full amount of glucose. This plan is 
often adopted, and the result is wine less strong than the product of 
fully ripe Grapes. Some wine-makers, however, prefer letting the 
fruit attain the highest degree of maturity, and to lower the strength 
of the must by adding the necessary percentage of water before 
fermentation. In support of this practice it is contended that the 
development of the saccharine and other matters should not be 
checked, as their suppression is detrimental to the wdne. Another 
mode of reducing the strength of wines is to blend with a lowei 
quality of must from a different variety or locality. 

Treatment of the Grapes. — When the Grapes are gathered it will be 
advisable to remove all unripe or decayed berries, as these if left will 
have a tendency to injure the wine. The fruit intended for white 
wine is crushed and pressed directly, but for red kinds the Grapes 
after being crushed are allowed to stand a few days in the vats before 
the pressing takes place. Many wine-makers separate the berries 
from the stalks before crushing, but this is not absolutely necessary. 
The stalks during fermentation yield astringent matter the base of 
which is tannin, and when this is in excess it is injurious to wines. 
The skins contain the same tannin as the stalks, and the colouring 
matter that is imparted to the wine. The pips contain tannin in larger 
proportions, as also a considerable amount of albuminous matter, 
fatty oil, gluten, and mineral salts. Though neither the stalks, skins, 
nor pips contain material that can be converted into alcohol, yefc 
they accelerate the process of fermentation, and greatly influence the 
character of wines. A moderate proportion of tannin is beneficial to 
both white and red wines, and is, in fact, essential to them. It 
precipitates the albumen, improves the quality, and is not unpleasant 
to the palate. On the other hand, an excess of tannin makes wine 
hard, astringent, disagreeable to the taste, and heavy for the stomach. 
Consequently, neither stalks, skins, nor pips should be allowed to 



70 

macerate in the juice longer than is absolutely necessary to effect- 
certain objects that are desired. There is no danger of an excess of 
tannin in white wines, as the Grapes being pressed soon after they ar& 
crushed the stalks, skins, and pips do not remain sufficiently long in 
the juice to part with their astringent qualities to any great extent. 
In fact, in some cases the stalks may be put through the press with 
the berries, in order that the necessary amount of tannin may be 
imparted to the wine. In making red or other deep-coloured wines 
the colouring matter is obtained from the skins, and they have 
necessarily to macerate for a period, longer or shorter, in the juice. 
Consequently, there is a risk of too much tannin being absorbed, and 
more especially in the case of wines strong in alcohol. Therefore it 
will be advisable to remove the stalks before crushing, so that a less 
quantity- of tannin will be available for absorption. In crushing care 
must be taken, as far as is practicable, not to break the pips, as their 
oily and albuminous kernels have an injurious effect upon the wine. 

Treatment of the Juice The juice, after it leaves the press, is 

technically known as " must," while the mass of skins, pips, &c. left 
behind is called the " marc." The strength of the must is represented 
simply by the quantity of sugar contained which can be converted 
into alcohol. But the test of strength does not represent the variable 
quantities of acids, essential oils, salts, and other materials, each 
of which has an influence upon the quality of the wine. As soon 
as it is run from the press the must should be placed in large 
receivers, or fermenting vats. These receptacles are mostly made 
of wood, and when so, they must necessarily be made of some 
kind that will not impart an unpleasant flavour to the wine. Oak 
is the favourite wood for the purpose for which it is admirably 
suited. Some wine-makers prefei stone or brick and cement 
square tanks to wooden vats, and one class of receiver seems to 
be quite as useful as the other. Closed vats are now more generally 
used than open ones, as the fermentation is more regular. Fermen- 
tation also goes on with more regularity and briskness in shallow 
than in deep vats, and the work is sooner finished. Temperature, as 
a matter of course, has a great influence upon the fermenting process, 
as when low it goes on slowly, and if high makes rapid progress. 
When the fermentation goes on too slowly it may be incomplete, and, 
on the other hand, if too rapid there may be a material loss of alcohol 
and other essentials. It is, therefore, advisable to keep the tempera- 
ture as regular as possible by constructing the cellars so that they 
will be least affected by the power of the sun and changes of the 
weather. The fermentation may possibly be stimulated when Grapes 
are gathered after the air and soil is heated by the sun, and more 
especially in the warmer districts. As a rule, the higher the 
temperature of the must when placed in the vats the more strong 
will be the fermentation. 

Artificial Fermentation .- -Some attention has during the last two or 
three years been paid to a system of artificial fermentation, said to 
have been practised with great success in French vineyards. The 



71 

investigations of Pasteur and other French, scientists have led to the 
discovery that the wine "ferments," or "yeasts," are various, 
according to the variety of Grape, degree of ripeness, climate, 
temperature of the must, mode of fermentation, and other local 
conditions. These scientists also inform us that some of the essential 
qualities in wines are, to a large extent, dependent upon the character 
of the fermenting yeast. Under the ordinary system the fermenting 
agent must necessarily be a matter of chance, whereas it is claimed 
for the new process that the wine-maker can utilize a special medium. 
These mediums are selected " yeasts " which are carefully cultivated 
and preserved, so that they can be applied to wines with certainty. 
These " yeasts," which are known in French as " levures," are 
selected from the various classes of notable wines. It is claimed for 
these artificial ferments that their use ensures wines of more certain 
character and uniform quality than can be obtained in the ordinary way. 
Each class of " yeast " is also said to give to a wine a particular and 
distinctive bouquet, more or less similar to the European wine from 
which it has originated. As instances the advocates of artificial fermen- 
tation claim that cultivated " yeasts " of the Pinot Noir of Burgundy 
and Cabernet Sauvignon of Bordeaux will to a large extent supply the 
special characteristics that have made wines from those districts famous. 
Whether these claims are well founded time and experience must show. 
It is probable, however, that the advocates of artificial fermentation 
claim more for the system than results will warrant. Possibly it may 
prove of great service to wine growers, but it is doubtful whether the 
system will produce such certain and great results as is claimed for it. 
It must not be forgotten that the qualities of wines depend upon many 
factors, and each has a material influence. The "ferment " is only one 
factor though certainly it is not the least important. It is not likely 
that by merely using a cultivated "yeast" from a special French or 
German wine that the products of Australasian vineyards can be made to 
assume the same characters. Then, again, it must not be forgotten that 
in using cultivated " yeasts " they must necessarily come in contact with 
those that form naturally, and possibly results may be materially influenced 
by this means. Another matter in connexion with artificial fermentation, 
that will to some extent be a bar to the practice, is the fact that the 
cultivated " yeasts " must be prepared by skilled scientists, and will cost 
money. When the system is practised, the first consideration is to use 
only the special '• yeast " that is suitable for a particular class of wines. 
As instances, a Bordeaux " yeast " is best suited for Cabernet, Malbeck, 
and similar kinds. A Sherry " yeast " should be applied to such 
varieties as Pedro Ximenes and Doradilla, and a Hermitage " yeast " 
must be used for Shiraz, Grenache, Mataro, and other sorts belonging to 
the same section. In applying the cultivated " yeasts " they should first 
be mixed with, say, about ten gallons of sterilised must which ought to 
be freely exposed to the air for a few hours before it is used in order to 
encourage active fermentation. The must may be sterilised by heating it 
to 160 degrees for two or three minutes, allowing it to cool gradually to 
below 70 Fah. before adding the " yeast." The prepared must is then 



72 

added to the main bulk, and the further treatment is the same as that 
required during fermentat on in the ordinary way. 

Racking ' ff the Wine. — As soon as active fermentation ceases the wine 
should be drawn off and filled into smaller casks. ]^«y this means it is 
separated from the lees and placed in casks that can be handled readily. 
No precise rules can be laid down as to the time wine should be left in 
the vats to ferment, as local conditions such as climate, season, and 
variety may have more or less an influence. The safest rule to go by is 
when the bubbling sound caused by the rising of the carbonic acid gas 
ceases, and the thermometer only indicates a temperature a. few degrees 
higher than the surrounding atmosphere. The drawing off is most 
usually performed by means of a tap in the side of the vat, but very 
often the work is done with a syphon. Great care must be taken, 
whichever plan is adopted, that no lees are drawn off with the wine. 
Activity does not altogether cease when the wine is drawn from the 
fermenting vats. A limited amount of sugar, from two to four per cent,, 
stiir remains, and this is slowly changed into alcohol. This process is 
called "insensible fermentation," as the signs are less noticeable than in 
the first, or " active fermentation." At the time it is drawn off, the wine 
gets aerated more or less, and the oxygen thus asorbed assists the 
fermentation of the remaining sugar into alcohol. Though the casks 
may be well filled from the fermenting vat, yet a shrinkage will soon 
take place from various causes, and the deficiency must be promptly 
made good. If a space is lefc unfilled the wine is liable to oxidize too 
rapidly. Second and even third rackings are required for some wines in 
order to get rid of deleterious matter. 

Blending and Fining. — When wines are deficient in any desirable 
qualities, or contain some particular material in excess, blending may 
often prove of great service. Very frequently wines uill contain too 
much alcohol, tannin, acidity, or colouiing material, and by care and 
judgment in blending these defects may often be modified. As a 
matter of course, the wines used for blending must possess such 
properties as are likely to affect the desired purposes, and there 
should be some affinity between them and the wines they are applied 
to. All kinds of wine cannot be blended together, and it will be 
folly to adopt the practice with those that differ widely in character. 
Sometimes wines remain turbid and cloudy, notwithstanding 
various and careful rackings, and in order to assist clarification it 
will be necessary to use materials to " fine " them. In the case of 
blended wines, turbidity will often occui- through the dissolving 
powers of the various sorts dilfering. It is essential that the matter 
in suspension be removed, not only to make the wine look brighter, 
but also to insure that it will keep sound. Fining may be effected 
mechanically by filtering the wine through sand, or other materials 
suitable for the purpose, or it may be done with albuminoid substances 
whose action is mainly chemical. Albuminoid substances when 
applied to the wine, form a glutinous film, the result of coagulation 
caused by the tannin and acids. This film, after a few days, gradually 
falls to the bottom of the cask, cariying with it all matter held in 



73 

suspension which affects the limpidity of the wine. The best fining, 
and more particularly for delicate and old wines, is the white of eggs. 
Two eggs, after the yolks are removed, diluted in a quart of wine, 
in w^hich a quarter of an ounce of salt has been dissolved, will afford 
sufficient finmg material fur from forty to fifty gallons. Gelatine or 
isinglass acts nmoh in the same way, but rather more vigorously, 
though not inflaenced by the acids to the same extent as albumen. 
Fining is also useful in correcting wines that contain too much tannin; — 
as it removes a considerable portion. On the other hand, it may remove 
too much tannin from wines that contain but a small proportion of that 
material, unless special provision is made to replace what is lost. 

Aroma of Wines. — Every wine should possess a grateful odour and a 
pleasant flavour for the palate. The odoriferous qualities are mainly 
due to essential oils contained in cells which line the interior of the 
skins. Some Grapes have these oils more pronounced in their develop- 
ment than others, and this is especially the case with the " Muscat " 
section, which are remarkable for their peculiar flavours. These essential 
oils supply what is known as the aroma to both fruit and wines. The 
strength and character of these flavouring materials may vary considerably 
according to local conditions, such as climate, character of the season, 
ripeness of the Grapes, and nature of the soil. Though special aromas 
are peculiar to particular varieties or classes of Grapes, yet they will be 
higher or lower according to the local influences named, and may also be 
materially affected by defective fermentation, or excess of tannin or 
other matter in the wine. What is known as the " bouquet " is produced 
by volatile ethers, and more especially acetic ether formed by the action 
of alcohol upon the acids. As this action goes on very slowly, these 
odoriferous ethers generally exist in greater proportions in old than in 
new wines ; to some extent these compounds are also influenced by the 
slowness or quickness of the fermenting process. The " bouquet " of 
wines is volatile and unstable, and is easily dissipated by exposure 
to the air. This will account for the falling off in flavour so noticeable 
with some wines soon after the corks have been drawn from the bottles, 
or when decanted. 

Mdturing Wines. — The object for keeping wine in casks for two or 
more years before bottling it, is to allow the necessary latent or silent 
fermentation by the action of oxygen obtained from the air. When the 
wines are racked off, a considerable proportion of the carbonic acid gas 
escapes, and at the same time air is absorbed. The influence of the air 
is of great importance to the future of the wine, and will make itself 
felt more or less till the supply is completely shut off through the use 
of bottles It is essential that this action should be very slow, and 
therefore, it is necessary to keep the casks well filled with wine, to 
prevent air from entering them in excess. This secondary fermen- 
tation not only acts upon the sugar contained in the wine, but also 
upon the acids which are decomposed to some extent, and the colouring 
matter which is gradually precipitated. When the silent fermentation 
is complete, and the time for this must necessarily vary according to the 



74 

character of the wine and the treatment it receives, the process of 
maturing is finished by bottling it off. If left too long in the cask there 
may be a falling off in aroma or colour, which the maker must be careful 
to guard against. The bottles must necessarily be securely fastened, 
and only new and sound corks should be used. Cellars for storing 
should be dark and cool, and the more regular the temperature can be 
kept the better. Some of the lighter wines attain the highest degree of 
perfection in seven or eight years, but the stronger kinds may improve 
up to twenty years old or over. 

Condensed Must. — A practice has been introduced within the last few 
years, and is now followed to a great extent in some parts of Europe, of 
condensing must by evaporation. Under this system it is materially 
reduced in bulk, and can be more readily exported to other countries, 
than wine in its natural state. In many of the principal wine making 
districts of Europe the produce of the local vineyards fall short of the 
requirements, and has to be supplemented by supplies from other 
countries. Condensed Must serves the purpose equally well as a made 
wine, and there is less cost in carriage, as also generally a saving in 
customs charges. The process is carried on upon exactly the same lines 
as in condensing milk. By evaporation in vacuum pans the bulk of the 
water is removed while the sugar and other essential components remain. 
When the process is complete the Must is reduced to a thick mass, 
having the appearance of treacle. This material when filled into casks 
or jars will keep good for years, and may be fermented at any time by 
the application of water. The saving in bulk by condensation is about 
two thirds. When fermented it is necessary to mix Grape skins with 
the Must as these afford the required tannin, colour, and flavour. There- 
fore it is usual in exporting to send tightly packed skins of the same 
variety, in the proportion of one barrel to six of Must. When unfermented, 
condensed Must is said to yield a pleasant non-alcoholic beverage that 
may be used without scruple by the most rigid teetotalers. Possibly 
the condensing of Must may be found to offer advantages in some parts 
of Australasia. 

Varieties. 



There are a very large number of Grapes in cultivation both for 
dessert and wine-making purposes, but the kinds suitable for drying are 
comparatively few. A limited number is all that are required for any 
purpose, and growers will do well not to plant too many sorts. The 
following list embraces all the more noteworthy kinds : — 

A leppo {Chasselas Panache, Morillon Panache, Baisin Suisse, StHped 
Muscadine, Variegated Chasselas). — A singular French variety, remarkable 
for its variegated berries, which are mostly striped with white, red, and 
black in distinct lines. Bunches medium-sized, loose. Berries roundish, 
medium-sized, and thin skinned. Flesh juicy and well flavoured. 
Ripens medium early, and is good for dessert or wine. 



75 

Alicante (Black Lisbon^ Black PortugaU Black PalestinCy Black 
Spanish, Black St. Petei-'s — An excellent and showy late table Grape, 
supposed to be of Spanish origin. Bunches large and usually set well. 
Berries large, oval, jet-black, with a blue bloom, and a rather tough skin. 
Flesh tender, juicy, with a flavour similar to the black Hamburgh. 
Ripens late, will hang well, and is also a good wine Grape. 

Aramon {Burchard£s PHnce, Plant Bicke, Ugni Noir). — A popular 
French wine Grape. Bunches large, long, tapering, and well set. 
Berries large, round, black, and thick skinned. Flesh tender, juicy, and 
moderately well flavoured. Ripens rather late, is very prolific, and yields 
a good light wine. Extensively cultivated in the south of France. 

Aucarot. — A popular French wine Grape, which is similar in appear- 
ance and quality to the White Burgundy (Finot Blanc), 

August Frontignan (Muscat d'Aoiit). — An early table variety of French 
origin. Bunches medium sized. Berries deep purple, round, inclining 
to oval. Flesh rich and juicy, with a slight Muscat flavour. Valuable 
for its earliness. 

Barh'irossa (Brizzola, Rossea). — An excellent Spanish dessert Grape. 
Bunches medium sized, shouldered. Berries above medium size, thin 
skinned, pale red, with a grey bloom, and slightly oval. Flesh juicy, 
sweet, with a very rich Chasselas flavour. Ripens at mid- season. 

Baxter'^ Sh^-rr//. — A popular white Grape of uncertain origin. Bunches 
large and rather loose. Berries large, oval, yellowish-green, and thin 
skinned. Flesh juicy and sweet. A prolific bearer, and makes a strong 
wine. Ripens about mid-season. 

Black Champion (Champion Hamburgh), — An English table variety of 
excellent quality. Bunches large and thickly set. Berries deep black, 
with a blue bloom, large, oval. Flesh slightly firm, very juicy, sweet, 
well flavoured, and has but few seeds. Ripens several days earlier than 
the Black Hamburgh. 

Black Cluster (Auvergne, Black Morillon, Burgundy, Early Black, 
Morillon Noir, Pinot Noir). — A hardy and prolific wine Grape, which is 
extensively cultivated in France and Germany, and has received a 
considerable amount of attention in Australia. Bunches rather small, 
closely set, compact, and tapering. Berries deep blue-black, small, 
roundish-oval, and rather thick skinned. Flesh juicy, sweet, with a 
vinous flavour. Ripens at mid-sea.'*on, and is chiefly used as a wine 
Grape. 

Black Corinth (Currant Grape, Pa^solina, Zante), — A small seedless 
Grape, which yields the ' ' currants " of commerce. Bunches small and 
compact. Berries very small, and sometimes irregular in size, black, 
round, and thin skinned. Flesh sweet and highly flavoured. Ripens 
after mid-season. Being of strong growth the plants require plenty of 
room, and should be pruned with long shoots. Though some suppose that 
the Zante is a distinct variety, yet it is in every respect identical with the 
Grape under notice. 

Black Damascus (Damascus, Worksop Manor). — A good late table 
Grape of English origin. Bunches large' and loose. Berries large, round, 
but sometimes irregular in size. Skin thin, deep black. Flesh juicy. 



76 

sweet, and richly flavoured. Ripens very late, and best adapted for 
warm districts. 

JUack Frontignan (Black Frontignac, Black Muscat, Muscat Noir). — 
A useful Muscat variety. Bunches medium sized, clylindrical, and 
compact. Skin brownish -black. Berries medium sized and round. 
Flesh juicy and luscious. Ripens after mid-season, makes a rich wine, 
and can also be used as a table Grape. 

Black Hamburgh {Black Hamh70, Browv Hamburgh, Hampton Court, 
Heel Hamburgh). — A well-known and popular table Grape, and can also 
be utilized for wine. Bunches large, heavily shouldered, and well set. 
Berries large, regular, globular to oval, with a rather thick brownish-black 
skin. Flesh very juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens medium early, is 
very hardy, thrives well in most localities, and is an excellent bearer. 
Yields a pleasant light wine. 

Black Aialvasia. — A strong growing, hardy variety of uncertain origin. 
Bunches medium large and loose. Berries large, oblong, reddish-black. 
Flesh juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Ripens medium early, is an 
excellent table Grape, and makes a strong luscious wine. 

Black Morocco {Black Muscatel, Morocco, Mogul, Red Muscatel). — An 
excellent late-keeping table Grape, Bunches large and loose. Berries 
oval, large, but often irregular, with a thick reddish-brown skin. Flesh 
firm, sweet, improves in flavour after hanging for a time, when it becomes 
very rich. Has but few seeds, and may be utilized to advantage as 
a raisin Grape. Ripens very late. 

Black Muscadine (Black Chasselas, Chasselas, Chasselas Noir). — An 
excellent table Grape, and may be utilized for making a fruity wine. 
Bunches medium sized, compact, and regular. Berries medium sized, 
round, inclining to oval, with a purplish-black skin covered with a blue 
bloom. Flesh juicy, sweet, with a slight musky flavour. Ripens about 
mid-season. 

Black Prince (Boston, Pocock's Damascus, Langford^s Incomparable). 
— A well-known and excellent English table variety, which may also be 
turned to account for making wine. Bunches large, long, loose, and 
generally without shoulders. Berries large, oval, with a thick purplish- 
black skin covered with a deep blue bloom. Flesh tender, very juicy, 
sweet, and richly flavoured. Ripens immediately after the Black 
Hamburgh. 

Black Tripoli (Frankenthal). — A good variety, very similar in the 
appearance of the fruit, flavour, and other respects to the Black Hamburgh, 
but not identical. 

Bowood Muscat (T'ynningham Muscat). — An excellent table Grape of 
English origin, and a seedling from Muscat of Alexandria, which it 
resembles to a great extent, but it is supposed to set more regularlj'-, and 
the wood is shorter jointed. Ripens after mid-season, and is a good 
raisin Grape. 

Buckland Sweetivater. — A very good early table Grape of English origin, 
and yields a light wine. Bunches large, well shouldered, and closely set. 
Berrie^ large, round, inclining to oval, with a thin pale amber skin, and 
few seeds Flesh veiy juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Ripens early, 
is very hardy and prolific. 



77 

Cabernet Sauvignon {Carbinet, Navarre, Petit Cabernet, Vidure^ 
Vinidure). — An excellent and popular French wine Grape. Bunches 
small to medium size, conical, shouldered, loose, and rather long. Berries 
small, round, with a thick black skin, and covered with a blue bloom. 
Flesh juicy, with a vinous flavour. Kipens at mid-season. This variety 
is extensively grown in France, where it is considered to be one of the 
best red wine Grapes, and it is also a favourite in Australia. 

Calabrian Baisin {llaisin de Calabre). — A very late table variety that 
will hang for a long time. Bunches very large, often over twelve inches 
in length, tapering, and slightly shouldered. Berries large, round, pale 
yellow. Skin thick but transparent. Flesh moderately firm, sweet, 
and well flavoured. Ripens late, bears freely, and makes a good pudding 
raisin. 

Canon Hall Muscat. — An English table variety, and a seedling from 
Muscat of Alexandria. Bunches large, loose, and more tapering than 
those of the parent. Berries as large, but rounder. Flesh firm and 
sweet, but not quite so highly flavoured as the Muscat of Alexandria. 
Bipens after mid-season, is hardy and prolific, and a very good raisin 
Grape. 

Carignane {Catalan). — A useful and popular French red wine Grape. 
Bunches large and compact. Berries medium sized, oblong, with a 
reddish-black skin. Flesh juicy and brisk. Ripens at mid-season, and 
is an abundant bearer. This variety is extensively cultivated in France, 
and is regarded as a first-class wine Grape, 

Carmenere. — A French wine Grape very similar to. if not identical 
with, Cabernet Sauvignon. 

Carmenet {Cabernet Franc ^ Cabernet Oris, Gros Cabernet). — Another 
French wine Grape which is very similar to Cabernet Sauvignon, but the 
berries are larger and have thinner skins. The finest Claret is made 
from Grapes of the Cabernet class. 

Centennial. — This is a handsome white table Grape, raised in the 
Bendigo district, Victoria, and said to be a sport from Waltham Cross. 
The bunches are very large, long, tapering, and well shouldered. Berries 
very large, oblong, yellowish-green. Flesh juicy, medium firm, and well 
flavoured. 

Champion Muscat {Champion Hamburgh Muscat, Muscat Champion). 
— A first-class English table Grape, raised from Mill Hill Hamburgh, 
fertilized by Canon Hall Muscat, and possesses the desirable properties of 
both parents. Bunches very large and well shouldered. Berries large, 
roundish, with a black skin covered with a light bloom. Flesh tender, 
juicy, and rich, with a distinct Muscat flavour. Ripens after mid-season. 

Chapfal. — A French table Grape of excellent quality Bunches large* 
Berries large, round, inclining to oval, with a pale yellowish- white skin. 
Flesh juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Ripens late, and bears very 
freely. 

Chasselas Musque [Musk Chasselas, Muscat Muscadine, Tokay Muscat). 
— A table Grape of first-rate quality, and one of the richest flavoured 
belonging to the Chasselas section. Bunches medium sized, shouldered, 
long, tapering, and rather loose. Berries above medium size, round, with 



78 

a pale amber skin covered with a thin white bloom. Flesh juicy, sweet, 
with a high Muscat flavour. Ripens at mid-season, bears freely, and will 
make a good wine, 

Chasselas Hose de Faliaiix {Chasselas <fe Negreponty Chnsselas Rose 
Jalahert). — A very good table and wine Grape. Bunches medium sized, 
long, and compact. Berries large, round, somewhat flattened, with a 
tough pale red skin. Flesh juicy, sweet, with a slight but distinct Muscat 
flavour. Ripens about mid-season, and is a great bearer. 

Chasselas Royal. — An excellent table Grape of English origin, suitable 
also for wine. Bunches medium sized, thick, and short, with shoulders. 
Berries large, round, with a pale amber skin. Flesh juicy and richly 
flavoured. Ripens about mid-season, and is very prolific. 

Chasselas Vibert. — An early table and wine Grape belonging to the 
Sweetwater section. Bunches medium sized, long, cylindrical, and well 
set. Berries large, round, with a thin pale amber skin. Flesh tender, 
juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Ripens several days before Golden 
Chasselas, is very hardy and prolific. 

Cinsaut. — This variety is very similar to Ulliade, if not identical with 
it. 

Citron Frontignan {Muscat Citronelle).— An excellent French table 
and wine Grape. Bunches small and cylindrical. Berries medium sized, 
quite round, with a tender greenish- white skin covered with a thin bloom. 
Flesh firm, very juicy, with a Frontignan aroma and distinct Citron 
flavour. Ripens at mid -season, and bears freely. 

CLairette (Blanquette). — A hardy and prolific French variety. Bunches 
medium sized. Berries pale green, small, oval. Flesh juicy and well 
flavoured. An excellent and popular wine Grape in France, and also a 
good table variety. Ripens rather late, and keeps well. 

Cornichon {Finger Grape, White Cucumber, Bee d'Uiseau). — The 
common name of this variety is derived from the peculiar shape of the 
berries. Bunches medium sized, round, and loose. Berries very long, 
tapering at both ends. There are two varieties, one with green and the 
other with reddish berries. Flesh firm, juicy, and pleasant, and a thick 
skin covered with a grey bloom. Ripens very late, and is useful on that 
account as a dessert Grape. 

Dolcetto {Bignona, Nebhiola). — A hardy and useful Italian variety. 
Bunches medium sized, pyramidal, and long. Berries medium sized, 
black, with a rich bloom, and thick skin. Flesh juicy, with a pleasant 
vinous flavour. Ripens medium early, is very prolific, and makes a good 
red wine. 

Doradillo {Jean Blanc, Plateado, Plateadillo). — A useful Spanish 
Grape. Bunches large, conical, and shouldered. Berries large, oval, 
pale amber, and thin skinned. Flesh firm, sweet, and richly flavoured. 
Ripens late, is very prolific, a fine dessert Grape, and makes a good 
light wine. 

Duchess of Bacchugh. — A first-class English table Grape, said to 
have originated between Chasselas Musque and Muscat of Alexandria. 
Bunches large, long, tapering, well set, and shouldered. Berries medium 
sized or over, round, yellowish, with a grey bloom. Flesh tender, juicy, 



79 

witli a rich Muscat flavour. Hardy, prolific, and ripens about mid- 
season. 

Duke of Buccleugh. — An excellent English table Grape. Bunches 
well formed, large, compact, with broad shoulders. Berries very 
.large, round, of a deep amber. Flesh juicy, with a flavour somewhat 
similar to the Black Hamburgh. Ripens rather early, and is one of the 
largest-berried white Grapes. 

Dutch Sweetivater [Perle Blanche). — An old, well-known, and useful 
€arly variety. Bunches above medium size, shouldered, lf)ose. Berries^ 
large, but some badly developed, pale green, covered with a grey bloom. 
Flesh tender, very juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens early, a good 
dessert Grape, and makes a fair light wine. 

Early Ascot Frontignan (Muscat Frontignan). — A good early table 
Grape. A seedling from Muscat Hatif de Saumer, crossed with 
Chasselas de Musqu^. Bunches medium sized and well shouldered. 
Berries medium sized, round, deep amber. Flesh firm, juicy, with a 
Muscat flavour. Ripens medium well. 

Early Black Frontignan [Muscat Frecoce d'Aout). — A highly-flavoured 
€arly French Grape. Bunches medium-sized, compact. Berries black, 
medium sized, and round. Flesh juicy, sweet, with a rich Muscat 
flavour. Ripens very early, is a good dessert and also a wine Grape. 

Early Black July (Black July, July Grape, Madeleine Noir, Morillon 
Hatif Raisin Frecoce). — A very early French Grape, and chiefly valued 
on that account. Bunches small and cylindrical. Berries black, with 
a, thick bloom, small, and round. Flesh juicy, but not highly flavoured. 
Ripens very early, is a saleable table Grape, and makes a good light 
wine. 

Early Malingre (Madeleine Blanche de Malingre, Precoce de Malingre, 
Precoce Blanc). — A very early French white Grape which comes in about 
the same time as the Early Black July. Bunches medium sized, some- 
what loose. Berries yellowish-green, medium sized, roundish-oval. 
Flesh juicy, but not highly flavoured. Valuable as a table Grape from 
its earliness only, and makes a fair light wine. 

Early White Malvasia (Grove End Sweetwater, Early Leipzic, Early 
Chasselas, Early Keinzheim, Mornas Chasselas, White Melior). — A use- 
ful early Grape of the Chasselas class. Bunches medium size or over, 
loose, tapering, and occasionally shouldered. Berries, thin skinned, 
greenish-yellow, and round. Flesh juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. 
Ripens early, is a good table Grape, and makes a light wine of good 
quality. 

Esperione (Aspiran, Espiran, Turner's Black, Verdai). — A good 
Prench wine Grape, and also an excellent table variety. Bunches large 
4ind shouldered. Berries large, purplish-black, with a thick bloom, and 
round. Flesh rather firm, juicy, and fairly well flavoured. Ripens 
about mid-season, and is a good bearer. 

Fintitido. — An Italian Grape belonging to the Black Hamburgh class, 
but ripens some days earlier. Bunches large, compact, and shouldered. 
Berries large, round to slightly oval, reddish-black. Flesh juicy, sweet, 
and well flavoured. A useful table Grape, and will make a good light wine. 



80 

FoUe Blanc {PicpouilU Blanc, Plant Madame). — A white Grape 
largely used in France for making brandy. Bunch medium sized and 
close. Berries medium size, round, light green. Makes a somewhat 
poor wine which is mostly used for blending with stronger kinds. Plant 
robust and prolific. 

Frontignan {Frontignac, Muscat Frontignan, Muscat). — Several 
varieties are included under the names of Frontignan or Muscat, all of 
them possessing a peculiarly rich musky flavour. They differ only in 
colour, and have medium sized, compact, cylindrical bunches. Berries 
round, medium sized, thin skinned, juicy, and highly flavoured. See 
Black, Red, and White Frontignan. 

Furmint, [Formint, Tokay). — A Hungarian variety, and the kind 
used chiefly in the production of the celebrated Tokay wine. Bunches 
small to medium size. Berries golden yellow, round, rather small, and 
often without seeds. Flesh juicy and sweet. Kipens at mid-season. 

Gamay. — A wine Grape extensively cultivated in the vineyards of 
France. Bunches medium sized and compact. Berries black, with a 
blue bloom, medium sized, round to slightly oval. Flesh iuicy, but low 
flavoured. Ripens about mid season, very hardy and prolific. There are 
several sub-varieties which do not differ materially, and all yield wine of 
comparatively low quality as a rule, though under specially favourable 
conditions better results are sometimes attained. 

Gouais {Burger Blanc, Ebling). — This variety is alsd extensively 
cultivated in French vineyards. Bunches medium sized and compact. 
Berries yellowish-green, thin skinned, rather large, and round. Flesh 
juicy, but poor in flavour. Ripens about mid-season, and is a very great 
bearer. Makes a wine of poor quality, but useful for blending with 
kinds that have an excess of tannin. 

Golden Chasselas {Amber Muscadine, Amiens, Ckasselas Blanc, Chas- 
selas Dore, Ckasselas de Fontainebleau, Royal Muscadine), — This is one 
of the finest and best Grapes belonging to the Chasselas section. 
Bunches large, compact, and shouldered. Berries thin skinned, pale 
amber, large, round, inclining to oval. Flesh tender, juicy, and very 
highly flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, is hardy and prolific. A 
first-class and popular dessert Grape, and makes an excellent strong 
wine. 

Golden Champion. — An English table Grape of excellent quality. 
Bunches large, well shouldered, and tapering. Berries deep amber, very 
large, ovate to round. Flesh firm, juicy, and highly flavoured. Ripens 
medium early, hardy, strong, and prolific. 

Golden Hamburgh. — A first-class English table variety. Bunches 
large, shouldered, loose, and branching. Berries thin skinned, pale 
yellow, large, and oval. Flesh tender, very juicy, sugary, and richly 
flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, and bears freely. 

Grenache {Roussilon). — An excellent and popular French wine Grape, 
which is extensively cultivated in the vineyards of Southern Europe. 
Bunches large and compact. Berries thin skinned, red, with a grey 
bloom, medium sized, round, inclining to oval. Flesh juicy and well 
flavoured. Ripens about mid-season, bears freely, and yields a strong 



81 

rich wine. There i« also a white sub-variety, which differs only in the 
colour of the skin. 

Gros Colman. — A showy black English table variety. Bunches very 
large, round, and compact. Berries of an unusual size, being often as 
large as small plums, thick skinned, purplish-black, and round. Flesh 
very juicy, sweet, but not highly flavoured. Ripens after mid-season. 

Gros GuiUdiime [Pennington Hall Hamburgh, Seacliffe Black). — An 
excellent table Grape, which sometimes passes under the names of 
Barbarossa and St. Peter's, but incorrectly. Bunches very largeT" 
shouldered, compact, and tapering. Berries hirge. round, inclining to 
oval, deep black, with a thin bloom. Skin tough but not thick. Flesh 
tender, juicy, and well flavoured. Kipens very late, will hang for some 
time after it is ripe, and bunches may be kejjt for several weeks. 
Improves in flavour after being kept a while. Being tough skinned it 
packs and carries well, and is a good market Grape. 

Gros M(/roc {Marocain). — A very good French table Grape. Bunches 
large, long, and shouldered. Berries reddish-purple, with a heavy bloom, 
thick skinned, large and oval. Flesh tender, juicy, and richly flavoured. 
Ripens about the same time as the Black Hamburgh, is hardy and prolific. 

Ingram s Hardy J^roUfic. — An excellent free-bearing table Grape of 
English origin. Bunches large, long, tapering, witiiout shoulders. 
Berries medium sized, well set, black, with a blue bloom, and perfectly 
oval. Flesh rather firm, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured, with a slight 
Muscat aroma. Ripens at mid-season, and is remarkably prolific. 

Jura Black Musc((t (Muscat Xoir de Jura). — A very good table Grape. 
Bunches medium sized, long, and tapering, with slight shoulders. 
Berr-ies purplish-black, with a thin bloom, above medium sized, and oval. 
Flesh tender, very juicy, with a rich flavour and slight Muscat aroma. 
Ripens at mid-season, and a prolific bearer. 

Lady Doivnes [Lady Downes Seedling). — A valuable late table Grape 
of English origin, raised from the Black Morocco, fertilized with a 
Chasselas, Bunches large, rather loose, and shouldered. Berries above 
medium size, black, thick skinned, and roundish-oval. Flesh firm, juicy, 
sweet, rich, with a faint trace of Muscat in the flavour. Ripens late, 
will hang a long time without shrivelling, of vigorous habit, and a free 
bearer. 

Madresjield Court Black Muscat. — An excellent and popular English 
table Grape. Bunches large and long. Berries large, bluish-black, and 
oval. Flesh juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Ripens late, hangs 
well, is hardy and prolific. 

Malaga. — This name is applied to several varieties, some of which 
differ widely in appearance and flavour. It is one of the synonyms for 
the Muscat of Alexandria. See lied and White Malaga. 

Jfalbeck. — A popular French red wine Grape, which is extensively 
cultivated in French, German, and Swiss vineyards. Bunches large, 
branched, and somewhat loose. Berries above medium size, red, with a 
violet bloom, and round. Flesh juicy, and fairly well flavoured. Ripens 
about mid-season, is hardy, and generally bears freely. Largely used in 
making French Claret wine. 

2e 



82 

Malvasia [Malvosie). — Several varieties are known under this name 
which differ only in colour. They are in flavour somewhat similar to the 
Frontignan class, and make a rich sweet wine. See Black Malvasia. 

Marsanne. — A French variety very similar in appearance and quality 
to the White Hermitage, but has somewhat smaller berries, which are 
thicker skinned. 

Mataro (CataUai, Esparte, Lanihruscat, Mourvedre) . — A red wine 
Grape supposed to be of Spanish origin, which is popular, and grown to a 
large extent in Southern Europe. Bunches medium sized, closely set, 
with light shoulders. Berries medium sized, black, with a thick bloom, 
and round. Flesh juicy, but not well flavoured. Ripens rather late, is 
very hardy, and a great bearer. Makes a very good wine. 

Merlot [Plant Medoc). — A popular French variety which is hardy, 
strong in habit, and very prolific. Bunch medium sized, long, and 
CMiical. Berries bluish-black, small, and round. Makes an excellent 
light wine of the Claret class. Kipens medium early, and a good variety 
for (;ool districts. 

Miller^s Burgundy {Fromente, Meunier, Jfille?' Grape, Morillou 
Taconne, Pinot Meunier). — A good and popular French wine variety, 
and is also an excellent table Grape. Bunches medium sized, short, and 
compact. Berries rather small, thin skinned, black, with a blue bloom, 
and round, inclining to oval. Flesh tender, juicy, sweet, and highly- 
flavoured. Ripens after mid-season, is hardy and prolific. Extensively 
cultivated in France as a wine Grape. It is distinguished from other 
kinds by its white downy leaves, and hence it has obtained the name of 
Miller Grape. 

Mondeuse {Maldoux, Monteuse, Persaigne, Savoi/anne). — A hardy 
French Grape that will thrive in almost any soil, and is very prolific. 
Bunches medium sized or larger. Berries blue-black, medium sized, 
slightly oval. Flesh juicy and somewhat acid. Ripens medium late, 
and in France is a favourite Claret Grape. There is a white variety 
known as Mondeuse Blanc which differs only in the colour of the fruit. 

Morrastel (Mourrastel, Perpignan). — This variety is almost, if not 
quite, identical with the Mataro. 

2forrillon. — Several varieties are known under this name, which differ 
but little except in the colour of the fruit. See Black Cluster, Miller's 
Burgundy, and Pinot Blanc Chardortay. The Morrillon varieties are 
largely used in making Champagne. 

}fourisco. — An excellent Portuguese variety. Bunches large and 
pyramidal. Berries large, black, oval, and well flavoured. Flesh juicy 
and sweet. Makes a rich strong wine, and is also a good table Grape. 

Mrx. Pince's Black Muscat. — An excellent English table Grape. 
Bunches, large, shouldered, well set, and tapering. Berries medium 
sized, purplish-black, with a thin bloom, perfectly oval, with thick tough 
skins. Flesh rather firm, sweet, moderately juicy, with a rich Muscat 
flavour. Ripens late, will hang well, is very hardy, and bears freely. 
Makes good raisins. 

Muscat de Saumer (Early Saumer Frontignan, Muscat Hatif de 
Saumer, Precoce ^fusque). — A good early table Grape, lipening about 



83 

the same time as the Early Black July, from which it was raised. 
Bunches small, shouldered, and very compact. Berries medium sized 
thin skinned, pale green, with an amber tinge, round, sometimes flattened. 
Flesh firm juicy, sweet, with a rich and distinct Muscat flavour, very 
•early, and bears freely. 

Muscat of Alexandria {Alexandrian Muscat^ Ckarlesworth Tokay ^ 
Muscat Escholatd, Muscat Gordo Blanco, Muscat Gre.c, Muscat of 
Jerusalem, Muscat Bomaine, Tottenham Park Muscat). — A well-known 
and popular table and raisin Grape, which is supposed to have originated 
in Western Asia. Bunches large, long, shouldered, and loose. Berries 
pale amber, thick skinned, mostly large, but often irregular in size- 
Flesh firm, not very juicy, but very sweet and richly flavoured. Eipens 
after mid-season, hangs well, is vigorous in habit, and bears freely in the 
warmer districts, but not so well in the cooler regions, where the bunches 
are more irregular. One of our best raisin Grapes, and has been planted 
•extensively during the last few years in Australia. Makes also a fairly 
good but somewhat strong wine. Some people are under the impression 
that Muscat Gordo Blanco is a distinct variety, but this is not the case 

Muscat Hamburgh (Black Muscat of Ale.xandri((, Red Muscat of 
Alexandria, Snoiv's ^fuscat Hamburgh). — A very highly flavoured 
English table Grape. Bunches large, shouldered, and loose. Berries 
large, but often irregular in size, deep black, with a blue bloom, tough, 
but not thick skinned, roundish-oval to oval. Flesh very juicy, sweet, 
with a peculiarly rich Muscat flavour. Ripens rather late, and sets best 
in the warmer districts. The richest flavoured of all the Muscat Grapes. 

Palomimi Blanche (Listan). — A good Spanish variety somewhat similar 
in appearance to the Golden Ghasselas. Bunch medium to large, and 
•cylindrical. Berries medium sized, oval, and in colour a rich amber. 
Makes an excellent wine, and is also a useful table Grape. 

Panse Jau.ne (Grosse Panse, Raisin de Pause). — A Spanish variety 
largely grown in the Malaga province for making raisins. Bunch large, 
long, and tapering. Berries thick skinned, amber, transparent, large 
oval, with a thick bloom. Flesh firm, sweet, and well flavoured. A 
good raisin and table Grape, but is somewhat uncertain except in 
medium warm districts. Somewhat similar in appearance to the Muscat 
of Alexandria. 

Varsley-leaved. Gha^ssela.^' (Ciotat, Mahnsey, .Uuscadine, Raisin 
d^ Antriche). — An excellent and prolific variety with fruit veiy similar 
to the Golden Ghasselas, and ripens about the same time. Foliage 
peculiar, somewhat like the leaves of parsley, hence the name. 
Makes a rich wine. 

Pedro Ximenes. — A largely cultivated and popular Spanish wine 
'Grape. Bunches medium sized, shouldered, long, and conical. 
Berries medium sized, thin skinned, pale amber, and oblong. Flesh 
juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Ripens after mid-season, makes 
strong gi'owth, and beai's freely. Makes a full-bodied wine. 

Pinot. — Sevei'al excellent French Avine Gi-apes are classed under 
the name of Pinot which, in some cases, is interchangeable with 
Burgundy and MorrlUon. See Black Gluster^ Miller's Burgundt/, and 
White Burgundy, 



84 

Pinot Blanc Chardonay {Auverr/nat, Epinette, Morn J Ion Bhmc, Plant 
bore). — An excellent sub-vai*iety of the White linrgftndij, which it 
i-esenibles to a gi-eat extent, but differs soniewJiat in foliage, and is 
considered superioi- by many growers. Tliis A-ariety is used to a 
large extent in France in making Chablis wine. 

Pinot Gris {AnvergiKit Gris, Heurot^ Fromentot). — A populai- variety 
with fi'uit similai- in size, foi-m, and quality to Miller s Bnrgiiiidtf-, but 
the berries ai'e of a reddish-pink colour instead of lieing black. 

Pulsart {Blussarf, Mescle, Plant d'Arhois Pouhart). — This is a 
vigorous Fi-cnch variety. Bunch medium size, Jong, shouldered, 
loose. Berries dark, thin skinned, medium sized, oval. Flesh juicy 
and fairly well flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, and makes an 
excellent wine. 

Purple Constantia (Black Oonstantia, Purj)le Fo^ontignan , Violet 
Frontignan). — A first-class table Grape, and also makes an excellent 
full-bodied wine. Bunches lai'ge, long, and tapering, Avith small 
shoulders. Berries dark purple, with a blue bloom, large, and round. 
Flesh juicy, sweet, with a rich Muscat flavour. Ripens about mid- 
season, and bears fi'eely. 

Raisin des Dames (Ladies' Raisin). — -A very good French table and 
raisin Gri-ape S(miewhat similar to the Muscat of Alexandria, but 
with palei' beiTies. Bunches large, shouldered, and rather loose. 
Berries pale yellow, thick skinned, lai-ge, and oval. Flesh firm, 
juicy, SAveet, and rich. Ripens aftei mid-season, hangs Avell, and 
bears freely. 

Bed Chasselas (Chasaelas Rouge, Red Mitscadine). — A gootl Fi-ench 
Grrape, suitable either for the table or Avine. Bunches medium sized, 
loose, and shouldered. Berries tliin skinned, red, medium sized, and 
i^ound. Flesh A'ery juicy and well flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, 
and is a gi-eat bearei-. Makes a good light wine. 

Red Frontignan (Grizzly Frontignan, Muscat Gris, Muscat Rouge, Red 
Muscat). — A highly flaA^oured French wine Grrape, but may also be 
used as a table variet3\ Bunches medium sized, and generally 
cylindrical, Avitli small shoulders. Berries medium sized, skin thick, 
pale red, and round. Flesh rather firm, juicy, sweet, Avith a rich 
Muscat flavour. Ripens about mid-season, and does best in Avarm 
districts. Makes a strong full-liodied Avine. 

Red Hermitage (Shira?., Schiraz). — A \^ery popular and excellent 
Avine Grape, said to have been originally obtained from Persia. 
Bunches medium sized, long, and compact. Berries rather small, 
bluish-black, rather thick skinned, and oval. Flesh juicy and well 
flavoured. Ripens after mid-season, is verp hardy, bejirs freely and 
regularly. Extensively grown in France, whei-e it forms the base 
of the celebrated Hermitage wines, and is widely cultivated in 
Australia. 

Red Midnga. — This variety, Avhich is knoAvn in some parts of 
Austi-alia simply as Malaga, is of somewhat uncei-tain origin. 
Bunches large, shouldered, and loose. Berries large, oval, dull red, 
thick skinned. Flesli firm, SAveet, and Avell flavoui-ed. A good raisin 
Grape, and excellent table A'ariety, and as it packs nnd carries Avell, a 



85 

suitable kind for export. Ripens sifter mid-season, and may be kept 
for a considerable time. 

Red Prince. — A very useful and showy table Grape. Bunches very 
large, long, and well sliouldei-ed. Berries large, brownish-red, round 
to roundisli-oval. Flesh juicy, tender, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Ripens after mid-season, is very hai'dy, and bears freely. Makes a 
fairly good light wine. 

UiesJiiig {White Riesling). — A well-known and excellent German 
wine Grape. Bunches medium sized and compact. Berries thin 
skinned, amber green, rather small, round to oblate, and closely set. 
Flesh tender, sweet, and very juicy. Ripens after mid- season, ts- 
very hardy and prolific. A favourite variety in France and Germany 
for Hock wines, and popular witli Australian cultivators. 

Royal Ascot — An excellent English table Grape. Bunches medium 
sized or over, compact, Avith shoulders. Berries black, with a thick 
bloom, medium sized, round to oval. Flesh rather firm, juicy, with a 
flavour somewhat similai' to Black Hamburgh. Ripens at mid-season, 
is hardy and prolific. 

Royal Vineyard- — A first-class late English table Grape. Bunches 
large, well set, and generally- long and tapering. Berries large, pale 
amber, thin skinned and transparent, roundish-oval. Flesh firm, 
crackling, sweet, and highly flavoured. Ripens very late, hangs 
well, and bears freel}^. Might prove a good raisin Grape in the 
warm districts. 

Semillon Blanc {Chevrier, Columhier^ Goidu Blanc). — An excellent and 
popular French wine Grape somewhat similar in appearance and 
quality to the White Sauvignon, but preferred by some growers as 
being more prolific. Bunch medium sized and close. Berries 
medium large, round, yellowish-green, thin skinned. Flesh juicy 
and pleasant. A leading variety foi* Sauterne wine. 

Shepherd's Riesling. — A fine sub- variety of the Riesling which is 
superior to the ordinary kind in having larger and better flavoured 
Grapes. The bunches are also finer. Ripens same time as the 
Riesling, and is a first-class wine Grape, and fairly good for the 
table. 

Sherry (Xeres). — A Spanish Grape. Bunches compact, very large, 
being often from four to six pounds in weight with ordinary treat- 
ment. Berries yellowish -gTeen, thin skinned, lai'ge, round, and closely 
set. Flesh juicy, sweet, and well flavoured. Ripens about mid- 
season, is very hardy and a pi'olific bearer, but suffers much from 
wet weather. A fairly good table Grape, and excellent for wine. 

Sweetwater {Chasselas Royal, Early Stveetivater, White Muscadine). — 
An old, well-known, and popular Grape. Bunches medium sized, 
compact, and regular. Berries yellowish-green, medium sized, and 
round. Flesh juicy and sweet, but not very highly flavoured. 
Ripens medium early, is very hai'dy and prolific. A very good table 
Grape, and makes an excellent wine. 

Syrian (Jetvs, Palestine). — An excellent late Grape from Western 
Asia, and said to be the kind mentioned in the Bible as being brought 
by the Israelites from the land of Canaan, the bunches of which 



86 

were so large that two men were required to carry them. Bunches> 
rery large, conical, and broad shouldered. Berries thick skinned, 
tawny-yellow, large, and oval. Flesh firm, crackling, moderately 
juicy, and highly flavoured. Ripens late, hangs well, and bears 
abundantly. Would probably pi-ove a good i-aisin Grape in the 
warm districts. Bunches are commonly from six to ten pounds in 
weight, and have in England been gi-own ovei* twenty pounds, the 
bunch measuring over twenty-one inches in length, with shoulders 
nineteen and a-half inches across. 

Terret. — Several sub-varieties pass uiulei- this name that differ 
only in the colour of the fruit, which is respectively black, white, 
and red. Bunches large and conical. Berries large, oblong. Flesh 
juicy and well flavoured. All the kinds make a good light wine. 

Thompsort^s Seedless. — A Grrape is cultivated undei' this name in 
America to some extent, but there appeal's to be some doubt as to 
whether it is a distinct vaiiety or merely a form of the White Corinth 
[Sultana). It is said to have been introduced to America from Turkey, 
and is described as being rei-y similar to the Sultana, but to have 
longer bunches, and to be somewhat sweeter. This Grape is also 
said to make a raisin equal in ^[uality to the Sultana, and to be very 
prolific. 

Tinto (Tintiirier). — A hardy wine variety, and one of the few Grapes 
that yield a red juice. Bunches small and c*ompact. Beri-ies red, 
small, and round. Flesh very juicy and low flavoured. Ripens after 
mid-season, a moderately good bearer, and does faii'ly well in the 
cooler regions. Makes a Avine of rather low quality. 

Traminer {Fromente, Houselet). — An excellent German wine variety ► 
Bunch medium size, conical. Berries medium sized, ovoid, light red. 
Flesh juic}' and slightly acid. Hardy and pi'oliflc. Makes a good 
wine of the Hock class. 

Trebhiano (^Ei^haltis, Macc<(heo, Trehhiano Bianco, Trebhiano VerOy 
Ugin Blanc). — An excellent late Italian table Grape. Bunches very 
large, broad shouldered, and well set. Beriies yellowish-green, thick 
skinned, medium sized, and o^al to round. Flesh Arm, crackling, 
sweet, and richly flavoui-ed. Ripens very late, hangs well, and an 
excellent bearer. Might prove a serviceable i*aisin Grape in the 
warmer disti-icts. 

Irentham Black. — An excellent table Grape. lunches very large, 
well shouldered, and tapering. Berries black, with a thin bloom, large, 
and oval. Flesh melting, very juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. 
Ripens at the same time as the Black Hamburgh, but will hang much 
longer. Hardy, vigorous, and a good bearer. 

Trovereii Frontir/nan {Troveren, Muscat Trovereu).—A French variety 
somewhat similar to the White Frontignan, but with finer bunches and 
berries. Bnnches large, well set, and compact. Berries pale amber, 
large, and round. Flesh firm, juicy, with a rich mild Muscat flavour. 
Ripens about mid-season, and is fairly prolific. A good table Grape, and 
makes a rich full-bodied wine. 

Ulliade (Boudales, Qullade. Pi^nelas. UUiade JSoir). — A very good 
and useful table variety and an excellent wine Grape. Bunches rather 



87 

large, loose, and shouldered. Berries purple-black, thin skinned, large, 
and roundish-oval. Flesh firm, juicy, and well flavoured. Ripens about 
mid-season, is very hardy, and an excellent bearer. 

Verdal {Aspiraii Blanc).— A late wire Grape of French origin which 
is both hardy and productive. Bunch medium size, short, and heavily 
shouldered. Berries medium size, slightly oval, thick skinned, yellowish- 
green. Flesh juicy and not very sweet. Makes a light wine of high 
quality, and is also a good table Grape. 

Verdeilko {Madeira Wine Grape). — A well-known and popular wiiiB" 
Grape. Bunches medium sized or under, compact, and well set. Berries 
thick skinned, yellowish green, below medium size, sometimes unequal, 
and roundish-oval. Ripens about mid-season, and is a moderately good 
bearer. This Grape is extensively cultivated in the south of Europe, 
where it forms the base of the celebrated Madeira wine. It is also grown 
to some extent in Australia, and has the character of being very subject 
to the oidium. 

Verdot. — A popular French variety, and one of the principal Claret 
Grapes. It belongs to the Cabernet section, and is very similar in 
appearance and quality to the Sauvigiion variety, but is considered to be 
somewhat inferior in bouquet. Bunch somewhat smaller than Cabernet. 
Berries rounds black, thick skinned, small, with rather large seeds. 
Flesh juicy and vinous. Ripens medium late, and a free bearer. 

Walthtm Cross. — A first-class English table Grape. Bunches very 
large, long, tapering, and well shouldered. Berries pale amber-yellow, 
very large, oblong-oval. Flesh firm, solid, and richly flavoured. Ripens 
rather late, hangs well, and bears freely. Might prove a good raisin 
Grape in the warmer districts. 

Wantage {Flame-coloured Tokai/, Lombardi/y Red Rhenish., Med 
Tidirida). — A very hardy and prolific Grape. Bunches very large, 
closely set, and well shouldered. Berries pale red, large, and round, 
i^'lesh juicy, sweet, and fairly well flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, is 
robust and very prolific. 

West's St. Peter's (Black Lombardy, Foonah, Baisin des Cannes, 
jR((ishi de Cuba). — An excellent and handsome late table Grape. 
Bunches large, well shouldered, and tapering. Berries deep black, with 
a heavy bloom, large, and roundish-oval. Flesh tender, very juic}^, with 
a fine rich flavour. Ripens very late, hangs well, is robust, hardy, and 
bears heavy crops 

White Biirgnndy (Pinot Blanc). — A good French wine Grape, and one 
of the best in its class. Bunches small to medium sized, compact, and 
cylindrical. Berries yellowish-green, small, roundish-oval. Flesh juicy 
and moderately sweet. Ripens medium early, is hardy and prolific. 
Very popular as a wine Grape in France, and cultivated to some extent in 
Australia. 

White Corinth (Corinthe Blanc, Stoneless Uound-berried, Sultana^ 
White (Jnrrant, White Kishmish). — A highly-flavoured seedless Grape 
that yields the Sultana raisins. Bunches small, shouldered, and loose. 
Berries pale amber, rather small, and round. Flesh firm, moderately 
juicy, and highly flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, is very strong in 



88 

habit, aud bears heavy crops. A protituble Grape for tlie warmer 
districts, but requires plenty of room for irrowth, and must be pruned 
long. 

White Frontigiuiii {Muscat lllanc, Jtaim}i iJe FroiitiipKUi, Whitr 
Ccnstaiitia, WJiit'' Muscat). — Bunches medium sized, without shoulders, 
compact, and cylindrical. Berries yellowish-green, medium sized, and 
round. Flesh rather firm, juicy, sweet;, with a rich Muscat flavour. 
Ripens aWout mid-season, and is an abundant bearer. A good ta^'ile 
GrajDC, and makes a strong full-bodied wine. 

White Hermitaqe {Ilousf<anue).—A favourite French wine Grape. 
Bunches medium sized and compact. Berries thick skinned, deep amber, 
small, and round. Flesh juicy, with a vinous flavour. Ripens about 
mid-season^ is hardy and very prolific. Cultivated to a large extent in 
European vineyards, and is popular with many growers in Australia. 
Makes a high-class wine. 

White Lisbon ( White IJainhurgh, White Portugal, White Raisin). — A 
showy white table Grape. Bunches large and somewhat loose. Berries 
yellowish- white, large, and oval. Flesh firm, crackling, not very juicy, 
sweet, and well flavoured. Ripens late, will hang for a long time, and 
keeps well. Hardy, vigorous, and prolific. A good table Grape, and 
can be dried for raisins. This Grape is exported fresh in large quantities 
from Portugal to England and other parts of Europe, and the supplies 
extend for several months. 

White Malaga. — An excellent Spanish table and raisin Grape. 
Bunch large, loose, and well shouldered. Berry very large, oval, thick 
skinned, yellowish-green. Flesij firm, sweet, and richly flavoured. 
Plant strong and prolific in medium warm districts, ^^ipens rather late, 
bears packing and carriage well, and suitable for exporting. 

White JSice. — A vabiable and popular white Grape Bunches very 
large, well shouldered, and loose. Berries pale amber, touj.'h, but thin 
skinned, large, and roundish. Flesh rather firm, juicy, sweet, but not 
very highly flavoured. Ripens about mid-season, is vigorous in habit, 
and a great bearer. This variety often produces vei'y large bunches, and 
British gai'deners have grown them over twent}- pounds in weight. 

White Sanvignon {Sauvigiioii Blanc). — An excellent French wine 
Grape. Bunches rather small and compact. Berries yellowish-green, 
thin skinned, transparent, medium sized, roun.iish-oval Flesh juicy and 
well flavoured. Ripens at mid-season, is hardy, robust, and prolific. 
Extensi\^ely cultivated in France, and makes a choice wine. 

White Toka;i {Toka-i). — A vigorous and productive variety of uncertain 
origin. Bunches medium large, compact, and well shouldered. Berries 
yellowish -green, medium sized to large, round, thin skinned. Flesh juicy 
and well flavoured. Makes a good wine and is an excellent table Grape. 
Ripens medium late. 

Wort' en Hall. — An excellent and popular table Grape of English 
origin. Bunches large and showy. Berries large, black. Flesh sweet, 
jui;y, and well flavoured. Ripens about mid-season. 

Zinfandel. — A Hungarian variety that has proved to be a serviceable 
wine Grape in some i)art.s of America, and may prove useful in this part 



S9 

of the world. lUuiclies large ami shouldered. Berries deep black, 
medium sized, round. Flesh juicy, and somewhat acid until dead ripe. 
Makes a strong \vine of the Port class. 

Table Varieties Suitable for Keepinit and Exporting. 



Alicante 

lUiick Morocco 

lioicooj Musciit 

Calahrian Uaiiii.ii 

Carum HaU Muscat 

Coriiichoii 

Dorwlillo 

Gros Gnillaume 

Gros Maroc 

Lad// Downe's 

Madresjlehi Court /Hack Muscat 



.Urs. /^i))ce\s Black Muscat 

Mnscat of A 1e.ramlri'( 

Pause Jaiive 

Haisht </es Dames 

Red Malaga 

Ixo/jal Viiie/jard 

Syrian 

Trehhiano. 

Waltham Cross 

White Lisbon 

White .Ualaga 



Varieties Suitable for Drying. 



Black Corinth ( CnrrantJ 
Black Morocco 
Bowood Muscat 
Calabrian Haisiii 
Canon HaU Muscat 
Muscat of AlexaTidria 
Raisin des Dames 



Red Malaga 

Syrian 

Trehhiano 

Waltham Cross 

White Corinth (Sultana) 

White IJshon 

White .^falaga 



Varieties for the Principal Classes of Wines. 



As previously stated, the character of each class of wine depends 
mainly upon the kind or kinds of Grape from which it is made. The 
varieties are, in fact, the foundations of the wines, and are absolutely 
essential. But cultivators must bear in mind that varieties will, more or 
less, give different results according to the character of climate and soil, 
for which due allowance must be made. Kinds that yield light wines in 
the cooler regions will, as a rule, give much stronger ones when grown in 
warmer districts. The varieties that are chiefly used in producing the 
light wines of France, Germany, and other parts of Europe will, there- 
fore, not necessarily give the same results in Australasia unless under 
similar conditions of climate and soil. In Australasia, however, there is 
such a wide range of climate that suitable regions can be found for 
producing wines of every class that has made a reputation in Europe. 
It is also probable that in time other classes of distinct and superior 
wines will be developed, which will become equally popular with those 
now in existence. The following list shows the varieties chiefly used in 
Europe for the different classes of wine : — 

Burgundy. — The wine known under this name is made from various 
kinds belonging to the Burgundy or Pinot section. 



90 

Chahlis — White Burgundy and kindred varieties. 

Claret. — Cabernet (all kinds), Carmenet, Clairette, Garna}/, MalbecJc, 
MerJot, Mondeuse, and Verdot. Cabernet Sauvigimii and Malbeck are 
the staple varieties used in n.aking the famous Claret of Chateau Lafitte, 
Chateau Margaux, and other leading brands. 

Chctinpagiie. — ^This wine is made from varieties of the Hiirgundi/ clas<<» 
which includes the kinds known as Aiicarot, Moi^rillov, mul Fino' both 
dark and white. The black varietie.s are, however, more generally- 
preferred than the white. 

Hermitage — Red Hermitage (^cliiraz) and White Hermitage 
(Houssairne). 

HocTc. — Black Hamburgh, Black Prince, Riesling, and Traminer. 

Madeira — Verdeilho. 

Muscat or Frontignan. — The various sub-varieties of the Frontignan 
class, as also other sorts having a strong Muscat flavour. 

Port. — Grenache, .Uataro, and Zinfandel. 

Sauterne. — Semi I Ion and White Sanvignon. 

Sherry. — Barters Sherry, Golden Chasselns, Mourisca, Palomina^ 
Pedro Ximeues, Sherry, and Verdeilho. 

Tokay. — Furmint and White Tokay, 

Vakieties of Wine Grapes best Suited for Particular Climates. 

Cool Regions. — Aucarot, Burgundy (varieties), Cabernet (varieties), 
Carmenet, Clairette, Gamay, Merlot, Mondeuse, Pnlsart, Sanvignon, and 
Verdot. 

Cool to .Medium Warm Regions. — Black Hamburgh, Carignane., 
Furmint, Grenache, Malbeck, Morrillon and Riesling . 

Warm to Medium Warm Regions. — Aramon, Esperione, FrontignaUj 
JJoradillo, Malvasia, Mataro, Morrastel, Ulliade, and Verdeillw. 

Any Region. — Baxter^ s Sherry, Chasselas (varieties), Gouais, Red and 
White Hermitage. 

Varieties of Wine Grapes for Particular Soils 

Limestone. — Burgundy (varieties), Malbeck, Malvasia, Mondeuse, and 
Pulsart. 

Gravelly. — C<tbernet (varieties), Carmenet, Merlot, Sanvignon, and 
Semillon 

Granitic. — Gamay, Grenache, Pedro Ximeues, Red Hermitage, Riesling ^ 
and White Hermitage. 

Any Kind of Soil. — Aramon, Black Hamburgh, Carignane, Dolcetto, 
Doradillo, Gouais, Frontignan, Furmint, Verdeilho, and Verdot. 

All varieties of Grapes will thrive fairly well in loamy or sandy soils of 
moderate depth, and more especially when resting upon open clay or 
gravelly sub-soils. 

American Species. 
American Grapes are quite distinct from the varieties of Vitis vlnifera, 



91 

and are represented by several species, which differ considerably in habit, 
foliage, form, flavour of the fruit, and in other respects. They are vastly 
inferior to the European varieties for wine or as table Grapes, and are 
useless for other purposes. With the exception of a very few varieties, 
they have a peculiarly strong harsh musky flavour, which is commonly 
termed " foxy," and, therefore, can never rank upon an equality with 
other Grapes. Notwithstanding this drawback, however, they are largely 
cultivated in the United States, chiefly on account of their being more 
hardy than the varieties of Vitis vim/era, and being better able to 
withstand severe cold weather. The Americans turn them to account for 
wine to a large extent, but the produce is vastly inferior to that obtained 
from the European Grapes. There are no great inducements to plant 
American Grapes in Australasia for their fruit, as a better class will give 
more satisfactory results. Possibly, however, they might prove serviceable, 
owing to their hardiness, in some of the colder regions, where the climate 
is too severe for the choicer kinds. They have within the last few years 
been introduced to some extent into European vineyards as '* Phylloxera- 
resisting '' stocks for varieties of Viti-^ ciiufer((. It must be understood 
that the American species are by no means proof against this destructive 
Grape pest, but, on the other hand, they are much affected by it. They 
have, however, the power of being able to bear the attacks of " Phylloxera '^ 
without receiving radical injury. In this part of the world we shall 
probably also have to make use of these resistant stocks in the future, 
and cultivators should turn their attention to them. There are many 
species of American Grapes, and some of these have numerous varieties, 
more or less cultivated in the United States, but a limited selection 
of those that are most prominent and distinct will be sufficient for 
practical purposes. 

Vitis ^Estivalis {^Summer Grnpe{. — A hardy and fairly strong species, 
embracing numerous varieties, producing variable bunches of small 
thin skinned berries. Flavour less harsh and " foxy " than most other 
kinds. It is widely distributed through the eastern and central regions 
of the United States. The more prominent varieties are P)lack July, Box 
Grape, Missouri, Birdseye, Norton's Virginia, and Warren. 

Vitis Arizonica. —A strong hardy species indigenous to Arizonica, and 
extending to California. Bunches small. Berries small, and have a 
fairly pleasant flavour. Said to be a useful stock for Vitis vinifera, but 
can only with certainty be raised from seed, as cuttings are difficult to 
root. 

Vitis Berlaiidieri, — A robust species said to furnish a good stock for 
the ordinary varieties. Bunches small and close. Berries black, round, 
with a rather sharp flavour. 

Vitis Californica. — A Californian species which appears to be closely 
allied to Vitis Arizonica » 

Vitis Candicans {Mustang Orajie). — A strong growing species that 
bears freely, but the bunches are small. Berries large, black, with a 
harsh unpleasant flavour. It is indigenous to Florida and Texas, and 
flourishes^ in a warm dry climate. 

Vitis Cinerea. — A vigorous spreading species, bearing small bunches. 



92 

Berries small, black, with a sharp acid flavour. This species, which has 
an afliiuity with Vitis Arizonica^ is indigenous to the regions of the 
Middle and Lower Mississippi. 

VitU Conlifolia {Chicken Gr (pe, Frost Grupe^ Winter Grape). — A very 
strong growing species, bearing small bunches. Berries small, black to 
amber, and sharply acid. Ripens very late. Found from Canada to 
Florida. 

Vitu Lahrusca (Fox Grape). — This species embraces a large number of 
varieties, several of which rank among the best sorts of American Grapes. 
The varieties differ considerably in the size and form of the bunches and 
colour of the fruit. The general characteristics, however, are medium to 
large bunches, tough thick skins, wdth pulpy berries, having a strong 
musky flavour. Growth less vigorous than some other species, but fairly 
robust. One variety, the Isabella, is the best-known American Grape in 
Australasia, where it has been cultivated for at least a quarter of a 
century to the writer's knowledge. It is very hardy, productive, and 
often bears a good second crop. The bunches are medium sized, and the 
berries purple-black, large, oval, and having a flavour similar to the Black 
Currant. Ripens at midseason, makes a moderately good wine, and is 
excellent for jam or jelly. Among the other varieties the most notewothy 
are Catawba and Concord, both of which are popular in America. Widely 
distributed from Canada to Florida. 

Vitis Riparia [River Grape, Sand Grape). — This species incbides 
several varieties that are popular American Grapes. The characteristics 
of the species are a slender but widely spreading growth, wdth small 
bunches and berries, and tou>:h sharply acid pulp. As a matter of course, 
however, the varieties differ to some extent. The more prominent 
varieties are Clinton and Tayloi*. Indigenous to the northern and central 
regions of the United States to the Rocky Mountains. 

Vitis Rubra (Cat Vine). — A robust species bearing small bunches of 
rather insipid Grapes. Indigenous to Illinois and adjoining States, and 
grows naturally upon deep alluvial soils that border rivers or creeks. 

Vitis Bupestris {Rock Grape., Sugar Grape). — An inferior species, and 
a light and irregular bearer. Bunches and berries small, with a harsh 
flavour. Indigenous to the region from Missouri to Texas. 

Vitis Vidpina {Vitis Rotuiulifolia, RuUace Grape, Bullet Grape.) — A 
very vigorous and distinct species, which is peculiar to the Southern 
United States. The principal variety is the Scuppernong, which has a 
strong growth, and is found in its native habitat climbing to the tops of 
tall trees. It diflers from any other kind of Grape in bearing its fruit 
upon older instead of the young wood. Bunches small and loose, with 
from four to six berries upon each. Berries lai'ge, round, dark red, and 
thick skinned. Flesh pulpy, with a strong aromatic flavour. Plant very 
hardy and a free bearer, but will not thrive in a cold region. 

Iliibrid varieties. — A laige number of hybrid varieties have been raised 
in America by crossing the native Grapes with Vitis vinifera Some of 
these are of fairly good quality, but none are of suflicient value to be 
worthy of cultivation in Australasia, as European varieties will give far 
better results. 



93 
Australian Species. 

Several species of Mtis are indigenous to Australia that yield edible 
fruits, which, however, are vastly inferior to the European or even 
American kinds. Possibly they might be improved by cultivation, and 
several are worthy of attention as ornamental plants. Baron von Mueller 
in his Select E.rtra Tropical Plants, directs attention to several species. 

Vitis acetosa — An evergreen species of somewhat herbaceous habit 
indigenous to Carpentaria and Arnheim's Land. Berries from purple-to- 
black, not large, edible. Plant vigorous, but suffers from slight frosts, 
and is only suitable for warm regions. The whole plant is pervaded with 
acidity, and the leaves have proved useful in cases of scurvy. 

Vitis R>aiidiniana (Cisstis aritartica, Vitis aiitarticd), — A robust, woody, 
evergreen, climbing species indigenous to Eastern Australia as far south 
as Gippsland. Berries globular, small, black, edible, and produced freely. 

Vitis hypoglanca [Cissus austral asica., Gippsland Grape, Native Grape). 
— A very strong evergreen climbing species which attains a great size 
with age. It is found in Eastern Austialia from Queensland as far south 
as Gippsland. The fruit is black, and the size of small Cherries, 

Vitis optaca {Burdekin Vine, Cissn.s opaca). — An evergreen species 
indigenous to Queensland. Berries juicy, but somewhat pungent. This 
species has large tuberous roots, like yams, which are eaten when boiled. 

Otheh Species. 

There are several Asiatic and African species of Vitis which yield 
edible Grapes, and many of these may, if fairly tried, prove serviceable in 
the tropical portions of Australia. Baron von Mueller recommends trials 
of the following : — F?'^?> indica. a species with small edible berries 
indigenous to mountain districts in Ceylon and India ; Vitis Blumeana, 
Vitis hevigata, Vitis mutahilis, and Vitis thi/rsifor'a, species from the 
mountain districts of Java, with palatable berries as large as small 
Cherries ; Vitis i^nperialis, from Borneo ; V^itis anriculata and Vitis 
elongata, from the mountain regions of Coromandel, each producing large 
juicy berries ; Vitia qiiadrangvlaris, a species extending from Arabia to 
India and Central Africa has also large edible fruits; Vitis Schimperi ana, 
an African species extending from Ahyssinia to Guinea, with edible 
berries, said to be similar in appearanc to bunches of Frontig^iac Gra^jes. 
Other species might also prove useful acquisitions for the tropical regions 
of Australia. 

GRAPE PEAR. 

This is one of the common names for the fruit of Amelanchier Batr<fa- 
pitim, a handsome deciduous tree indigenous to North America which 
attains a height of about thirty feet. It belongs to the Pomea or Apple 
section of the natural order Rosacese. The fruit of this and other species 
is also known in America as "June Berries," and the tree passes under- 
the name of " Shadbush." This tree is very prolific, and bears in great 



94 

abundance small dark purple fruit, which has a pleasant sub-acid taste, 
and ripens early in the summer. It is a very hardy tree, and will tlirive 
in almost any kind of soil even though it may be of a poor character. 
Being a native of cool regions it is best adapted for elevated or mountain 
districts, but it may be grown successfully in moderately cool localities. 
Several other species yield fruits that are utilized more or less. As 
the trees are very ornamental when in Hower, and the foliage is 
cheerful, they may be utilized in shrubberies effectively. Propagation 
may be readily effected by seeds which should be sown in the autumn, 
covering them an inch and a-half in depth. Plants can be easily obtained 
from layers, which should be put down before growth begins to start in 
the spring. Cuttings of the last season's wood will also strike freely if 
put in early in the spring. 

GUAVA. 

History and Uses. 

The fruit known as Guavas is obtained from various species of the 
genus Psidtum, all of them being natives of Central and South America 
or the West India Islands. According to the botanical dictionaries the 
scientific name is derived from Fsidion , the Greek term for the 
Pomegranate. There are no records as to the origin of the common name 
Guava. The Guavas belong to the natural order Myrtaceje, or the 
Myrtle family, and all are handsome evergreen trees or shrubs, worthy of 
being cultivated for ornament, irrespective of the value of their fruit. 
Though the name has been taken from the Greek, the family, as a matter 
of course, was quite unknown to ancient nations, and was not brought 
under the notice of European cultivators till long after the discovery of 
the American continent. They have not received so much attention in